Late Cenozoic Ice Age
The Late Cenozoic Ice Age, or Antarctic Glaciation began 33.9 million years ago at the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary and is ongoing. It is icehouse period, its beginning is marked by the formation of the Antarctic ice sheets. The Late Cenozoic Ice Age gets its name due to the fact that it covers the last half of Cenozoic Era so far. Six million years after the start of the Late Cenozoic Ice Age, the East Antarctic Ice Sheet had formed, 14 million years ago it had reached its current extent, it has persisted to the current time. In the last three million years, glaciations have spread to the northern hemisphere, it commenced with Greenland becoming covered by an ice sheet in late Pliocene During the Pleistocene Epoch, the Pleistocene Glaciation developed with decreasing mean temperatures and increasing amplitudes between glacials and interglacials. During the glacial periods of the Pleistocene, large areas of northern North America and northern Eurasia have been covered by ice sheets. German naturalist, Karl Friedrich Schimper coined the term eiszeit meaning ice age in 1837.
For a long time, the term only referred to glacial periods. At some point, the concept that they were all part of a much longer ice age came later; as a geologic time period, the Late Cenozoic Ice Age was used at least as early as 1973. The last greenhouse period began 260 million years ago during the late Permian Period at the end of the Karoo Ice Age, it lasted all through the time of the non-avian dinosaurs during the Mesozoic Era, ended 33.9 million years ago in the middle of the Cenozoic Era. This greenhouse period lasted 226.1 million years. The hottest part of the last greenhouse earth was the Late Paleocene - Early Eocene Torrid Age; this was a hothouse period. The hottest part of this torrid age was the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, 55.5 million years ago. Average global temperatures were around 30 °C, about 15 °C warmer than present; this was only the second time. The other time was during the Cambrian Period, which ran from 541 million years ago to 485.4 million years ago. During the early Eocene and South America were connected to Antarctica.
53 million years ago during the Eocene Epoch, summer high temperatures in Antarctica were around 25 °C. Temperatures during winter were around 10 °C, it did not frost during the winter. The climate was so warm. Arecaceæ grew on the coastal lowlands, Fagus and Pinophyta grew on the hills just inland from the coast. Temperatures soon began to decrease; as the global climate became cooler, the planet was seeing a decrease in forests, an increase in savannas. Animals were evolving to have a larger body size. Australia drifted away from Antarctica forming the Tasmanian Passage, South America drifted away from Antarctica forming the Drake Passage; this caused the formation Antarctic Circumpolar Current, a current of cold water surrounding Antarctica. This current still exists today, is a major reason for why Antarctica has such an exceptionally cold climate; the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary 33.9 million years ago was the transition from the last greenhouse period to the present icehouse climate. At this point CO2 levels had dropped to 750 ppm.
This was the beginning of the Late Cenozoic Ice Age. This was when the ice sheets reached the ocean, the defining point.33 million years ago was the evolution of the thylacinid marsupial. The first balanids, cats and pigs came about 30 million years ago; the brontothere and embrithopod mammals went extinct at this time. At 29.2 million years ago, there were three ice caps in the high elevations of Antarctica. One ice cap formed in the Dronning Maud Land. Another ice cap formed in the Gamburtsev Mountain Range. Another ice cap formed in the Transantarctic Mountains. At this point, the ice caps weren't big yet. Most of Antarctica wasn't covered by ice. By 28.7 million years ago, the Gamburtsev ice cap was now much larger due to the colder climate. CO2 continued to fall and the climate continued to get colder. At 28.1 million years ago, the Gamburtsev and Transantarctic ice caps merged into a main central ice cap. At this point, ice was now covering a majority of the continent.28 million years ago was the time period in which the largest land mammal existed, the Paraceratherium.
The Dronning Maud ice cap merged with the main ice cap 27.9 million years ago. This was the formation of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet.25 million years ago brought about the first deer. It was the time period in which the largest flying bird existed, the Pelagornis sandersi. Global refrigeration set in 22 million years ago.20 million years ago brought about the first bears, giant anteaters, hyenas. There was an increase in the diversity of birds; the first bovids and mastodons came about 15 million years ago. This was the warmest part of the Late Cenozoic Ice Age, with average global temperatures around 18.4 °C. This is about 3.4 °C warmer than the 2013-2017 average. Atmospheric CO2 levels were around 700 ppm; this time period was called the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum. By 14 million years ago, the Antarctic ice sheets were similar in volume to present times. Glaciers were starting to form in the mountains of the Northern Hemisphere; the Great American Interchange occurred 9.5 million years ago. This was the migration of different freshwater animals between North and South America.
