Churchill College Boat Club
Churchill College Boat Club is the rowing club for members of Churchill College, Cambridge. The club colours are pink and brown, chosen as they were the horse-racing colours of Sir Winston Churchill. In recent years, the club has become famous for its lurid pink racing shells; the men's 1st VIII started the trend in 2002, with the women taking delivery of their own in 2006. The trend has continued to the extent; the women sport pink splash-tops and lycra in the summer months. Churchill College shares a boat house, known as "Combined", with King's and The Leys School; the boat house is the farthest downstream of all the College boathouses, a natural advantage for early morning outings. The men's boat club was founded in 1961, following a remark during the Lent Bumps of that year that a college was not a College until it was on the River. Frank Maine and Ed Markham led the effort to get the club on the river, under guidance from Canon Noel Duckworth, the first chaplain at the college; the boat of postgraduates used the, as yet unheard of, training time of 6 am – 9 am on weekday mornings as the river was deserted.
This time is now common across all clubs at Cambridge. The 1st boat started the May Bumps in the seventh division in 1961, bumping twice before being stopped by carnage on the third day being bumped themselves on the last. Following a successful Lent Bumps in 1962, the Churchill 1st VIII were repositioned up into the 3rd division for the May Bumps of the same year. By the early 1970s, the men's 1st VIII had risen to the 1st division of the Lent and May Bumps but found itself back in the 2nd division by the end of the decade, it achieved its highest position at 5th in Lent Bumps 1998. In May Bumps 2006, the crew rose to an all-time high for that competition; the women's boat club took part in the first women's bumps in 1974, racing in fours until 1989. The 1st women's VIII took the headship of the Lent Bumps in 1984. In the May Bumps, Churchill women have been Head of the River a total of 6 times, the joint most of any other women's boat club, although only for the last headship were the races held in eight-oared boats.
Between 1985 and 1987, Churchill finished Head of the Mays on 12 consecutive days – the longest continuous defence of the women's Mays Headship. The College has been awarded both the Pegasus Cup, the Marconi Cup for the best performing college in May and Lent Bumps respectively. Both the Men's and Women's crews hold spots in the first division of these races. Churchill Women won the "College A" event at the inaugural Henley Women's Regatta in 1988, again in 1990. Churchill Men last qualified for the Temple Challenge Cup in 1996 at Henley Royal Regatta, progressing to the second round. Churchill College Boat Club Website Old site with plenty of history
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university; the university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two'ancient universities' share many common features and are referred to jointly as'Oxbridge'; the history and influence of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent Colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world; the university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden.
Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £1.965 billion, of which £515.5 million was from research grants and contracts. In the financial year ending 2017, the central university and colleges had combined net assets of around £11.8 billion, the largest of any university in the country. However, the true extent of Cambridge's wealth is much higher as many colleges hold their historic main sites, which date as far back as the 13th century, at depreceated valuations. Furthermore, many of the wealthiest colleges do not account for “heritage assets” such as works of art, libraries or artefacts, whose value many college accounts describe as “immaterial”; the university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as'Silicon Fen'. It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the'golden triangle' of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre.
As of 2018, Cambridge is the top-ranked university in the United Kingdom according to all major league tables. As of September 2017, Cambridge is ranked the world's second best university by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, is ranked 3rd worldwide by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 6th by QS, 7th by US News. According to the Times Higher Education ranking, no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects; the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. As of March 2019, 118 Nobel Laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners and 15 British Prime Ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty or research staff. By the late 12th century, the Cambridge area had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. However, it was an incident at Oxford, most to have led to the establishment of the university: two Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman, without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities, who would take precedence in such a case, but were at that time in conflict with King John.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, most scholars moved to cities such as Paris and Cambridge. After the University of Oxford reformed several years enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. In order to claim precedence, it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from King Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members and an exemption from some taxes. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom". After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses; the colleges at the University of Cambridge were an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself; the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars.
There were institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge's first college, in 1284. Many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries, but colleges continued to be established until modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800; the most established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college. In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, were associated with chapels or abbeys; the colleges' focus changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy".
