Chile the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty; the arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. The small central area dominates in terms of population and agricultural resources, is the cultural and political center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century when it incorporated its northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, features a string of volcanoes and lakes; the southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, canals, twisting peninsulas, islands.
Spain conquered and colonized the region in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule in the north and centre, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche who inhabited what is now south-central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a stable authoritarian republic. In the 19th century, Chile saw significant economic and territorial growth, ending Mapuche resistance in the 1880s and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific after defeating Peru and Bolivia. In the 1960s and 1970s, the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil; this development culminated with the 1973 Chilean coup d'état that overthrew Salvador Allende's democratically elected left-wing government and instituted a 16-year-long right-wing military dictatorship that left more than 3,000 people dead or missing. The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a center-left coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010.
The modern sovereign state of Chile is among South America's most economically and stable and prosperous nations, with a high-income economy and high living standards. It leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, income per capita, state of peace, economic freedom, low perception of corruption, it ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, democratic development. Chile is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, joining in 2010, it has the lowest homicide rate in the Americas after Canada. Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile. According to 17th-century Spanish chronicler Diego de Rosales, the Incas called the valley of the Aconcagua "Chili" by corruption of the name of a Picunche tribal chief called Tili, who ruled the area at the time of the Incan conquest in the 15th century.
Another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili. Other theories say Chile may derive its name from a Native American word meaning either "ends of the earth" or "sea gulls". Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a bird locally known as trile; the Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, the few survivors of Diego de Almagro's first Spanish expedition south from Peru in 1535–36 called themselves the "men of Chilli". Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such; the older spelling "Chili" was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching to "Chile". Stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18,500 years ago. About 10,000 years ago, migrating indigenous Peoples settled in fertile valleys and coastal areas of what is present-day Chile.
Settlement sites from early human habitation include Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodón and the Pali-Aike Crater's lava tube. The Incas extended their empire into what is now northern Chile, but the Mapuche resisted many attempts by the Inca Empire to subjugate them, despite their lack of state organization, they fought against his army. The result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river. In 1520, while attempting to circumnavigate the globe, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the southern passage now named after him thus becoming the first European to set foot on what is now Chile; the next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, who came from Peru in 1535 seeking gold. The Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting; the conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarro's lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on 12 February 1541.
Although the Spanish did not find the extensive gold and silver they sought, they recognize
Archbishop of Canterbury
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury. The current archbishop is Justin Welby, enthroned at Canterbury Cathedral on 21 March 2013. Welby is the 105th in a line which goes back more than 1400 years to Augustine of Canterbury, the "Apostle to the English", sent from Rome in the year 597. Welby succeeded Rowan Williams. From the time of Augustine until the 16th century, the archbishops of Canterbury were in full communion with the See of Rome and received the pallium from the Pope. During the English Reformation, the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope. Thomas Cranmer became the first holder of the office following the English Reformation in 1533, while Reginald Pole was the last Roman Catholic in the position, serving from 1556 to 1558 during the Counter-Reformation. In the Middle Ages there was considerable variation in the methods of nomination of the Archbishop of Canterbury and other bishops.
At various times the choice was made by the canons of Canterbury Cathedral, the Pope, or the King of England. Since the English Reformation, the Church of England has been more explicitly a state church and the choice is that of the Crown. Today the archbishop fills four main roles: He is the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury, which covers the eastern parts of the County of Kent. Founded in 597, it is the oldest, he is the metropolitan archbishop of the Province of Canterbury, which covers the southern two-thirds of England. He is the senior primate and chief religious figure of the Church of England. Along with his colleague the Archbishop of York he chairs the General Synod and sits on or chairs many of the church's important boards and committees; the Archbishop of Canterbury plays a central part in national ceremonies such as coronations. As spiritual leader of the Anglican Communion, the archbishop, although without legal authority outside England, is recognised by convention as primus inter pares of all Anglican primates worldwide.