During this time, glyptodonts, ground sl
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
The Quaternary glaciation known as the Pleistocene glaciation, is an alternating series of glacial and interglacial periods during the Quaternary period that began 2.58 Ma, is ongoing. Although geologists describe the entire time period as an "ice age", in popular culture the term "ice age" is associated with just the most recent glacial period. Since earth still has ice sheets, geologists consider the Quaternary glaciation to be ongoing, with earth now experiencing an interglacial period. During the Quaternary glaciation, ice sheets appeared. During glacial periods they expanded, during interglacial periods they contracted. Since the end of the last glacial period the only surviving ice sheets are the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. Other ice sheets, such as the Laurentide ice sheet, formed during glacial periods and disappeared during interglacials; the major effects of the Quatenary glaciation have been the erosion of land and the deposition of material, both over large parts of the continents.
The ice sheets themselves, by raising the albedo created significant feedback to further cool the climate. These effects have been reshaping entire environments on land and in the oceans, their associated biological communities. Before the quaternary glaciation, land-based ice appeared, disappeared, at least four other times. Evidence for the quaternary glaciation was first understood in the 18th and 19th centuries as part of the scientific revolution. Over the last century, extensive field observations have provided evidence that continental glaciers covered large parts of Europe, North America, Siberia. Maps of glacial features were compiled after many years of fieldwork by hundreds of geologists who mapped the location and orientation of drumlins, moraines and glacial stream channels in order to reveal the extent of the ice sheets, the direction of their flow, the locations of systems of meltwater channels, they allowed scientists to decipher a history of multiple advances and retreats of the ice.
Before the theory of worldwide glaciation was accepted, many observers recognized that more than a single advance and retreat of the ice had occurred. To geologists, an ice age is marked by the presence of large amounts of land-based ice. Prior to the Quaternary glaciation, land-based ice formed during at least four earlier geologic periods: the Karoo, Andean-Saharan and Huronian. Within the Quaternary Period, or ice age, there were periodic fluctuations of the total volume of land ice, the sea level, global temperatures. During the colder episodes large ice sheets at least 4 km thick at their maximum existed in Europe, North America, Siberia; the shorter and warmer intervals between glacials, when continental glaciers retreated, are referred to as interglacials. These are evidenced by buried soil profiles, peat beds, lake and stream deposits separating the unsorted, unstratified deposits of glacial debris; the fluctuation period was about 41,000 years, but following the Mid-Pleistocene Transition it has slowed to about 100,000 years, as evidenced most by ice cores for the past 800,000 years and marine sediment cores for the earlier period.
Over the past 740,000 years there have been eight glacial cycles. The entire Quaternary Period, starting 2.58 Ma, is referred to as an ice age because at least one permanent large ice sheet—the Antarctic ice sheet—has existed continuously. There is uncertainty over. Earth is in an interglacial period, which marked the beginning of the Holocene epoch; the current interglacial began between 10,000 years ago. Remnants of these last glaciers, now occupying about 10% of the world's land surface, still exist in Greenland and some mountainous regions. During the glacial periods, the present hydrologic system was interrupted throughout large areas of the world and was modified in others. Due to the volume of ice on land, sea level was about 120 meters lower than present. Earth's history of glaciation is a product of the internal variability of Earth's climate system, plus the effects of "external forcing" due to phenomena external to the climate system; the role of Earth's orbital changes in controlling climate was first advanced by James Croll in the late 19th century.
Milutin Milanković, a Serbian geophysicist, elaborated on the theory and calculated that these irregularities in Earth's orbit could cause the climatic cycles now known as Milankovitch cycles. They are the result of the additive behavior of several types of cyclical changes in Earth's orbital properties. Changes in the orbital eccentricity of Earth occur on a cycle of about 100,000 years; the inclination, or tilt, of Earth's axis varies periodically between 22° and 24.5° in a cycle 41,000 years long. The tilt of Earth's axis is responsible for the seasons. Precession of the equinoxes, or wobbles of Earth's spin axis, have a periodicity of 26,000 years. According to the Milankovitch theory, these factors
An ice age is a long period of reduction in the temperature of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers. Earth is in the Quaternary glaciation, known in popular terminology as the Ice Age. Individual pulses of cold climate are termed "glacial periods", intermittent warm periods are called "interglacials", with both climatic pulses part of the Quaternary or other periods in Earth's history. In the terminology of glaciology, ice age implies the presence of extensive ice sheets in both northern and southern hemispheres. By this definition, we are in an interglacial period—the Holocene; the amount of heat trapping gases emitted into Earth's Oceans and atmosphere will prevent the next ice age, which otherwise would begin in around 50,000 years, more glacial cycles. In 1742, Pierre Martel, an engineer and geographer living in Geneva, visited the valley of Chamonix in the Alps of Savoy. Two years he published an account of his journey.
