Gloucestershire is a county in South West England. The county comprises part of the Cotswold Hills, part of the flat fertile valley of the River Severn, the entire Forest of Dean; the county town is the city of Gloucester, other principal towns include Cheltenham, Tewkesbury and Dursley. Gloucestershire borders Herefordshire to the north west, Wiltshire to the south and Somerset to the south west, Worcestershire to the north, Oxfordshire to the east, Warwickshire to the north east, the Welsh county of Monmouthshire to the west. Gloucestershire is a historic county mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in the 10th century, though the areas of Winchcombe and the Forest of Dean were not added until the late 11th century. Gloucestershire included Bristol a small town; the local rural community moved to the port city, Bristol's population growth accelerated during the industrial revolution. Bristol became a county in its own right, separate from Gloucestershire and Somerset in 1373, it became part of the administrative County of Avon from 1974 to 1996.
Upon the abolition of Avon in 1996, the region north of Bristol became a unitary authority area of South Gloucestershire and is now part of the ceremonial county of Gloucestershire. The official former postal county abbreviation was "Glos.", rather than the used but erroneous "Gloucs." or "Glouc". In July 2007, Gloucestershire suffered the worst flooding in recorded British history, with tens of thousands of residents affected; the RAF conducted the largest peacetime domestic operation in its history to rescue over 120 residents from flood affected areas. The damage was estimated at over £2 billion. Gloucestershire has three main landscape areas, a large part of the Cotswolds, the Royal Forest of Dean and the Severn Vale; the Cotswolds take up a large portion of the east and south of the county, The Forest of Dean taking up the west, with the Severn and its valley running between these features. The Daffodil Way in the Leadon Valley, on the border of Gloucestershire and Herefordshire surrounding the village of Dymock, is known for its many spring flowers and woodland, which attracts many walkers.
This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Gloucestershire at current basic prices published by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling. The following is a chart of Gloucestershire's gross value added total in thousands of British Pounds Sterling from 1997-2009 based upon the Office for National Statistics figures The 2009 estimation of £11,452 million GVA can be compared to the South West regional average of £7,927 million. Gloucestershire has comprehensive schools with seven selective schools. There are 42 state secondary schools, not including sixth form colleges, 12 independent schools, including the renowned Cheltenham Ladies' College, Cheltenham College and Dean Close School. All but about two schools in each district have a sixth form, but the Forest of Dean only has two schools with sixth forms. All schools in South Gloucestershire have sixth forms. Gloucestershire has two universities, the University of Gloucestershire and the Royal Agricultural University, four higher and further education colleges, Gloucestershire College, Cirencester College, South Gloucestershire and Stroud College and the Royal Forest of Dean College.
Each has campuses at multiple locations throughout the county. The University of the West of England has three locations in Gloucestershire. Gloucestershire has one city and 33 towns: Gloucester The towns in Gloucestershire are: Town in Monmouthshire with suburbs in Gloucestershire: Chepstow The county has two green belt areas, the first covers the southern area in the South Gloucestershire district, to protect outlying villages and towns between Thornbury and Chipping Sodbury from the urban sprawl of the Bristol conurbation; the second belt lies around Gloucester and Bishop's Cleeve, to afford those areas and villages in between a protection from urban sprawl and further convergence. Both belts intersect with the boundaries of the Cotswolds AONB. There are a variety of religious buildings across the county, notably the cathedral of Gloucester, the abbey church of Tewkesbury, the church of Cirencester. Of the abbey of Hailes near Winchcombe, founded by Richard, Earl of Cornwall, in 1246, little more than the foundations are left, but these have been excavated and fragments have been brought to light.
Most of the old market towns have parish churches. At Deerhurst near Tewkesbury and Bishop's Cleeve near Cheltenham, there are churches of special interest on account of the pre-Norman work they retain. There is a Perpendicular church in Lechlade, that at Fairford was built, according to tradition, to contain a series of stained-glass windows which are said to have been brought from the Netherlands; these are, adjudged to be of English workmanship. Other notable buildings include Calcot Barn in a relic of Kingswood Abbey. Thornbury Castle is a Tudor country house, the pretensio
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Worcester Cathedral, is an Anglican cathedral in Worcester, situated on a bank overlooking the River Severn. It is the seat of the Bishop of Worcester, its official name is the Blessed Mary the Virgin of Worcester. The present cathedral church was built between 1084 and 1504, represents every style of English architecture from Norman to Perpendicular Gothic, it is famous for its Norman crypt and unique chapter house, its unusual Transitional Gothic bays, its fine woodwork and its "exquisite" central tower, of fine proportions. The cathedral's west facade appeared, with a portrait of Sir Edward Elgar, on the reverse of £20 note issued by the Bank of England between 1999 and 2007, remaining in circulation as legal tender until 30 June 2010; the Cathedral was founded in 680, with a Northumbrian priest, appointed as its first bishop. Tatwine died before he could be consecrated, however, so his successor Bishop Bosel may be regarded as Worcester's first serving bishop; the first cathedral church, dedicated to Ss.
