Circe is a goddess of magic or sometimes a nymph, enchantress or sorceress in Greek mythology. She is either the nymph Perse or the goddess Hecate. Circe was renowned for her vast knowledge of herbs. Through the use of these and a magic wand or staff, she would transform her enemies, or those who offended her, into animals; the best known of her legends is told in Homer's Odyssey when Odysseus visits her island of Aeaea on the way back from the Trojan War and she changes most of his crew into swine. He forces her to return them to human shape, lives with her for a year and has sons by her, including Latinus and Telegonus, her ability to change others into animals is further highlighted by the story of Picus, an Italian king whom she turns into a woodpecker for resisting her advances. Another story makes her fall in love with the sea-god Glaucus. In revenge, Circe poisoned the water where her rival turned her into a monster. Depictions in Classical times, wandered away from the detail in Homer's narrative, to be reinterpreted morally as a cautionary story against drunkenness.
Early philosophical questions were raised whether the change from a reasoning being to a beast was not preferable after all, this paradox was to have a powerful impact during the Renaissance. Circe was taken as the archetype of the predatory female. In the eyes of those from a age, this behaviour made her notorious both as a magician and as a type of the sexually free woman; as such she has been depicted in all the arts from the Renaissance down to modern times. Western paintings established a visual iconography for the figure, but went for inspiration to other stories concerning Circe that appear in Ovid's Metamorphoses; the episodes of Scylla and Picus added the vice of violent jealousy to her bad qualities and made her a figure of fear as well as of desire. Male interpretations were to take the metamorphoses she inflicted not just as reflecting a temptation to bestiality but as an emasculatory threat. Among women she has been portrayed more sympathetically. By most accounts, she was the daughter of Helios, the Titan sun god, Perse, one of the three thousand Oceanid nymphs.
Her brothers were Aeëtes, keeper of the Golden Fleece, Perses. Her sister was the wife of King Minos and mother of the Minotaur. Other accounts make her the daughter of the goddess of witchcraft, she was confused with Calypso, due to her shifts in behavior and personality, the association that both of them had with Odysseus. In Homer's Odyssey, an 8th-century BCE sequel to his Trojan War epic Iliad, Circe is described as living in a palace that stands in the middle of a clearing in a dense wood on her island of Aeaea. Around the house prowled strangely docile lions and wolves, the drugged victims of her sorcery. Circe worked at an enormous loom, she invited the hero Odysseus' crew to a feast of familiar food, a pottage of cheese and meal, sweetened with honey and laced with wine, but laced with one of her magical potions and drunk from an enchanted cup. Thus so she turned them all into swine with her magic wand or staff after they gorged themselves on it. Only Eurylochus, suspecting treachery from the outset and thus not entering the mansion of Circe, escaped to warn Odysseus and the others who had stayed behind at the ship.
Odysseus set out to rescue his men, but was intercepted by the messenger god, sent by Athena. Hermes told Odysseus to use the herb moly to protect himself from Circe's magic and, having resisted it, to draw his sword and act as if he were going to attack her. From there, Circe would ask him to bed, but Hermes advised caution, for there the goddess would be treacherous, she would take his manhood. Odysseus followed Hermes' advice, freeing his men and remained on the island for one year and drinking wine. According to Homer, Circe suggested two alternative routes to Odysseus to return to Ithaca: toward Planctae, the "Wandering Rocks", or passing between the dangerous Scylla and the whirlpool Charybdis, conventionally identified with the Strait of Messina, she advised Odysseus to go to the Underworld and gave him directions. Towards the end of Hesiod's Theogony, it is stated that Circe bore Odysseus three sons: Ardeas or Agrius; the Telegony, an epic now lost, relates the history of the last of these.