In response, colleges changed
Caius Boat Club
Caius Boat Club is the boat club for members of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. The Club has rowed on the River Cam since 1827, like the other college boat clubs its aim is to gain and hold the headship of the Lent Bumps and May Bumps, now held in eight-oared boats, separately for men and women; the club had a golden era from 1998 to 2007, finding itself in the top echelons of college rowing on both the men's and women's sides. From the May Bumps 1998 until the May Bumps 2007 Caius took 15 of these by the men. In 2000 they became the first college to take a double headship on both the men's and women's side in the May Bumps. From its inception in 1827 as "Caius Wherry Club" the club has been active on the river, became properly established by the construction of its own boat house; the Club saw some prominence in its early years, holding the headship in 1840, 1841 and 1844, but this was followed by a long drought. In 1987 The Men lost it the following year. During the golden era from 1998 to 2007, Caius took 5 consecutive Lent Headships and so claim to have earned the right to erect a clock tower on their boathouse, a popular myth on the River Cam, that may be made reality when the plans for the college's new boathouse are approved.
After another brief period in the doldrums, the Men's crew of 2010/2011 achieved the unlikely feat of remaining unbeaten on the river Cam in eights for an entire year. This run saw them bump up 4 times to the headship of the Lent Bumps and up 2 times to the headship of the May Bumps, they represented the Cambridge Colleges against Christ Church, Oxford in a collegiate varsity race at the Henley Boat Races, becoming the only Cambridge men's crew to be successful against their dark blue opponents that year. The men's crew continue to be successful, retaining both the Lents and Mays Headship in 2012 and maintained their winning streak in side by side racing by beating Pembroke College, Oxford at the Henley Boat Races. During the May bumps of 1998, the top 3 men's crews and the top 3 women's crews all secured the awarding of Blades by bumping up on each of the 4 days with the men's 1st VIII finishing Head of the River. This'clean sweep' of the top 6 boats being awarded their "Blades" has not happened or since.
The men's first boat lost the Mays headship in 2016 to Maggie, the Lents in 2017 to Maggie. The women's first boat is second in Mays and thirteenth in Lents. Caius Boat Club has a strong tradition of encouraging its athletes to trial for the university boat clubs. In 2014 there were Caians in both the men and women's Blue Boat, the CUWBC Lightweight boat and the men's lightweight spare pair. Caius Boat Club has received planning permission for a new boathouse to be built on the site of the original; this project is estimated to cost £3 million, is due to be completed in 2016. Josh West, Olympic silver medalist Alison Mowbray, Olympic silver medalist There exists a club for members who have left the college called Gonville Boat Club. Although GBC is a recreational club, it enters regattas and sometimes races the current CBC 1st men's VIII. In 2008 a GBC crew took to the water with a total of 28 Cambridge headships between them. CUCBC at Cambridge University Combined Boat Club Caius Boat Club
The River Cam is the main river flowing through Cambridge in eastern England. After leaving Cambridge, it flows north and east into the Great Ouse to the south of Ely at Pope's Corner; the Great Ouse connects the Cam to the North Sea at King's Lynn: The total distance from Cambridge to the sea is about 40 mi and is navigable for punts, small boats, rowing craft. The Great Ouse connects to England's canal system via the Middle Level Navigations and the River Nene. In total, the Cam runs for around 69 kilometres from its furthest source to its confluence with the Great Ouse; the original name of the river was the Granta and its present name derives from the city of Cambridge rather than the other way around: After the city's present name developed in Middle English, the river's name was backformed to match. This was not universally applied and the upper stretch of the river continues to be informally known as the Granta, it has been said that the river is the "Granta" above the Silver Street Bridgemap 11 and the "Cam" below it.
The Rhee tributary is formally known as the Cam, the Granta has a tributary on its upper stretch known as the Granta. The Cam has no connection with the much smaller River Cam in Gloucestershire. An organisation called the Conservators of the River Cam was formed in 1702, charged with keeping the river navigable; the Conservators are responsible for the two locks in and north east of Cambridge: Jesus Lockmap 7 and Baits Bite Lock.map 3 The stretch north of Jesus Lock is sometimes called the lower river. The stretch between Jesus Lock and Baits Bite Lock is much used for rowing. There are many residential boats on this stretch, their occupants forming a community who call themselves the Camboaters. Navigation on the lowest section of the Cam and including Bottisham Lock,map 2 is the responsibility of the Environment Agency; the stretch above Jesus Lock is sometimes known as the middle river. Between Jesus Lock and the Mill Pond,map 12 it passes through the Backsmap 10 below the walls of many of the colleges.