Peter and Paul, was built in this period. The crypt of the present-day cathedral dates from the 10th century and the time of St Oswald, Bishop of Worcester; the community associated with the cathedral the early eighth century included members of various clerical orders. The cathedral community was regulated along formal monastic lines as a consequence of the Benedictine reforms in the second half of the tenth century. There is an important connection with Fleury Abbey in France, as Oswald, bishop of Worcester from 961 to 992, was professed at Fleury and introduced the monastic rule of Fleury to the monastery that he established at Worcester around the year 966, dedicated — as the present cathedral church is — to St. Mary; the last Anglo-Saxon bishop of Worcester, unusually remained bishop after the Norman Conquest until his death in 1095. He was made a saint, it is the burial place of King of England, who succeded his brother Richard I of England. The Priory Cathedral was economic force, both in Worcester and the county.
Its properties for instance included the priory manor of Bromsgrove. It provided schooling, it was associated with hospitals. The Church received a portion of local taxations and ecclesiastical law applied to Christian morals and could result in punishments, it had close political associations with leading aristocracy. As such, Worcester's Cathedral had a central role in the medieval life of the county; the Cathedral was one of a number of religious institutions in the city. The Diocese was notably hostile to the small Jewish community, established in Worcester. Peter of Blois was commissioned by a Bishop of Worcester John of Coutances, to write a significant anti-Judaic treatise Against the Perfidy of Jews around 1190. William de Blois, as Bishop of Worcester, imposed strict rules on Jews within the diocese in 1219; as elsewhere in England, Jews were compelled to wear rectangular white badges representing tabulae. In most places, this requirement was relinquished as long. In addition to enforcing the church laws on wearing badges, Blois tried to impose additional restrictions on usury, wrote to Pope Gregory in 1229 to ask for better enforcement and further, harsher measures.
In response, the Papacy demanded that Christians be prevented from working in Jewish homes, "lest temporal profit be preferred to the zeal of Christ", enforcement of the wearing of badges. The priory came to an end with King Henry VIII's Dissolution of the Monasteries. Shortly beforehand, in 1535, the prior William More resigned, was replaced by Henry Holbeach. More had a reputation for fine living, although his standards seem in line with other senior ecclesiasts of the time. However, there were problems with the administration of the priory, including divisions within the community; the Protestant Hugh Latimer was bishop from 1535, preached for reform and iconoclasm. He resigned as bishop in 1539, as a result of a theological turn by Henry VIII towards Roman Catholicism, in the Six Articles. John Bell, a moderate reformer, was bishop from 1539 to 1543, during the period of the priory's dissolution. In the early 16th century, Worcester had around 40 monks; this declined in the years before 1540, as recruitment seems to have halted.
There were 35 Benedictine monks plus the Prior Holbeach at the time of dissolution 16 January 1540. Holbeach was re-appointed as the first Dean. A further five former monks were pensioned from the college in July 1540; the former monastic library of Worcester contained a considerable number of manuscripts which are, among other libraries, now scattered over Cambridge, Oxford Bodleian, the Cathedral library at Worcester of today. Remains of the priory dating from the 12th and 13th centuries can still be seen. John Bell's successor as Bishop, Nicholas Heath, was religiously much more conservative and Catholic. During the Civil War, the Cathedral was used to store arms as early as September 1642. While Worcester declared itself for Parliament, it was swiftly occupied by the Royalists, who were using the building to store munitions when Essex retook the city after a skirmish on its outskirts; the Parliamentary troops ransacked the Cathedral building. Stained glass was smashed and the organ destroyed, along with library books and monuments.