Circe informed him who his absent father was and, when he set out to find Odysseus, gave him a poisoned spear. With this he killed his father unknowingly. Telegonus brought back his father's corpse to Aeaea, together with Penelope and Odysseus' other son Telemachus. After burying Odysseus, Circe made the others immortal. In the 5th-century BCE epic Dionysiaca, author Nonnus mentions Phaunos, Circe's son by the sea god Poseidon. According to Lycophron's 3rd-century BCE poem Alexandra, John Tzetzes' scholia on it, Circe used magical herbs to bring Odysseus back to life after he had been killed by Telegonus. Odysseus gave Telemachus to Circe's daughter Cassiphone in marriage; some time Telemachus had a quarrel with his mother-in-law and killed her. On hearing of this, Odysseus died of grief. In his 3rd-century BCE epic, the Argonautica, Apollonius Rhodius relates that Circe purified the Argonauts for the death of Absyrtus reflecting an early tradition. In this poem, the animals that surroun
Maurus Servius Honoratus
Maurus Servius Honoratus was a late fourth-century and early fifth-century grammarian, with the contemporary reputation of being the most learned man of his generation in Italy. These works, In tria Virgilii Opera Expositio, constituted the first incunable to be printed at Florence, by Bernardo Cennini, 1471. In the Saturnalia of Macrobius, Servius appears as one of the interlocutors; the commentary on Virgil has survived in two distinct manuscript traditions. The first is a comparatively short commentary, attributed to Servius in the superscription in the manuscripts and by other internal evidence. A second class of manuscripts, all deriving from the 10th and 11th centuries, embed the same text in a much expanded commentary; the copious additions are in contrast to the style of the original. "The added matter is undoubtedly ancient, dating from a time but little removed from that of Servius, is founded to a large extent on historical and antiquarian literature, now lost. The writer is anonymous and a Christian", although not if, as is suggested, he is Aelius Donatus.
A third class of manuscripts, written for the most part in Italy, gives the core text with interpolated scholia, which demonstrate the continued usefulness of the Virgilii Opera Expositio. The authentic commentary of Maurus Servius Honoratus is in effect the only complete extant edition of a classic author written before the collapse of the Empire in the West, it is constructed much on the principle of a modern edition, is founded on an extensive Virgilian critical literature, much of, known only from the fragments and facts preserved in this commentary. The notices of Virgil's text, though or never authoritative in face of the existing manuscripts, which go back to, or beyond, the time of Servius, yet supply valuable information concerning the ancient recensions and textual criticism of Virgil. In the grammatical interpretation of his author's language, Servius does not rise above the stiff and overwrought subtleties of his time. Servius set his face against the prevalent allegorical methods of exposition of text.
For the antiquarian and the historian, the abiding value of his work lies in his preservation of facts in Roman history, religion and language, which but for him might have perished. Not a little of the laborious erudition of Varro and other ancient scholars has survived in his pages. Besides the Virgilian commentary, other works of Servius are extant: a collection of notes on the grammar of Aelius Donatus; the edition of Georg Thilo and Hermann Hagen, remains the only edition of the whole of Servius' work. In development is the Harvard Servius. Latin Wikisource has original text related to this article: Maurus Servius Honoratus Commentary on the Aeneid of Vergil at the Perseus Project in Latin. Commentary on the Eclogues of Vergil at the Perseus Project in Latin. De Centum Metris at Intratext.com De Centum Metris at Forum Romanorum Servii grammatici qui feruntur in Vergilii carmina commentarii, Georius Thilo, Hermannus Hagen, 3 voll. Lipsiae in aedibus B. G. Teubneri, 1881-1902: vol. 1, vol. 2, vol. 3 part 1, vol. 3 part 2
Luco dei Marsi
Luco dei Marsi is a comune and town in the province of L'Aquila in the Abruzzo region of central-eastern Italy. It is part of the Marsica; the town was founded by the Roman Emperor Claudius to house workers in the drying of the Lacus Fucinus. The name derives from a nearby wood, Lucus Angitiae, "Sacred Grove of Angitia," referring to a divine sorceress of the Marsi Italic tribe. During the Middle Ages it was a fief of the d'Avalos and of the Colonna family
In Roman religion, Angerona or Angeronia was an old Roman goddess, whose name and functions are variously explained. She is sometimes identified with the goddess Feronia. According to ancient authorities, she was a goddess who relieved men from pain and sorrow, or delivered the Romans and their flocks from angina, she was a protecting goddess of Rome and the keeper of the sacred name of the city, which might not be pronounced lest it should be revealed to her enemies. It was thought that Angerona itself was this name. Sorania and Hirpa have been put forward as candidates for the secret name. Modern scholars regard her as a goddess akin to Ops, Acca Larentia, Dea Dia, her festival, called Divalia or Angeronalia, was celebrated on 21 December. The priests offered sacrifice in the temple of Volupia, the goddess of pleasure, in which stood a statue of Angerona, with a finger on her mouth, bound and closed, she was worshipped as Ancharia at Faesulae, where an altar belonging to her was discovered in the late 19th century.