Since 1867 he has convened more or less decennial meetings of worldwide Anglican bishops, the Lambeth Conferences. In the last two of these functions, he has an important ecumenical and interfaith role, speaking on behalf of Anglicans in England and worldwide; the archbishop's main residence is Lambeth Palace in the London Borough of Lambeth. He has lodgings in the Old Palace, located beside Canterbury Cathedral, where the Chair of St Augustine sits; as holder of one of the "five great sees", the Archbishop of Canterbury is ex officio one of the Lords Spiritual of the House of Lords. He is one of the highest-ranking men in England and the highest ranking non-royal in the United Kingdom's order of precedence. Since Henry VIII broke with Rome, the archbishops of Canterbury have been selected by the English monarch. Since the 20th century, the appointment of archbishops of Canterbury conventionally alternates between Anglo-Catholics and Evangelicals; the current archbishop, Justin Welby, the 105th Archbishop of Canterbury, was enthroned at Canterbury Cathedral on 4 February 2013.
As archbishop he signs himself as + Justin Cantuar. His predecessor, Rowan Williams, 104th Archbishop of Canterbury, was enthroned at Canterbury Cathedral on 27 February 2003. Prior to his appointment to Canterbury, Williams was the Bishop of Monmouth and Archbishop of Wales. On 18 March 2012, Williams announced he would be stepping down as Archbishop of Canterbury at the end of 2012 to become Master of Magdalene College, Cambridge. In addition to his office, the archbishop holds a number of other positions; some positions he formally holds ex officio and others so. Amongst these are: Chancellor of Canterbury Christ Church UniversityVisitor for the following academic institutions: All Souls College, Oxford Selwyn College, Cambridge Merton College, Oxford Keble College, Oxford Ridley Hall, Cambridge The University of Kent King's College London University of King's College Sutton Valence School Benenden School Cranbrook School Haileybury and Imperial Service College Harrow School King's College School, Wimbledon The King's School, Canterbury St John's School, Leatherhead Marlborough College Dauntsey's School Wycliffe Hall, Oxford Governor of Charterhouse School Governor of Wellington College Visitor, The Dulwich Charities Visitor, Whitgift Foundation Visitor, Hospital of the Blessed Trinity, Guildford Trustee, Bromley College Trustee, Allchurches Trust President, Corporation of Church House, Westminster Director, Canterbury Diocesan Board of Finance Patron, St Edmund's School Canterbury Patron, The Worshipful Company of Parish Clerks Patron, Prisoners Abroad Patron, The Kent Savers Credit Union The Archbishop of Canterbury is a president of Churches Together in England.
Geoffrey Fisher, 99th Archbishop of Canterbury, was the first since 1397 to visit Ro
Convocation of Anglicans in North America
The Convocation of Anglicans in North America is a missionary body of the Church of Nigeria and a dual jurisdiction of the Anglican Church in North America. Founded in 2005, it is composed of churches that have disaffiliated from the Episcopal Church in the United States of America. CANA was a missionary initiative of the Anglican Church of Nigeria for Nigerians living in the United States, it joined several other church bodies in the formation of the Anglican Church in North America in 2009. In 2012, it launched his first offshoot diocese in the United States, the Missionary Diocese of the Trinity, a dual jurisdiction of the Church of Nigeria and ACNA. In June 2006, Martyn Minns the rector of Truro Church in Fairfax, was elected by the Anglican Church of Nigeria as the missionary bishop for CANA. Minns was consecrated in Abuja, Nigeria, in August 2006 and installed as missionary bishop in May 2007, he retired in January 2014 and was succeeded as missionary bishop by Julian Dobbs, the diocesan bishop of the Missionary Diocese of CANA East.
As of March 2015, CANA has an additional six bishops serving in various sub-jurisdictions or other ministries: Roger Ames David Anderson David Bena. Amos Fagbimiye Derek Jones Felix Orji CANA was formed in reaction to the departure of the Episcopal Church USA from orthodox Christian faith and Anglican praxis by the Episcopal Church USA's non-conformity to the international Anglican Communion resolutions at the Lambeth Conference 1998, the Windsor Report, at Dar es Salaam — including the ordination of non-celibate homosexual clergy, which it opposes as deviant and sinful. CANA reports that it has grown since its founding in 2005, it reports 69 congregations, maintains a presence in 21 states and in the District of Columbia, has an ethnically diverse membership. In 2012, CANA launched the Missionary Diocese of the Trinity as a dual diocese of the ACNA and the Church of Nigeria. CANA originated three new dioceses: East and Armed Forces and Chaplaincy. In October 2009, CANA's leadership reacted to the Catholic Church's proposed creation of personal ordinariates for disaffected traditionalist Anglicans by saying that this provision would not have a great impact on the majority of its Low Church laity and clergy, who are satisfied with the Anglican realignment movement.