The See was abolished during the Commonwealth and the
An archdeacon is a senior clergy position in the Syriac Orthodox Church, Church of the East, Chaldean Catholic Church, Anglican Communion, St Thomas Christians, Eastern Orthodox churches and some other Christian denominations, above that of most clergy and below a bishop. In the High Middle Ages it was the most senior diocesan position below a bishop in the Catholic Church. An archdeacon is responsible for administration within an archdeaconry, the principal subdivision of the diocese; the Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church has defined an archdeacon as "A cleric having a defined administrative authority delegated to him by the bishop in the whole or part of the diocese." The office has been described metaphorically as that of oculus episcopi, the "bishop's eye". In the Latin Catholic Church, the post of archdeacon an ordained deacon, was once one of great importance as a senior official of a diocese; the duties are now performed by officials such as auxiliary or coadjutor bishops, the vicar general, the episcopal vicars.
The title remains. The term "archdeacon" appears for the first time in Optatus of Mileve's history of Donatism of about 370, in which he applies it to someone who lived at the beginning of that century. From the office of the diaconus episcopi, a deacon whom the bishop selected to administer the church's finances under the bishop's personal direction, the office of archdeacon developed, as certain functions were reserved to him by law; these functions included not only financial administration but the discipline of the clergy, examination of candidates for priesthood. From the 8th century, there was in the West a further development of the authority of the archdeacon, who now enjoyed a jurisdiction independent of the bishop. Large dioceses had several archdeaconries, in each of which the archdeacon, had an authority comparable to that of the bishop, they were appointed not by the bishop but by the cathedral chapter or the king. However, from the 13th century, efforts were made to limit their authority.
This was effected in part by the institution of the new office of vicar general, who would be a priest rather than a deacon. In 1553, the Council of Trent removed the independent powers of archdeacons. Those, in charge of different parts of the diocese ceased to be appointed. Only the archdeacon associated with the cathedral chapter continued to exist as an empty title, with duties entirely limited to liturgical functions; the title of archdeacon is still conferred on a canon of various cathedral chapters, the word "archdeacon" has been defined in relation to the Latin Catholic Church as "a title of honour conferred only on a member of a cathedral chapter". However, Eastern Catholic Churches still utilize archdeacons. Archdeacons serve the church within a diocese by taking particular responsibility for buildings, including church buildings, the welfare of clergy and their families and the implementation of diocesan policy for the sake of the Gospel within an archdeaconry. An archdeaconry is a territorial division of a diocese.
This type of dual role has only existed in the Bishop suffragan of Ludlow. An archdeacon is styled The Venerable instead of the usual clerical style of The Reverend. In the Church of England the position of an archdeacon can only be held by a priest, ordained for at least six years. In the Church of England, the legal act by which a priest becomes an archdeacon is called a collation. If that archdeaconry is annexed to a canonry of the cathedral, the archdeacon will be installed at that cathedral. In some other Anglican churches archdeacons can be deacons instead of priests; the Anglican ordinal presupposes that the functions of archdeacons include those of examining candidates for ordination and presenting them to the ordaining bishop. In some parts of the Anglican Communion where women cannot be consecrated as bishops, the position of archdeacon is the most senior office a female cleric can hold: this being the current situation, for example, in the Anglican Diocese of Sydney. "lay archdeacons" have been appointed, most notably in the case of the former Anglican Communion Observer to the United Nations, Archdeacon Taimalelagi Fagamalama Tuatagoloa-Leota, who retained her title after having served as Archdeacon of Samoa.
In the Eastern Christian churches, an archdeacon is the senior deacon within a diocese and has responsibility for serving at hierarchical services. He has responsibility for ensuring the smooth running of the service by directing the clergy and servers as appropriate; as such, he travels with the ruling bishop to various parts of the diocese, will sometimes act as his secretary and cell attendant, ensuring that he is able to balance his monastic life with his hierarchical duties. The archdeacon wears the double orarion, twice the length of the usual orarion, wraps under the right arm as well as hanging from the left shoulder. An archdeacon may come from either the married clergy. A protodeacon w
A parish is a territorial entity in many Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of a parish priest, who might be assisted by one or more curates, who operates from a parish church. A parish covered the same geographical area as a manor, its association with the parish church remains paramount. By extension the term parish refers not only to the territorial entity but to the people of its community or congregation as well as to church property within it. In England this church property was technically in ownership of the parish priest ex-officio, vested in him on his institution to that parish. First attested in English in the late, 13th century, the word parish comes from the Old French paroisse, in turn from Latin: paroecia, the latinisation of the Ancient Greek: παροικία, translit. Paroikia, "sojourning in a foreign land", itself from πάροικος, "dwelling beside, sojourner", a compound of παρά, "beside, by, near" and οἶκος οἶκος, "house".