In art, she was depicted with a finger pressed to her lips, demanding silence. Georges Dumézil considers Angerona as the goddess who helps nature and men to sustain the yearly crisis of the winter days; these culminate in the winter solstice, the shortest day, which in Latin is known as bruma, from brevissima, the shortest day. The embarrassment and anguish caused by the lack of light and the cold are expressed by the word angor. In Latin the cognate word angustiae designates a space of time considered as disgracefully and painfully too short. Angerona and the connected cult guaranteed the overcoming of the unpleasant angusti dies narrow, short days. Dumézil considered the Roman goddesses whose name ends with the suffix -ona or -onia to discharge the function of helping worshippers to overcome a particular time or condition of crisis: instances include Bellona who allows the Roman to wade across war in the best way possible, Orbona who cares for parents who lost a child, Pellonia who pushes the enemies away, Fessonia who permits travellers to subdue fatigue.
Angerona's feriae named Angeronalia or Divalia took place on December 21, the same day as the winter solstice. On that day the pontiffs offer a sacrifice to the goddess in curia Acculeia according to Varro or in sacello Volupiae, near the Porta Romanula, one of the inner gates on the northern side of the Palatine. In her shrine on the altar of Volupia was placed the famous statue of the Angerona with her mouth bandaged and sealed and with a finger on the lips in the gesture that requests silence. Dumézil sees in this peculiar feature the reason of her being listed among the goddesses who were considered candidates to the title of secret tutelary deity of Rome. Dumézil considers this peculiar feature of Angerona's statue to hint to a prerogative of the goddess, well known to the Romans, i.e. her will of requesting silence. He remarks silence in a time of cosmic crisis is a well documented point in other religions, giving two instances from Scandinavian and Vedic religion. Among the Scandinavians god Viðarr is considered the second strongest after Thor.
His only known act is placed at the time of the "Dusk of the gods", the great crisis in which the old world disappears, as the wolf Fenrir swallows Oðinn and the sun. Viðarr defeats Fenrir permitting the rebirth of the world with a female sun, the daughter of the disappeared one; the eschatological crisis in which Fenrir devours the sun is seen as the "Great Winter" Fimbulvetr and the god who kills Fenrir, Viðarr, is defined the "silent Ase": silence must be associated with his exceptional force and his feat as saviour of the world. Angerona too discharges the function of saving the sun in danger thanks to her silence and the concentration of mystical force it brings. In Vedic religion silence is used in another crisis of the sun, that of the eclipse: when the sun was hidden in the demonic dark, Atri took it away from there by means of the fourth bráhman and a cult to the gods through "nude worship", i.e. with a force from within and no uttered words. The association between Angerona and Volupia would thence be explained as the pleasure that derives from a fulfilled desire, the achievement of an objective, as the meaning of the archaic adjective volup does not refer to pleasure in the sense of the word voluptas.
Thence the definition of θεός της βουλης και καιρων "goddess of advice and of favourable occasions" given in a Latin-Greek glossary. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Angerona". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2. Cambridge University Press. P. 8. Dumézil, G. La religione romana arcaica. Con un'appendice sulla religione degli Etruschi. Milano, Rizzoli. Edizione e traduzione a cura di Furio Jesi based on an expanded version of La religion romain archaïque Paris Payot 1974 2nd edition. Hendrik Wagenvoort, "Diva Angerona," reprinted in Pietas: Selected Studies in Roman Religion, pp. 21–24 online
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology
The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology is an encyclopedia/biographical dictionary. Edited by William Smith, the dictionary spans 3,700 pages, it is a classic work of 19th-century lexicography. The work is a companion to Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities and Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography; the work lists thirty-five authors in addition to the editor, an author for some definitions and articles. The authors were classical scholars from Oxford, Rugby School, the University of Bonn, but some were from other institutions. Many of the mythological entries were the work of the German expatriate Leonhard Schmitz, who helped to popularise German classical scholarship in Britain. With respect to biographies, Smith intended to be comprehensive. In the preface, he writes:The biographical articles in this work include the names of all persons of any importance which occur in the Greek and Roman writers, from the earliest times down to the extinction of the Western Empire in the year 476 of our era, to the extinction of the Eastern Empire by the capture of Constantinople by the turks in the year 1453.
Samuel Sharpe thought Edward Bunbury had plagiarised his work, as he wrote of in his diary entry on 3 September 1850: I felt mortified on reading the articles on the Ptolemies in Dr. Smith's "Dictionary of Classical Biography." They were all written by E. H. Bunbury with the help of my "History of Egypt," and with-out any acknowledgment, though he borrowed the volume from my brother Dan for the purpose. Many of the Dictionary's definitions and articles have been referred to in more recent works, Robert Graves has been accused of "lifting his impressive-looking source references straight, unchecked" from it when writing The Greek Myths; the work is now in the public domain, is available in several places on the Internet. While still accurate, much is missing more recent discoveries and epigraphic material. More the context in which ancient evidence is viewed has changed in the intervening century and a half. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.