This is the section of river most popular with tourists, with its picture-postcard views of elegant bridges, green lawns and graceful willows. This stretch has the unusual feature of the remains of a submerged towpath: the riverside colleges did not permit barge horses on the Backs, so the beasts waded up the Cam to the mill pulling their loads behind them. Access for mechanically powered boats is prohibited above'La Mimosa' Pub between 1 April and 30 September, when the middle and upper river are open only to manually propelled craft; the most common of these are the flat-bottomed punts. Between 1 October and 31 March powered boats are allowed as far as Mill Pool, but few people take advantage of this, as there are few public mooring places along the Backs, the river is too narrow and the bridges too low to afford easy passing or turning for many boats. Punts and canoes can be manhandled around the weir above the Mill Pool by means of the rollers, a slipway from lower to upper level. From the Mill Pool and its weir, the river can be followed upstream through Grantchester meadows to the village of Grantchestermap 14 and Byron's Pool,map 15 where it is fed by many streams.
The two principal tributaries of the Cam are the Granta and the Rhee, though both are known as the Cam. The Rhee begins just at Ashwell in Hertfordshire. Running north out of Ashwell, it forms the county boundary between Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire for around two kilometres the boundary between Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire for a further kilometre. At this point its course turns east and from here until it merges with the Granta it forms the parish boundary between a succession of villages, though until it reaches Barrington it remains at a distance of around a kilometre from any settlement of any size. Just after flowing under the Roman Ermine Street, it crosses the avenue of Wimpole Hall and a few kilometres it receives the waters of the minor River Mel that runs through Meldreth, it runs along the southern edge of the village of Barrington, where it still powers a water mill known as Bulbeck Mill. At Harston it passes Harston Mill, the site of a water mill from at least the 11th century until the need for mill died out in the mid-20th century, the parish church of All Saints.
It touches the eastern edge of the village of Haslingfield before joining the Granta at Hauxton Junction. From source to its confluence with the Granta it is 33.2 kilometres in length. The longer tributary, the Granta, starts in the parish of Debden to the east the village of Widdington in Essex. After running south west to descend from the hills of Uttlesford, it turns north just west of the village of Henham. From there until Great Shelford it follows the course of the West Anglia Main Line railway, its northward journey passes first through Newport, where it is joined by the streams known as Wicken Water and Debden Water. A couple of miles it forms a picturesque addition to views of the stately home as it flows past the front of Audley End House, is joined by the stream known as Fulfen Slade, it skirts the edges of a number of villages as it moves into Cambridgeshire, successively Littlebury, Little Chesterford, Great Chesterford, Hinxton and Whittlesford, powering a number of water mills along the way.
Forming the boundary between Great Shelford and Little Shelford, it turns west to flow past Hauxton to merge with the Rhee a mile south of Grantchester at Hauxton Junction. From source to its confluen
The Lent Bumps are a set of rowing races held annually on the River Cam in Cambridge. They began after separating from the May Bumps, which are bumping races held in mid-June. Prior to the separation there had been a single set of annual bumps dating from its inception in 1827; the races are open to all college boat clubs from the University of Cambridge, the University Medical and Veterinary Schools and Anglia Ruskin Boat Club. The Lent Bumps take place over five days at the end of February /start of March and are run as bumps races; the most recent in the series was the Lent Bumps 2019, held from 5 to 9 March 2019. The races are run in each containing 17 crews; the number of crews in each bottom division varies yearly depending on new entrants. Each crew consists of one coxswain. Unlike the May Bumps, rowers trialling for places in university crews are not allowed to take part in the Lents. A total of 121 crews took part in 2012. There are four divisions for men's crews and four divisions for women's crews.
Both M4 and W4 are "short" divisions. The divisions represent an overall race order, with Division 1 at the top; the ultimate aim is to try to finish Head of the River, i.e. first position in Division 1. At the start, signalled by a cannon, each crew is separated by a distance of about 1½ boat lengths. Once the race has begun, a crew must attempt to catch up with the crew ahead of it and bump before the crew behind does the same to them. A crew which bumps or is bumped must pull to the side of the river to allow other crews to continue racing. A crew which neither bumps the crew ahead nor is bumped by the crew behind before crossing the finishing post is said to have rowed over. Any crew which bumps swaps places with the crew that it bumped in the following day's racing. A crew which rows over stays in the same position. Crews finishing at the top of a division, the sandwich boat, row at the bottom of the next division to try to move up a division; the process is repeated over four effective days, allowing crews to move up or down in the overall order of boats.