Global South (Anglican)
The Anglican Global South is a grouping of 25 of the 39 provinces of the Anglican Communion, plus the Anglican Church in North America and the Anglican Church in Brazil as the 26th and the 27th members. The provinces identified with the Global South represent most of the Southern Hemisphere and Third World provinces within the Communion, including all those from Africa, the largest from South America, most from Asia and two Oceania provinces. Global South provinces are characterized by their theological conservatism on matters of sexual ethics and life issues, by their Evangelicalism in churchmanship; the grouping excludes the Episcopal Anglican Church of Brazil, the Anglican Church of Australia and the Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia, despite the fact that some Australian and New Zealand dioceses were represented in their meetings, the Asian provinces of Japan and Korea. The Anglican Church of Southern Africa is associated to the Global South and was represented in several meetings, despite being more liberal than their African counterparts.
The Diocese of South Carolina, which left the Episcopal Church in October 2012, was accepted into Global South in August 2014 with the Global South temporarily caring for the Diocese until a formal decision is made, with plans announced in 2016 to join the Anglican Church in North America formally requiring two formal votes at future Diocese annual conventions. The Global South encounters started in 1994; the Global South standing gained impetus concerning the controversies over the acceptance of non-celibate homosexuality, as the blessing of same-sex unions and the allowing of non-celibate homosexual clergy was being promoted by the Episcopal Church of the United States and the Anglican Church of Canada. The apex of the controversy took place with the consecration of Gene Robinson, a partnered homosexual, as bishop of the Episcopal Church in 2003; the Global South churches have since vigorously opposed the legitimacy of any acceptance of same-sex relationships within the Anglican Communion.
Several of the Global South Primates attended the GAFCON that took place in Jerusalem in 2008, as an alternative to the Lambeth Conference. They supported the creation of the Anglican Church in North America, in 2009, as a province in formation of the Anglican Communion and a theologically conservative alternative in the United States and Canada in opposition to what were viewed as revisionist departures that had taken place in these provinces concerning human sexuality and the interpretation of the Bible. Archbishop Robert Duncan of the Anglican Church in North America was present at the Global South Primates Encounter that took place in Singapore, on 19–23 April 2010; the final statement declared: "We are grateful that the formed Anglican Church in North America is a faithful expression of Anglicanism. We welcomed them as partners in the Gospel and our hope is that all provinces will be in full communion with the clergy and people of the ACNA and the Communion Partners."The African Provinces are all members of the Council of Anglican Provinces in Africa.
The Global South makes regular pronouncements on the internal politics of the Anglican Communion, with particular emphasis upon issues of human sexuality, through a self-appointed Steering Committee, whose Chairman is the Most Rev. Mouneer Anis; the Global South issued a letter to the Crown Nominations Commission of the Anglican Communion, on 20 July 2012, signed by 13 Primates and representatives of other three churches, including the Anglican Church of Southern Africa, expressing his wish that the new Archbishop of Canterbury will remain faithful to the orthodoxy of the Anglican faith and work for the unity of the worldwide Anglican Communion. The Anglican Church in Brazil The Province of the Anglican Church of Burundi The Church of the Province of Central Africa The Province of the Anglican Church of the Congo The Church of the Province of the Indian Ocean The Episcopal Church in Jerusalem and the Middle East The Anglican Church of Kenya The Church of Melanesia The Church of the Province of Myanmar The Church of Nigeria The Anglican Church in North America The Church of North India The Church of Pakistan The Anglican Church of Papua New Guinea The Episcopal Church in the Philippines The Province of the Anglican Church of Rwanda The Church of the Province of South East Asia The Anglican Church of Southern Africa The Church of South India The Anglican Church of South America The Province of the Episcopal Church of Sudan The Province of the Episcopal Church of South Sudan The Anglican Church of Tanzania The Church of Uganda The Church of the Province of West Africa The Church in the Province of the West Indies Anglican Church in North America Anglican Mission in the Americas Anglican realignment Convocation of Anglicans in North America Fellowship of Confessing Anglicans Global Anglican Future Conference Windsor Report The Global South Anglican: its origins and development by Dr Michael Poon Global South Anglican Website
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition which has developed from the practices and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called "Anglicans"; the majority of Anglicans are members of national or regional ecclesiastical provinces of the international Anglican Communion, which forms the third-largest Christian communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. They are in full communion with the See of Canterbury, thus the Archbishop of Canterbury, whom the communion refers to as its primus inter pares, he calls the decennial Lambeth Conference, chairs the meeting of primates, the Anglican Consultative Council. Some churches that are not part of the Anglican Communion or recognized by the Anglican Communion call themselves Anglican, including those that are part of the Continuing Anglican movement and Anglican realignment. Anglicans base their Christian faith on the Bible, traditions of the apostolic Church, apostolic succession and the writings of the Church Fathers.