Vol. I online at University of Michigan Library. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Vol. II online at University of Michigan Library. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Vol. III online at University of Michigan Library; the Internet Archive has a derivative work: Smith, William. A new classical dictionary of biography and geography based on the "Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology.". London: Murray. Anthon, Charles. A new classical dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and geography: based upon the Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology by William Smith. New York: Harper and Brothers
Jason was an ancient Greek mythological hero, the leader of the Argonauts whose quest for the Golden Fleece featured in Greek literature. He was the son of the rightful king of Iolcos, he was married to the sorceress Medea. He was the great-grandson of the messenger god Hermes, through his mother's side. Jason appeared in various literary works in the classical world of Greece and Rome, including the epic poem Argonautica and the tragedy Medea. In the modern world, Jason has emerged as a character in various adaptations of his myths, such as the 1963 film Jason and the Argonauts and the 2000 TV miniseries of the same name. Jason's father is invariably Aeson. According to various authors, she could be: Alcimede, daughter of Phylacus Polymede, or Polymele, or Polypheme, a daughter of Autolycus Amphinome Theognete, daughter of Laodicus Rhoeo Arne or ScarpheJason was said to have had a younger brother Promachus. By Medea: Alcimenes, murdered by Medea. Thessalus, twin of Alcimenes and king of Iolcus.
Tisander, murdered by Medea Mermeros killed either by the Corinthians or by Medea Pheres, as above Eriopis, their only daughter Medus or Polyxemus, otherwise son of Aegeus Argus seven sons and seven daughtersBy Hypsipyle: Euneus, King of Lemnos and his twin Nebrophonus or Deipylus or Thoas Pelias was power-hungry and sought to gain dominion over all of Thessaly. Pelias was the progeny of a union between their shared mother, the daughter of Salmoneus, the sea god Poseidon. In a bitter feud, he overthrew Aeson, he spared his half-brother for unknown reasons. Aeson's wife Alcimede I had a newborn son named Jason whom she saved from Pelias by having female attendants cluster around the infant and cry as if he were still-born. Fearing that Pelias would notice and kill her son, Alcimede sent him away to be reared by the centaur Chiron,. Pelias, fearing that his ill-gotten kingship might be challenged, consulted an oracle, who warned him to beware of a man wearing only one sandal. Many years Pelias was holding games in honor of Poseidon when the grown Jason arrived in Iolcus, having lost one of his sandals in the river Anauros while helping an old woman to cross.
She blessed him. When Jason entered Iolcus, he was announced as a man wearing only one sandal. Jason, aware Pelias. Pelias replied, "To take my throne, which you shall, you must go on a quest to find the Golden Fleece." Jason accepted this condition. Jason assembled for a number of heroes, known as the Argonauts after their ship, the Argo; the group of heroes included the Boreads who could fly, Philoctetes, Telamon, Orpheus and Pollux, Atalanta and Euphemus. The isle of Lemnos is situated off the Western coast of Asia Minor; the island was inhabited by a race of women. The women had neglected their worship of Aphrodite, as a punishment the goddess made the women so foul in stench that their husbands could not bear to be near them; the men took concubines from the Thracian mainland opposite, the spurned women, angry at Aphrodite, killed all the male inhabitants while they slept. The king, was saved by Hypsipyle, his daughter, who put him out to sea sealed in a chest from which he was rescued; the women of Lemnos lived for a while with Hypsipyle as their queen.
During the visit of the Argonauts the women mingled with the men creating a new "race" called Minyae. Jason fathered twins with the queen. Heracles pressured them to leave, he had not taken part, unusual considering the numerous affairs he had with other women. After Lemnos the Argonauts landed among the Doliones, he forgot to mention what lived there. What lived in the land beyond Bear Mountain were the Gegeines, which are a tribe of Earthborn giants with six arms and wore leather loincloths. While most of the crew went into the forest to search for supplies, the Gegeines saw that few Argonauts were guarding the ship and raided it. Heracles was among those guarding the ship at the time and managed to kill most them before Jason and the others returned. Once some of the other Gegeines were killed and the Argonauts set sail. Sometime after their fight with the Gegeines, they sent some men to find water. Among these men was Heracles' servant Hylas, gathering water while Heracles was out finding some wood to carve a new oar to replace the one that broke.