He reported that the inhabitants of that valley attributed the dispersal of erratic boulders to the glaciers, saying that they had once extended much farther. Similar explanations were reported from other regions of the Alps. In 1815 the carpenter and chamois hunter Jean-Pierre Perraudin explained erratic boulders in the Val de Bagnes in the Swiss canton of Valais as being due to glaciers extending further. An unknown woodcutter from Meiringen in the Bernese Oberland advocated a similar idea in a discussion with the Swiss-German geologist Jean de Charpentier in 1834. Comparable explanations are known from the Val de Ferret in the Valais and the Seeland in western Switzerland and in Goethe's scientific work; such explanations could be found in other parts of the world. When the Bavarian naturalist Ernst von Bibra visited the Chilean Andes in 1849–1850, the natives attributed fossil moraines to the former action of glaciers. Meanwhile, European scholars had begun to wonder. From the middle of the 18th century, some discussed ice as a means of transport.
The Swedish mining expert Daniel Tilas was, in 1742, the first person to suggest drifting sea ice in order to explain the presence of erratic boulders in the Scandinavian and Baltic regions. In 1795, the Scottish philosopher and gentleman naturalist, James Hutton, explained erratic boulders in the Alps by the action of glaciers. Two decades in 1818, the Swedish botanist Göran Wahlenberg published his theory of a glaciation of the Scandinavian peninsula, he regarded glaciation as a regional phenomenon. Only a few years the Danish-Norwegian geologist Jens Esmark argued a sequence of worldwide ice ages. In a paper published in 1824, Esmark proposed changes in climate as the cause of those glaciations, he attempted to show. During the following years, Esmark's ideas were discussed and taken over in parts by Swedish and German scientists. At the University of Edinburgh Robert Jameson seemed to be open to Esmark's ideas, as reviewed by Norwegian professor of glaciology Bjørn G. Andersen. Jameson's remarks about ancient glaciers in Scotland were most prompted by Esmark.
In Germany, Albrecht Reinhard Bernhardi, a geologist and professor of forestry at an academy in Dreissigacker, since incorporated in the southern Thuringian city of Meiningen, adopted Esmark's theory. In a paper published in 1832, Bernhardi speculated about former polar ice caps reaching as far as the temperate zones of the globe. In 1829, independently of these debates, the Swiss civil engineer Ignaz Venetz explained the dispersal of erratic boulders in the Alps, the nearby Jura Mountains, the North German Plain as being due to huge glaciers; when he read his paper before the Schweizerische Naturforschende Gesellschaft, most scientists remained sceptical. Venetz convinced his friend Jean de Charpentier. De Charpentier transformed Venetz's idea into a theory with a glaciation limited to the Alps, his thoughts resembled Wahlenberg's theory. In fact, both men shared the same volcanistic, or in de Charpentier's case rather plutonistic assumptions, about the Earth's history. In 1834, de Charpentier presented his paper before the Schweizerische Naturforschende Gesellschaft.
In the meantime, the German botanist Karl Friedrich Schimper was studying mosses which were growing on erratic boulders in the alpine upland of Bavaria. He began to wonder. During the summer of 1835 he made some excursions to the Bavarian Alps. Schimper came to the conclusion that ice must have been the means of transport for the boulders in the alpine upland. In the winter of 1835 to 1836 he held. Schimper assumed that there must have been global times of obliteration with a cold climate and frozen water. Schimper spent the summer months of 1836 at Devens, near Bex, in the Swiss Alps with his former university friend Louis Agassiz and Jean de Charpentier. Schimper, de Charpentier and Venetz convinced Agassiz that there had been a time of glaciation. During the winter of 1836/37, Agassiz and Schimper developed the theory of a sequence of glaciations, they drew upon the preceding works of Venetz, de Charpentier and on their own fieldwork. Agassiz appears to have been familiar with Bernhardi's paper at that time.