Anglicanism forms one of the branches of Western Christianity, having definitively declared its independence from the Holy See at the time of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. Many of the new Anglican formularies of the mid-16th century corresponded to those of contemporary Protestantism; these reforms in the Church of England were understood by one of those most responsible for them, Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, others as navigating a middle way between two of the emerging Protestant traditions, namely Lutheranism and Calvinism. In the first half of the 17th century, the Church of England and its associated Church of Ireland were presented by some Anglican divines as comprising a distinct Christian tradition, with theologies and forms of worship representing a different kind of middle way, or via media, between Protestantism and Roman Catholicism – a perspective that came to be influential in theories of Anglican identity and expressed in the description of Anglicanism as "Catholic and Reformed".
The degree of distinction between Protestant and Catholic tendencies within the Anglican tradition is a matter of debate both within specific Anglican churches and throughout the Anglican Communion. Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer, the collection of services in one Book used for centuries; the Book is acknowledged as a principal tie that binds the Anglican Communion together as a liturgical rather than a confessional tradition or one possessing a magisterium as in the Roman Catholic Church. After the American Revolution, Anglican congregations in the United States and British North America were each reconstituted into autonomous churches with their own bishops and self-governing structures. Through the expansion of the British Empire and the activity of Christian missions, this model was adopted as the model for many newly formed churches in Africa and Asia-Pacific. In the 19th century, the term Anglicanism was coined to describe the common religious tradition of these churches.
The word Anglican originates in Anglicana ecclesia libera sit, a phrase from the Magna Carta dated 15 June 1215, meaning "the Anglican Church shall be free". Adherents of Anglicanism are called Anglicans; as an adjective, "Anglican" is used to describe the people and churches, as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the Church of England. As a noun, an Anglican is a member of a church in the Anglican Communion; the word is used by followers of separated groups which have left the communion or have been founded separately from it, although this is considered as a misuse by the Anglican Communion. The word Anglicanism came into being in the 19th century; the word referred only to the teachings and rites of Christians throughout the world in communion with the see of Canterbury, but has come to sometimes be extended to any church following those traditions rather than actual membership in the modern Anglican Communion. Although the term Anglican is found referring to the Church of England as far back as the 16th century, its use did not become general until the latter half of the 19th century.
In British parliamentary legislation referring to the English Established Church, there is no need for a description. When the Union with Ireland Act created the United Church of England and Ireland, it is specified that it shall be one "Protestant Episcopal Church", thereby distinguishing its form of church government from the Presbyterian polity that prevails in the Church of Scotland; the word Episcopal is preferred in the title of the Episcopal Church and the Scottish Episcopal Church, though the full name of the former is The Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States of America. Elsewhere, the term "Anglican Church" came to be preferred as it distinguished these churches from others that maintain an episcopal polity. Anglicanism, in its structures and forms of worship, is understood as a distinct Christian tradition representing a middle ground between what are perceived to be the extremes of the claims of 16th-century Roman Ca
Reformed Episcopal Church
The Reformed Episcopal Church is an Anglican church of evangelical Episcopalian heritage. It was founded in 1873 in New York City by George David Cummins a bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church; the REC is a founding member of the Anglican Church in North America, its four U. S. dioceses are member dioceses of ACNA. REC and ACNA are not members of the Anglican Communion. REC is in communion with the Free Church of England, the Church of Nigeria, the Anglican Province of America. Due to the death of Royal U. Grote Jr. the current Vice President of the Reformed Episcopal Church, Ray Sutton became the Presiding Bishop of the REC. At the 55th General Council of the Reformed Episcopal Church in June 2017 in Dallas, Texas, USA, Sutton was elected to be the Presiding Bishop, David L. Hicks, Bishop Ordinary of the Diocese of the North East and Mid-Atlantic, was elected as Vice-President, of the Reformed Episcopal Church; as of 2016, the REC reports 108 parishes and missions in the United States and three in Canada, has churches in Croatia, Cuba and Serbia.