The finish order of one year's Lent Bumps is used as the starting order of the following year's races. Due to the shortness of reliable daylight, the races are currently run over five days, with one division level dropped out each day except Saturday: on Tuesday M/W 1, on Wednesday 2, Thursday 3 and Friday 4; the leading men's and women's crews of the Lent Bumps go on to race the leading Oxford Torpids men's and women's crews at the Henley Boat Races around Easter. Lent Bumps were cancelled from 1915 to 1918 due to war, in 1895 and 1963 due to ice; the Lents in 1888 were not completed due to the death of an oarsman. When the races ceased, Jesus were in 1st position; the Lent Bumps 2001 were not completed due to an outbreak of Foot and Mouth disease in the UK. The outbreak closed the towpath along the river, where all of the umpiring for the bumps takes place; when the races were abandoned on Friday 2 March 2001, Emmanuel were in 1st position. In 1919, college 1st VIIIs did not race as it was the first race after World War I.
The start order for the 1920 races was the finish order for the 1914 races. Prior to 1946 1st & 3rd Trinity were two separate rowing clubs: 1st Trinity and 3rd Trinity, hence both separate and combined titles. NB; the Women's Lent Bumps were not completed in 2001 due to an outbreak of Foot and Mouth disease in the UK. When the races were abandoned on Friday 2 March 2001, Jesus were in 1st position. Nineteen boats have been head of the river. * The head of the river in 1919 was, unusually, 1st Trinity’s second boat. It was the first race after 1st eights did not race; the start order for the 1920 races was the finish order for the 1914 races. Prior to 1946 1st & 3rd Trinity were two separate rowing clubs: 1st Trinity and 3rd Trinity, hence both separate and combined titles. CCAT, Clare Hall, Homerton, Hughes Hall, King's, Lucy Cavendish, Robinson, St. Catharine's, Sidney Sussex, St Edmund's, Addenbrooke's and the Veterinary School are the regular entrants never to have finished Head of the River in either the men's or women's events.
Links to individual Lent Bumps results May Bumps, the equivalent event in the summer Torpids, a similar event in Oxford Durack, John. The bumps: an account of the Cambridge University bumping races, 1827-1999. Cambridge: G. Gilbert. ISBN 9780953847501. CUCBC — the organisation that runs the bumps Cambridge bumps charts — archive of results 1992-2015
Christ's College Boat Club
Christ's College Boat Club is the rowing club for members of Christ's College, Cambridge. It inhabits the oldest wooden framed boathouse on the nearest to Jesus Lock. Christ's has taken women's headship once during the 2015 Lent Bumps; the men's 1st VIII, having started the Lent Bumps near the bottom of the table moved up. They had reached the 1st division by 1897, where they remained until 1972. Since the 1980s, the 1st VIII has remained in the middle or lower half of the 1st division. In the May Bumps, Christ's started in the 1st division, but dropped away into the 2nd by the mid-1890s, it had recovered a few years and remained in the 1st division until 1974. Since the 1st VIII has spent most of its time in the lower half of the 1st division rising into the top-10. Christ's men are yet to take a headship in the Lent or May Bumps, although the 1st VIII have been as high as 4th in the May Bumps and 2nd in the Lent Bumps. On the final day of the 1996 Lent Bumps, Christ's, starting from 2nd position, managed to get overlap on the head crew, but failed to make contact, were bumped themselves by Caius at the Railway Bridge.
The women's boat first raced in 1980, has remained in the top-half of the 2nd division or bottom-half of the 1st division, but has risen to Head of the River in the Lent Bumps and as high as 3rd in the May Bumps. Christ's 1st women became Head of the River on the 3rd day of Lent bumps in 2015 and rowed over on the last day. To celebrate a boat, acquired from LMBC, was burnt on the Third Court. Between 2007 and 2010, the Christ's 1st women bumped 26 times in 32 races without themselves being bumped, including bumping on 17 consecutive days of racing. Cambridge University Combined Boat Club Christ's College, Cambridge Cambridge University Combined Boat Club Christ's College Boat Club
Bedford is the county town of Bedfordshire, England. The town has an estimated population of 87,590, whereas the Borough of Bedford had an estimated population of 169,912. Bedford was founded at a ford on the River Great Ouse, is thought to have been the burial place of Offa of Mercia. Bedford Castle was built by Henry I, although it was destroyed in 1224. Bedford was granted borough status in 1165 and has been represented in Parliament since 1265, it is well known for its large population of Italian descent. Bedford is on the Midland Main Line, with stopping services to London and Brighton operated by Thameslink, express services to London and the East Midlands operated by East Midlands Trains; the name of the town is thought to derive from the name of a Saxon chief called Beda, a ford crossing the River Great Ouse. Bedford was a market town for the surrounding agricultural region from the early Middle Ages The Anglo-Saxon King Offa of Mercia was buried in the town in 796. In 886 it became a boundary town separating Danelaw.