As an ancient concept, the term "parish" occurs in the long-established Christian denominations: Catholic, Anglican Communion, the Eastern Orthodox Church, Lutheran churches, in some Methodist, Congregationalist and Presbyterian administrations. The eighth Archbishop of Canterbury Theodore of Tarsus appended the parish structure to the Anglo-Saxon township unit, where it existed, where minsters catered to the surrounding district. Broadly speaking, the parish is the standard unit in episcopal polity of church administration, although parts of a parish may be subdivided as a chapelry, with a chapel of ease or filial church serving as the local place of worship in cases of difficulty to access the main parish church. In the wider picture of ecclesiastical polity, a parish see. Parishes within a diocese may be grouped into a deanery or vicariate forane, overseen by a dean or vicar forane, or in some cases by an archpriest; some churches of the Anglican Communion have deaneries as units of an archdeaconry.
The Church of England geographical structure uses the local parish church as its basic unit. The parish system survived the Reformation with the Anglican Church's secession from Rome remaining untouched, thus it shares its roots with the Catholic Church's system described above. Parishes may extend into different counties or hundreds and many parishes comprised extra outlying portions in addition to its principal district being described as'detached' and intermixed with the lands of other parishes. Church of England parishes nowadays all lie within one of 44 dioceses divided between the provinces of Canterbury, 30 and York, 14; each parish has its own parish priest and supported by one or more curates or deacons - although as a result of ecclesiastical pluralism some parish priests might have held more than one parish living, placing a curate in charge of those where they do not reside. Now, however, it is common for a number of neighbouring parishes to be placed under one benefice in the charge of a priest who conducts services by rotation, with additional services being provided by lay readers or other non-ordained members of the church community.
A chapelry was a subdivision of an ecclesiastical parish in England, parts of Lowland Scotland up to the mid 19th century. It had a similar status to a township but was so named as it had a chapel which acted as a subsidiary place of worship to the main parish church. In England civil parishes and their governing parish councils evolved in the 19th century as ecclesiastical parishes began to be relieved of what became considered to be civic responsibilities, thus their boundaries began to diverge. The word "parish" acquired a secular usage. Since 1895, a parish council elected by public vote or a parish meeting administers a civil parish and is formally recognised as the level of local government below a district council; the traditional structure of the Church of England with the parish as the basic unit has been exported to other countries and churches throughout the Anglican Communion and Commonwealth but does not continue to be administered in the same way. The parish is the basic level of church administration in the Church of Scotland.
Spiritual oversight of each parish church in Scotland is responsibility of the congregation's Kirk Session. Patronage was regulated in 1711 and abolished in 1874, with the result that ministers must be elected by members of the congregation. Many parish churches in Scotland today are "linked" with neighbouring parish churches served by a single minister. Since the abolition of parishes as a unit of civil government in Scotland in 1929, Scottish parishes have purely ecclesiastical significance and the boundaries may be adjusted by the local Presbytery; the church in Wales is made up of six dioceses. Parishes were civil administration areas until communities were established in 1974. Although they are more simply called congregations and have no geographic boundaries, in the United Methodist Church congregations are called parishes. A prominent example of this usage comes in The Book of Discipline of The United Methodist Church, in which the committee of every local congregation that handles staff support is referred to as the committee on Pastor-Parish Relations.
This committee gives recommendations to the bishop on behalf of the parish/congregation since it is the United Methodist Bishop of the episcopal area who appoints a pastor to each congregation. The same is true in the Af
Mark Santer is a retired Anglican bishop. He is father of Diederick Santer. Santer was educated at Marlborough College and Queens’ College, Cambridge before his ordination in 1964. After being a curate at Church of All Saints, Cuddesdon, he was a tutor at Ripon College Cuddesdon. After six years at Kensington, he was translated to be the Bishop of Birmingham. During this time he took part in the second phase of the ecumenical discussions of the Anglican—Roman Catholic International Commission and was embroiled in controversy over the use of the term "Winterval", which he opposed. In retirement he served as an assistant bishop in the Diocese of Worcester, he has never celebrated a national day or an independence day since he is British
History of Worcestershire
The area now known as Worcestershire has had human presence since over half a million years ago. Interrupted by two ice ages, Worcestershire has had continuous settlement since 10,000 years ago. In the Iron Age, the area was dominated by a series of hill forts, the beginnings of industrial activity including pottery and salt mining can be found, it seems to have been unimportant during the Roman era, with the exception of the salt workings. During the Anglo-Saxon era, Worcestershire was an important base of Church learning; the county as a named political entity dates to this time, being formed in 918. From the Middle Ages, the role of the city of Worcester becomes important in the county; the city's merchants, Church and gentry become the main power brokers, tensions between them can be seen. The county had an important role in the civil war, it was the site of Charles II's defeat at the Battle of Worcester in 1651, local Catholic aristocrats aided his escape. Northern Worcestershire produced a number of prominent religious leaders, many of whom left the Anglican church in the Great Ejection.