In 2009, the Reformed Episcopal Church reported 13,600 members. In the 19th century, as the Oxford Movement urged that the Protestant Episcopal Church and the Church of England return to Anglicanism's roots in pre-Reformation Catholic Christianity, George David Cummins, the Assistant Bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Kentucky, became concerned about the preservation of Protestant, Evangelical and Confessional principles within the church; the founding of the Reformed Episcopal Church followed an 1873 controversy about ecumenical activity. In October of that year, Bishop Cummins joined with Dean Smith of Canterbury, William Augustus Muhlenberg, some non-Anglican ministers at an ecumenical conference of the Evangelical Alliance for the United States of America. During the conference, held in New York City, Cummins and the non-Episcopalian ministers presided at joint services of Holy Communion without using any version of the Book of Common Prayer. Retired missionary bishop, William Tozer, visiting New York at the time, criticized Smith and implicitly Cummins for participating in the rite.
Tozer's criticism appeared in a letter published by the New York Tribune on October 6, 1873. Bishop Cummins defended his actions in a letter published 10 days but after criticisms from Anglo-Catholic clergy and others for his choice not to seek preaching permission from the bishop in whose diocese he was preaching without authorization, he submitted a letter of resignation to his own bishop on November 10. Three weeks joined by 21 Episcopalian clergy and lay people, Cummins organized the first general council of the Reformed Episcopal Church in New York City on December 2, 1873. Bishop Cummins and his followers considered his action not rash decisions but decisive action, founded upon their long-held convictions about the growing Anglo-Catholic practices within the church. While these practices had existed from the founding of the Church of England, the Tractarian or Oxford Movement had been growing in influence, much to Cummins' dismay, he described his understanding's evolution in a letter to Bishop Cheney, stressing his earlier attempts to create reforms within the Protestant Episcopal Church.
"We went before the General Conventions of 1868 and 1871 with petitions signed by hundreds of clergymen and laymen from all parts of the land, asking relief for Evangelical men. We asked but three things, the use of an alternate phrase in the baptismal office for infants, the repeal of the canon closing our pulpits against all non-Episcopal clergymen, the insertion of a note in the Prayer-book, declaring the term "Priest" to be of equivalent meaning with the word Presbyter. We were met by an indignant and contemptuous refusal." These failed earlier attempts and Tozer's criticism of the ecumenical communion service Cummins thought an opportunity for decisive action. Some in the Protestant Episcopal Church saw Cummins' decision as schismatic. Others, disagreed. One correspondent of the publication "The Episcopalian" said, "If we say that this new church has begun in schism, the church of Rome alleges the same things against us; the real question is, which party is guilty of the schism, the party which separates and goes out? or the party that forces the separation, by making binding on the conscience what Christ has not made binding?"