It was the seat of the Barony of Bedford. In 919 Edward the Elder built the town's first known fortress, on the south side of the River Great Ouse and there received the area's submission; this fortress was destroyed by the Danes. William II gave the barony of Bedford to Paine de Beauchamp who built a strong castle. Bedford traces its borough charter in 1166 by Henry II and elected two members to the unreformed House of Commons, it remained a small agricultural town, with wool being an important industry in the area for much of the Middle Ages. The new Bedford Castle was razed in 1224 and today only a mound remains. From the 16th century Bedford and much of Bedfordshire became one of the main centres of England's lace industry, lace continued to be an important industry in Bedford until the early 20th century. In 1660 John Bunyan was imprisoned for 12 years in Bedford Gaol, it was here. The River Great Ouse became navigable as far as Bedford in 1689. Wool declined in importance with brewing becoming a major industry in the town.
The 19th century saw Bedford transform into an important engineering hub. In 1832 gas lighting was introduced, the railway reached Bedford in 1846; the first corn exchange was built 1849, the first drains and sewers were dug in 1864. Bedford is the largest settlement in Borough of Bedford; the borough council is led by a directly elected mayor who holds the title'Mayor of Bedford', an office, first held by Frank Branston, until his death in 2009. The current Mayor of Bedford is Dave Hodgson from the Liberal Democrat Party. Bedford itself is divided into 10 wards: Brickhill, Cauldwell, De Parys, Harpur, Newnham, Queens Park, Kempston East and Kempston West. Brickhill elects its own parish council. Bedford is served by Bedfordshire Police; the Bedfordshire Police and Crime Commissioner of that force is Kathryn Holloway. Bedford forms part of the Bedford constituency, represented in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom Parliament; the current Member of Parliament for Bedford is Mohammad Yasin, a member of the Labour Party.
Bedford is 46 miles miles north-northwest of London, 65 miles southeast of Birmingham, 25 miles west of Cambridge and 19 miles east-southeast of Northampton. The town of Kempston is adjacent to Bedford, as are the villages of Elstow and Ravensden. Wixams is a new town, being developed to the south of Bedford. Villages in the Borough of Bedford with populations of more than 2,000 as of 2005 were Biddenham, Clapham, Oakley, Shortstown and Wootton. There are many smaller villages in the borough; the villages in the borough are popular with commuters to Bedford, with people who commute to Milton Keynes and towns in Northamptonshire and Cambridgeshire. Nearby small towns include Ampthill, Biggleswade and Sandy, all of which are in Central Bedfordshire, as well as Rushden in Northamptonshire and St Neots in Cambridgeshire; the nearest towns and cities with larger populations than Bedford are Northampton to the north west, Cambridge to the east, Milton Keynes to the south west, Luton to the south, all of which have urban area populations of 150,000 or more.
As with the rest of the United Kingdom, Bedford has a maritime climate, with a limited range of temperatures, even rainfall throughout the year. The nearest Met Office weather station to Bedford is Bedford airport, about 6.5 miles north of Bedford town centre at an elevation of 85 metres. Since 1980, temperature extremes at the site have ranged from 35.9 °C in August 2003 and 35.3 °C during July 2006 down to −15.3 °C in January 1982. However, such extremes would be superseded if longer term records were available – Historically, the nearest weather station to Bedford was Cardington about 2.4 miles south south east of the town centre with an elevation of 30 metres. This location recorded a minimum of −18.3 °C during January 1963. Rainfall averages around 585mm a year, with an excess of 1mm falling on 109 days. Sunshine at around 1500 hours a year is typical of inland areas of southern-central England. Bedford is home to one of the largest concentrations of Italian immigrants in the United Kingdom.
According to the 2001 census 30% of Bedford's population were of at least partial Italian descent. This is as a result of labour recruitment in the early 1950s by the London Brick Company from Southern Italy. From 1954 to 20