At the beginning of 1837, Schimper coined the term "ice age" for the period of the glaciers. In July 1837 Ag
Marine isotope stage
Marine isotope stages, marine oxygen-isotope stages, or oxygen isotope stages, are alternating warm and cool periods in the Earth's paleoclimate, deduced from oxygen isotope data reflecting changes in temperature derived from data from deep sea core samples. Working backwards from the present, MIS 1 in the scale, stages with numbers have high levels of oxygen-18 and represent cold glacial periods, while the odd-numbered stages are troughs in the oxygen-18 figures, representing warm interglacial intervals; the data are derived from pollen and foraminifera remains in drilled marine sediment cores and other data that reflect historic climate. The MIS timescale was developed from the pioneering work of Cesare Emiliani in the 1950s, is now used in archaeology and other fields to express dating in the Quaternary period, as well as providing the fullest and best data for that period for paleoclimatology or the study of the early climate of the Earth, representing "the standard to which we correlate other Quaternary climate records".
Emiliani's work in turn depended on Harold Urey's prediction in a paper of 1947 that the ratio between oxygen-18 and oxygen-16 isotopes in calcite, the main chemical component of the shells and other hard parts of a wide range of marine organisms, should vary depending on the prevailing water temperature in which the calcite was formed. Over 100 stages have been identified, going back some 6 million years, the scale may in future reach back up to 15 mya; some stages, in particular MIS 5, are divided into sub-stages, such as "MIS 5a", with 5 a, c, e being warm and b and d cold. A numeric system for referring to "horizons" may be used, with for example MIS 5.5 representing the peak point of MIS 5e, 5.51, 5.52 etc. representing the peaks and troughs of the record at a still more detailed level. For more recent periods precise resolution of timing continues to be developed. In 1957 Emiliani moved to the University of Miami to have access to core-drilling ships and equipment, began to drill in the Caribbean and collect core data.
A further important advance came in 1967, when Nicholas Shackleton suggested that the fluctuations over time in the marine isotope ratios that had become evident by were caused not so much by changes in water temperature, as Emiliani thought, but by changes in the volume of ice-sheets, which when they expanded took up the lighter oxygen-16 isotope in preference to the heavier oxygen-18. The cycles in the isotope ratio were found to correspond to terrestrial evidence of glacials and interglacials. A graph of the entire series of stages revealed unsuspected advances and retreats of ice and filled in the details of the stadials and interstadials. More recent ice core samples of today's glacial ice substantiated the cycles through studies of ancient pollen deposition. A number of methods are making additional detail possible. Matching the stages to named periods proceeds as new dates are discovered and new regions are explored geologically; the marine isotopic records appear more complete and detailed than any terrestrial equivalents, have enabled a timeline of glaciation for the Plio-Pleistocene to be identified.
It is now believed that changes in the size of the major ice sheets such as the historical Laurentide ice sheet of North America are the main factor governing variations in the oxygen isotope ratios. The MIS data matches the astronomical data of Milankovitch cycles of orbital forcing or the effects of variations in insolation caused by cyclical slight changes in the tilt of the earth's axis of rotation – the "orbital theory". Indeed, that the MIS data matched Milankovich's theory, which he formed during World War I, so well was a key factor in the theory gaining general acceptance, despite some remaining problems at certain points, notably the so-called 100,000-year problem. For recent periods data from radiocarbon dating and dendrochronology support the MIS data; the sediments acquire depositional remanent magnetization which allows them to be correlated with earth's geomagnetic reversals. For older core samples, individual annual depositions cannot be distinguished, dating is taken from the geomagnetic information in the cores.
Other information as to the ratios of gases such as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, is provided by analysis of ice cores. The SPECMAP Project, funded by the US National Science Foundation, has produced one standard chronology for oxygen isotope records, although there are others; this high resolution chronology was derived from several isotopic records, the composite curve was smoothed and tuned to the known cycles of the astronomical variables. The use of a number of isotopic profiles was designed to eliminate'noise' errors, that could have been contained within a single isotopic record. Another large research project funded by the US government in the 1970s and 1980s was Climate: Long range Investigation and Prediction, which to a large degree succeeded in its aim of producing a map of the global climate at the Last Glacial Maximum, some 18,000 years ago, with some of the research directed at the climate some 120,000 years ago, during the last interglacial; the theoretical advances and improved data available by the 1970s enabled a "grand synthesis" to be made, best known from the 1976 paper Variations in the earth’s orbit: pacemaker of the ice ages, by J.