Rather than characterize this as schism, Bishop Cummins and his fellow reformers portrayed themselves as providing a Protestant, Anglican identity under which there could be a'closer union of all Evangelical Christendom.' "The Reformed Episcopal Church would be what the Protestant Episcopal Church might have become had it not been paralyzed by the Tractarian virus." The term "Reformed" was never intended to denote any Calvinistic sense of Reformed theology, but was intended to convey Cummins' purpose of an Episcopal Church, reformed against Catholic influences. Bishop Cummins was in attendance at a Convention on 21 October 1868 and was disappointed by the "Catholic" practices which he witnessed: "ltars erected, with super-altars, with burning candles, floating clouds of incense. There is a departure from the doctrinal basis of the Reformation." Cummins' feelings grew stronger after reading an essay titled "Are There Romanising Germs in the Prayer Book?" which asserted that the Romanisation of the church and the Holy Eucharistic service was not an influence from the outside but, rather came
Forward in Faith
Forward in Faith is an organisation operating in the Church of England and the Scottish Episcopal Church. It represents a traditionalist strand of Anglo-Catholicism and is characterised by its opposition to the ordination of women to the priesthood and episcopate, it takes a traditionalist line on other matters of doctrine. Credo Cymru is its counterpart in Wales. Forward in Faith North America operates in the U. S. FiF was formed in 1992 in response to approval by the General Synod of the Church of England of the ordination of women to the priesthood an umbrella body for a number of Catholic societies and campaigning groups, it became a membership organisation in 1994 and was registered as a charity in 1996. The traditionalist group in the Scottish Episcopal Church joined forces with Forward in Faith in 1997. Credo Cymru, the traditionalist body in the Church in Wales, established formal links with Forward in Faith in 2003, the two remain separate organisations. For its first two decades, Forward in Faith's main role was to campaign for provision by the Church of England for those of its members who would be unable to receive the ministry of women priests and the bishops who ordained them.
A high point of Forward in Faith’s first decade was "Christ Our Future", a Mass to mark the turn of the millennium which filled the 10,000-capacity London Arena. The Eucharist was concelebrated by the Archbishop of York, David Hope, with more than 35 other bishops and 750 priests, the preacher was the Bishop of London, Richard Chartres. Consecrated Women, the report of a Forward in Faith working party, was published as a contribution to the debate on women in the episcopate, its theological section was republished, together with other material, in Fathers in God?. Following the ordination of women to the episcopate, Forward in Faith's main role is as the democratically-structured membership organisation and registered charity which supports and administers The Society under the patronage of S. Wilfrid and S. Hilda. In its early years, Forward in Faith had a number of Evangelical members, but today its membership is overwhelmingly Anglo-Catholic. In 2009, there were reports that Cardinal Christoph Schönborn, the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Vienna, had been meeting with the Forward in Faith chairman, John Broadhurst, Anglican Bishop of Fulham, at the suggestion of the Pope.
On 20 October 2009, in a document called Anglicanorum Coetibus, the Holy See announced that its intention to create personal ordinariates for groups of former Anglicans within the Roman Catholic Church similar to the existing military ordinariates in that their jurisdiction is exercised on a personal basis rather than a territorial basis, as is the case with normal dioceses. In October 2010, John Broadhurst announced his intention to join the Roman Catholic Church, although he said that he would not at that point resign as Chairman of Forward in Faith, saying "it is not a Church of England organisation", he resigned from the position in November 2010 before being received into the Roman Catholic Church. Forward in Faith’s constitution is approved and amended by its national assembly, which elects the organisation’s officers and policy-making council; the executive committee are the trustees of the charity. The organisation has branches in most Church of England dioceses. Chairman John Broadhurst.
It views itself to be the successor organisation to Coalition for the Apostolic Ministry, founded in the 1970s, the Evangelical and Catholic Mission, founded in 1976, the Episcopal Synod of America, founded in 1989. FIFNA itself was founded in 1999. FIFNA operates across the U. S. within several churches in the Anglican tradition, including the Reformed Episcopal Church, the Anglican Church in North America, the Diocese of the Holy Cross, the Anglican Mission in the Americas, the Anglican Province of America, the Anglican Church in America, the Episcopal Church. FIFNA describes itself as: a fellowship of Bishops, Laity and Religious Orders who embrace the Gospel of Jesus Christ, who uphold the Evangelical Faith and Catholic Order, the inheritance of the Anglican Way, who work and give for the reform and renewal of the Church. We are a teaching organism with a mission of teaching the catholic faith as received and passed on in the Anglican Communion. Catholic Societies of the Church of England Anglican realignment Provincial episcopal visitor Society of the Holy Cross Church of Christ the King, Bloomsbury Forward in Faith UK Forward in Faith Scotland Credo Cymru Forward in Faith North America