The nymphs of the stream where Hylas was collecting were attracted to his good looks, pulled him into the stream. Heracles returned to his Labors. Others say that Heracles went to Colchis with the Argonauts, got the Golden Girdle of the Amazons and slew the Stymphalian Birds at that time; the Argonauts departed, landing again at the same spot that night. In the darkness, the Doliones took them for enemies and they started fighting each other; the Argonauts killed many of the Doliones, among them. Cyzicus' wife killed herself; the Argonauts realized their horrible mistake when dawn held a funeral for him. Soon Jason reached the court of Phineus of Salmydessus in Thrace. Zeus had sent the harpies to stea
A Roman legion was a large unit of the Roman army. In the early Roman Kingdom "legion" may have meant the entire Roman army but sources on this period are few and unreliable; the subsequent organization of legions varied over time but legions were composed of around five thousand soldiers. During much of the republican era, a legion was divided into three lines of ten maniples. In the late republic and much of the imperial period, a legion was divided into ten cohorts, each of six centuries. Legions included a small ala, or cavalry, unit. By the third century AD, the legion was a much smaller unit of about 1,000 to 1,500 men, there were more of them. In the fourth century AD, East Roman border guard legions may have become smaller. In terms of organisation and function, the republican era legion may have been influenced by the ancient Greek and Macedonian phalanx. For most of the Roman Imperial period, the legions formed the Roman army's elite heavy infantry, recruited from Roman citizens, while the remainder of the army consisted of auxiliaries, who provided additional infantry and the vast majority of the Roman army's cavalry.
The Roman army, for most of the Imperial period, consisted of auxiliaries rather than legions. Many of the legions founded before 40 BC were still active until at least the fifth century, notably Legio V Macedonica, founded by Augustus in 43 BC and was in Egypt in the seventh century during the Islamic conquest of Egypt; because legions were not permanent units until the Marian reforms, were instead created and disbanded again, several hundred legions were named and numbered throughout Roman history. To date, about 50 have been identified; the republican legions were composed of levied men that paid for their own equipment and thus the structure of the Roman army at this time reflected the society, at any time there would be four consular legions and in time of war extra legions could be levied. Toward the end of the 2nd century BC, Rome started to experience manpower shortages brought about by property and financial qualifications to join the army; this prompted consul Gaius Marius to remove property qualifications and decree that all citizens, regardless of their wealth or social class, were made eligible for service in the Roman army with equipment and rewards for fulfilling years of service provided by the state.
The Roman army became a volunteer and standing army which extended service beyond Roman citizens but to non-citizens that could sign on as auxillia and were rewarded Roman citizenship upon completion of service and all the rights and privileges that entailed. In the time of Augustus, there were nearly 50 upon his succession but this was reduced to about 25–35 permanent standing legions and this remained the figure for most of the empire's history; the legion evolved from 3,000 men in the Roman Republic to over 5,200 men in the Roman Empire, consisting of centuries as the basic units. Until the middle of the first century, ten cohorts made up a Roman legion; this was changed to nine cohorts of standard size with the first cohort being of double strength. By the fourth century AD, the legion was a much smaller unit of about 1,000 to 1,500 men, there were more of them; this had come about as the large formation legion and auxiliary unit, 10,000 men, was broken down into smaller units - temporary detachments - to cover more territory.
In the fourth century AD, East Roman border guard legions may have become smaller. In terms of organisation and function, the Republican era legion may have been influenced by the ancient Greek and Macedonian phalanx. A legion consisted of several cohorts of heavy infantry known as legionaries, it was always accompanied by one or more attached units of auxiliaries, who were not Roman citizens and provided cavalry, ranged troops and skirmishers to complement the legion's heavy infantry. The recruitment of non-citizens appears to have occurred in times of great need. A Legion consisted of a Contubernium, consisted of 8 Legionaries; these Legionaries Were accompanied by 2 slaves. The Legionaries would select a man amongst their ranks to become a Decanus this was more of an election than a decision by one person; the size of a typical legion varied throughout the history of ancient Rome, with complements of 4,200 legionaries and 300 equites in the republican period of Rome, to 5,200 men plus 120 auxiliaries in the imperial period.
In the period before the raising of the legio and the early years of the Roman Kingdom and the Republic, forces are described as being organized into centuries of one hundred men. These centuries were grouped together as required and answered to the leader who had hired or raised them; such independent organization persisted until the 2nd century BC amongst light infantry and cavalry, but was discarded in periods with the supporting role taken instead by allied troops. The roles of century leader, secon