D. Hays and John Imbrie, still widely accepted today, covers the MIS timescale and the causal effect of the orbital theory. In 2010 the Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Inte
The Würm glaciation, in the literature just referred to as the Würm spelt "Wurm", was the last glacial period in the Alpine region. It is the youngest of the major glaciations of the region, it is, like most of the other ice ages of the Pleistocene epoch, named after a river, the Würm in Bavaria, a tributary of the Amper. The Würm ice age can be dated to the time about 115,000 to 11,700 years ago, the sources differing depending on whether the long transition phases between the glacials and interglacials are allocated to one or other of these periods; the average annual temperatures during the Würm ice age in the Alpine Foreland were below −3 °C. This has been determined from changes in the vegetation as well as differences in the facies; the corresponding ice age of North and Central Europe is known as the Weichselian glaciation. Despite the global changes in climate that were responsible for the major glaciations cycles, the dating of the Alpine ice sheet advances does not correlate automatically with the farthest extent of the Scandinavian ice sheet.
In North America the corresponding "last ice age" is called the Wisconsin glaciation. In the Gelasian, i.e. at the beginning of the Quaternary period around 2.6 million years ago, an ice age began in the northern hemisphere which continues today. Characteristic of such ice ages is the glaciation of the polar caps. After the Gelasian followed the Early and Late Pleistocene with a succession of several warm and cold periods; the latter are called "ice ages" or "glacials", the former term being confused with the overarching ice age period. The warm periods are called "interglacials". Glaciers advanced from the Alps to the northern molasse foreland and left moraines and meltwater deposits behind that are up to several hundred metres thick. Today, the Pleistocene epoch in the Alps is divided into several phases: the Biber, Danube, Günzburg, Mindel, Riss and Würm glaciations; the greatest ice advance into the Alpine Foreland took place during the Riss glaciation. The most recent foreland glaciation, the Würm, did not have such an extensive and solid glacial front.
Its terminal moraines, which indicate the perimeter of the ice sheet, extend as a single tongue well into the foreland. Whilst they were hemmed in by the high mountainsides of the Alps, once these rivers of ice entered the foreland they combined to form huge glaciers; the moraines and gravel beds formed in the Würm glaciation are the best preserved, because since there have been no more similar geological processes. Traces of the ice sheet have not been scoured out by glaciers or overlaid by their sediments; this allows a more precise dating for the Würm glaciation than for earlier ice ages. The Würm glaciation was preceded by the Eemian, which began about 126,000 years ago and lasted 11,000 years. There was a significant slowdown, characterized by occasional fluctuations of several degrees in average temperatures; the various advances and retreats of glaciers associated with these temperature fluctuations, are called "stadials" and "interstadials". The Würm Glacial ended around 11,700 years ago with the beginning of the Holocene.
The cold period was followed by another warming which continues today and during which the glaciers are retreating. However in the Holocene there have been variations in temperature and ice advances, the last one in the modern era being the so-called Little Ice Age; the Holocene is considered an "interglacial" of a larger ice age, since the poles and the high mountain areas are still glaciated. For stratigraphic chronology see the sister article: Weichselian glaciation. Glacial series Glaciology Lake Toba Toba catastrophe theory Roland Walter: Geologie von Mitteleuropa. Schweizerbartsche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, 1992, ISBN 3-510-65149-9 René Hantke: Eiszeitalter. Band 2: Letzte Warmzeiten, Würm-Eiszeit, Eisabbau und Nacheiszeit der Alpen-Nordseite vom Rhein- zum Rhone-System. Ott, Thun, 1980, ISBN 3-7225-6259-7 Hans Graul, Ingo Schäfer: Zur Gliederung der Würmeiszeit im Illergebiet. Straub, Munich, 1953.. Wolfgang Frey, Rainer Lösch: Lehrbuch der Geobotanik, Pflanze und Vegetation in Raum und Zeit.