The northern part of Worcestershire, including the Dudley enclave, was one of the major centres of the British Industrial Revolution. Kidderminster specialised in carpet production, Stourport in glass, Bromsgrove in nail making, Dudley in iron and coal production. Canals and railways aided export of local goods. Local government reorganisations meant that the Dudley enclave and the King's Norton area of southern Birmingham are no longer in Worcestershire. Other smaller boundary changes have taken some parishes out of added others. There is evidence of human presence in Worcestershire from the paleolithic period 700,000–500,000 years ago. Flint axe heads have been found near for instance. However, evidence from this period is hard to come by, not least because hunter-gathering societies would roam extensively and not congregate in towns and villages. Tools have been recovered from sand and gravel quarries in the county; the lack of finds appears to be contributing to under-investment in preserving them.
The first inhabitants appear to have followed the Bytham River system, which at the time drained eastwards from Evesham to East Anglia. Glaciation pushed settlement back, humans again appear around 300,000 years ago. Nearly 40 hand axes from this period have been recovered from near the last glaciation of around 10,000 BC. 15 axes were recovered at Kemerton. Between 10,000 and 3,500BC, at the start of the current Holocene period, the climate improved. Forests grew. Settlers of the Mesolithic period are identified through their use of flint tools, such as the 1,400 fragments found near Kidderminster at Wribbenhall. Other finds included a hearth, gullies and a pit; this site has been dated to 6,800 BC, making it the oldest settlement yet identified in Worcestershire. Pollen evidence shows that crops were being grown and woodlands cleared; the evidence for the Neolithic period is more extensive. Finds were first located before the second world war in Bewdley, Broadwas and, at Worcester, a skull. Farming has left many traces, for instance cropmarks on gravel terraces.
Settlements can be identified for instance at Huntsman's Quarry, Kemerton. However, the most obvious Neolithic evidence comes from their ritual landscape. At Fladbury, a possible cursus has been found, enclosures that may be defined in relationship to changes in the sky and stars. At Whittington Tump a hill has been heightened to make another burial monument. Stone axes from the Neolithic show extensive trade links, including examples from Brittany and northern Italy or Switzerlands, as well as Cornwall, North Wales and the Lake District. Pottery finds start in this period. Finds at Clifton, Severn Stoke, include Grooved ware pottery and burnt stones used to heat water for cooking or a sauna. Bronze age finds include weapons come from Worcestershire's valleys near potential fordable river crossings on the Avon such as Harvington and Defford, on the Severn, Holt, Worcester and Pixham. Flint axes and flakes found in the Malvern area are attributed to early Bronze Age settlers Burial sites are important sources of information about the Bronze age.
Around twenty barrows have been found in the county and two have been excavated, at Holt and Wyre Piddle. Worcestershire changed during the Bronze age to a predominantly agricultural landscape. Peat evidence from near Bredon Hill and Birlingham in the Avon area shows that it was cleared by the earlier part of the period. A lack of cereal grain finds has been interpreted as indicating that the land was used for cattle farming; the clearance of forest land is evidenced by alluvium deposits on the lower lands in the county, caused by river flooding. A move towards open settlements may be detected as the lands became more occupied. Current field systems may date from the Bronze age. For instance, the evidence at Kerton and Wyre Piddle shows a relationship between the Bronze age boundaries and contemporary fields; the "Shire Ditch", a late Bronze Age boundary earthwork dates from around 1000 BC, its boundary being respected by settlement patterns. Roman field boundaries seem to have kept their alignment with a Bronze age boundary at Childswickham.
Bronze age evidence shows bronze casting and textiles at Kemerton. From around 600BC, Iron Age became the predominant technology, being harder than bronze and easy to manipulate into man