Elsevier Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, ISBN 3-8274-1193-9 Dirk van Husen: Die Ostalpen in den Eiszeiten, Aus der Geologischen Geschichte Österreichs, Geologische Bundesanstalt Wien, ISBN 3-900312-58-3 Rolf K. Meyer, Hermann Schmidt-Kaler: Auf den Spuren der Eiszeit südlich von München – östlicher Teil, Wanderungen in die Erdgeschichte, Vol. 8, ISBN 978-3-931516-09-3 Karte: "Umwelt, Biologie und Geologie: lastiszeitliches Maximum". Map.geo.admin.ch. Swisstopo. Retrieved 2011-12-12
South East England
South East England is the most populous of the nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It consists of Berkshire, East Sussex, the Isle of Wight, Oxfordshire and West Sussex; as with the other regions of England, apart from Greater London, the south east has no elected government. It is the third largest region of England, with an area of 19,096 km2, is the most populous with a total population of over eight and a half million; the headquarters of the region's governmental bodies are in Guildford, the region contains seven cities: Brighton and Hove, Chichester, Portsmouth and Winchester, though other major settlements include Reading and Milton Keynes. Its proximity to London and connections to several national motorways have led to South East England becoming an economic hub, with the largest economy in the country outside the capital, it is the location of Gatwick Airport, the UK's second-busiest airport, its coastline along the English Channel provides numerous ferry crossings to mainland Europe.
The region is known for its countryside, which includes the North Downs and the Chiltern Hills as well as two national parks: the New Forest and the South Downs. The River Thames flows through the region and its basin is known as the Thames Valley, it is the location of a number of internationally known places of interest, such as HMS Victory in Portsmouth, Cliveden in Buckinghamshire, Thorpe Park and RHS Wisley in Surrey, Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire, Windsor Castle in Berkshire, Leeds Castle, the White Cliffs of Dover and Canterbury Cathedral in Kent, Brighton Pier and Hammerwood Park in East Sussex, Wakehurst Place in West Sussex. The region has many universities. South East England is host to various sporting events, including the annual Henley Royal Regatta, Royal Ascot and The Derby, sporting venues include Wentworth Golf Club and Brands Hatch; some of the events of the 2012 Summer Olympics were held in the south east, including the rowing at Eton Dorney and part of the cycling road race in the Surrey Hills.
At Eartham Pit, Boxgrove near Halnaker in West Sussex in December 1993, the oldest human remains in the UK – a tibia bone and a pair of lower incisor teeth – were found. An Acheulean hand axe was found. Bones of a Megalosaurus were found at a slate quarry at Stonesfield in Oxfordshire and named in 1824: it is now at Oxford University Museum of Natural History. In 1822 an Iguanodon was found at Whitemans Green near West Sussex; the Meonhill Vineyard, near Old Winchester Hill in east Hampshire on the South Downs south of West Meon on the A32, was the site of where the Romano-British grew Roman grapes. The Ridgeway runs through Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire and is Britain's oldest road; the post office at Shipton-under-Wychwood in Oxfordshire, in the Cotswolds, is the oldest still in use in England, built in 1845. The first British Grand Prix was held in 1926 at Brooklands, the world's first purpose-built motor circuit built in 1907 by Sir Hugh F. Locke-King, the land owner. Much of the Battle of Britain was fought in this region in Kent.
RAF Bomber Command was based at High Wycombe. RAF Medmenham at Danesfield House, west of Marlow in Buckinghamshire, was important for aerial reconnaissance. Operation Corona, based at RAF Kingsdown, was implemented to confuse German night fighters with native German-speakers, coordinated by the RAF Y Service. Bletchley Park in north Buckinghamshire was the principal Allied centre for codebreaking; the Colossus computer, arguably the world's first, began working on Lorentz codes on 5 February 1944, with Colossus 2 working from June 1944. The site was chosen, among other reasons, because it is at the junction of the Varsity Line and the West Coast Main Line; the Harwell computer, now at the National Museum of Computing at Bletchley, was built in 1949 and is believed to be the oldest working digital computer in the world. John Wallis of Kent, introduced the symbol for infinity, the standard notation for powers of numbers in 1656. Thomas Bayes was an important statistician from Tunbridge Wells. Sir David N. Payne at the University of Southampton's Optoelectronics Research Centre invented the erbium-doped fibre amplifier, a type of optical amplifier, in the mid-1980s, which became essential for the internet.
Henry Moseley at Oxford in 1913 discovered his Moseley's law of X-ray spectra of chemical elements that enabled him to be the first to assign the correct atomic number to elements in periodic table. Carbon fibre was invented in 1963 at the RAE in Farnborough by a team led by William Watt; the Apollo LCG space-suit cooling system originated from work done at RAE Farnborough in the early 1960s. Donald Watts Davies, who went to grammar school in Portsmouth, took over from Alan Turing in developing Britain's early computers, invented packet switching in the late 1960s at the National Physical Laboratory in Teddington. Packet-switching was taken up by the Americans to form the ARPANET. The