Book of Common Prayer
The Book of Common Prayer is the short title of a number of related prayer books used in the Anglican Communion, as well as by other Christian churches related to Anglicanism. The original book, published in 1549 in the reign of Edward VI, was a product of the English Reformation following the break with Rome; the work of 1549 was the first prayer book to include the complete forms of service for daily and Sunday worship in English. It contained Morning Prayer, Evening Prayer, the Litany, Holy Communion and the occasional services in full: the orders for Baptism, Marriage, "prayers to be said with the sick", a funeral service, it set out in full the "propers": the introits and epistle and gospel readings for the Sunday service of Holy Communion. Old Testament and New Testament readings for daily prayer were specified in tabular format as were the Psalms; the 1549 book was soon succeeded by a more reformed revision in 1552 under the same editorial hand, that of Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury.
It was used only for a few months, as after Edward VI's death in 1553, his half-sister Mary I restored Roman Catholic worship. Mary died in 1558 and, in 1559, Elizabeth I reintroduced the 1552 book with modifications to make it acceptable to more traditionally-minded worshippers and clergy. In 1604, James I ordered some further changes, the most significant being the addition to the Catechism of a section on the Sacraments. Following the tumultuous events surrounding the English Civil War, when the Book was again abolished, another modest revision was published in 1662; that edition remains the official prayer book of the Church of England, although through the twentieth century alternative forms which were technically supplements displaced the Book of Common Prayer for the main Sunday worship of most English parish churches. A Book of Common Prayer with local variations is used in churches around, or deriving from, the Anglican Communion in over 50 different countries and in over 150 different languages.
In some parts of the world, the 1662 Book remains technically authoritative but other books or patterns have replaced it in regular worship. Traditional English Lutheran and Presbyterian prayer books have borrowed from the Book of Common Prayer and the marriage and burial rites have found their way into those of other denominations and into the English language. Like the King James Version of the Bible and the works of Shakespeare, many words and phrases from the Book of Common Prayer have entered common parlance; the full name of the 1662 Book of Common Prayer is The Book of Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments and other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church, according to the use of the Church of England, Together with the Psalter or Psalms of David, pointed as they are to be Sung or said in churches: And the Form and Manner of Making and Consecrating of Bishops and Deacons. The forms of parish worship in the late medieval church in England, which followed the Latin Roman Rite, varied according to local practice.
By far the most common form, or "use", found. There was no single book; the chant for worship was contained in the Roman Gradual for the Mass and in the Antiphoner for the offices. The Book of Common Prayer has never contained prescribed chant; the work of producing a liturgy in the English language books was done by Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, starting cautiously in the reign of Henry VIII, more radically under his son Edward VI. In his early days Cranmer was somewhat conservative: an admirer, of John Fisher, it may have been his visit to Germany in 1532. In 1538, as Henry began diplomatic negotiations with Lutheran princes, Cranmer came face to face with a Lutheran embassy; the Exhortation and Litany, the earliest English-language service of the Church of England, was the first overt manifestation of his changing views. It was no mere translation from the Latin: its Protestant character is made clear by the drastic reduction of the place of saints, compressing what had been the major part into three petitions.
Published in 1544, it borrowed from Martin Luther's Litany and Myles Coverdale's New Testament and was the only service that might be considered to be "Protestant" to be finished within the lifetime of King Henry VIII. It was only on Henry's death in 1547 and the accession of Edward VI that revision could proceed faster. Cranmer finished his work on an English Communion rite in 1548, obeying an order of Convocation of the previous year that communion was to be given to the people as both bread and wine; the ordinary Roman Rite of the Mass had made no provision for any congregation present to receive communion in both species. So, Cranmer composed in English an additional rite of congregational preparation and communion, to be undertaken
Thomas Cranmer was a leader of the English Reformation and Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and, for a short time, Mary I. He helped build the case for the annulment of Henry's marriage to Catherine of Aragon, one of the causes of the separation of the English Church from union with the Holy See. Along with Thomas Cromwell, he supported the principle of Royal Supremacy, in which the king was considered sovereign over the Church within his realm. During Cranmer's tenure as Archbishop of Canterbury, he was responsible for establishing the first doctrinal and liturgical structures of the reformed Church of England. Under Henry's rule, Cranmer did not make many radical changes in the Church, due to power struggles between religious conservatives and reformers. However, he succeeded in publishing the first authorised vernacular service, the Exhortation and Litany; when Edward came to the throne, Cranmer was able to promote major reforms. He wrote and compiled the first two editions of the Book of Common Prayer, a complete liturgy for the English Church.
With the assistance of several Continental reformers to whom he gave refuge, he changed doctrine or discipline in areas such as the Eucharist, clerical celibacy, the role of images in places of worship, the veneration of saints. Cranmer promulgated the new doctrines through the Homilies and other publications. After the accession of the Roman Catholic Mary I, Cranmer was put on trial for treason and heresy. Imprisoned for over two years and under pressure from Church authorities, he made several recantations and reconciled himself with the Roman Catholic Church. However, on the day of his execution, he withdrew his recantations, to die a heretic to Roman Catholics and a martyr for the principles of the English Reformation. Cranmer's death was immortalised in Foxe's Book of Martyrs and his legacy lives on within the Church of England through the Book of Common Prayer and the Thirty-Nine Articles, an Anglican statement of faith derived from his work. Cranmer was born in 1489 at Aslockton in England.
He was a younger son of Thomas Cranmer by his wife Agnes Hatfield. Thomas Cranmer was of modest wealth but was from a well-established armigerous gentry family which took its name from the manor of Cranmer in Lincolnshire. Thomas was lord of the manor of Whatton, which had come to his great grandfather Edmund Cranmer by marriage with the heiress of the Aslactons, who held it from the reign of Henry II, it passed by an heiress of Cranmer, to Sir John Molyneux, who sold it to the Marquis of Dorchester, in 1792 was owned by the representative of the Duke of Kingston. A ledger stone to one of his relatives in Whatton Church, near Aslockton is inscribed as follows: Hic jacet Thomas Cranmer, qui obiit vicesimo septimo die mensis Maii, anno dni. MD centesimo primo, cui aie ppcietur Deus Amen; the arms on it are: A chevron between three cranes and Argent, five fusils in fesse gules each charged with an escallop or. The figure is that of a man in flowing hair and gown, a purse at his right side, their oldest son, John Cranmer, inherited the family estate, whereas Thomas and his younger brother Edmund were placed on the path to a clerical career.
Today historians know nothing definite about Cranmer's early schooling. He attended a grammar school in his village. At the age of fourteen, two years after the death of his father, he was sent to the newly created Jesus College, Cambridge, it took him a long eight years to reach his Bachelor of Arts degree following a curriculum of logic, classical literature and philosophy. During this time, he began to collect medieval scholastic books, which he preserved faithfully throughout his life. For his master's degree he took a different course of study, concentrating on the humanists, Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples and Erasmus; this time he progressed with no special delay. Shortly after receiving his Master of Arts degree in 1515, he was elected to a Fellowship of Jesus College. Sometime after Cranmer took his MA, he married. Although he was not yet a priest, he was forced to forfeit his fellowship, resulting in the loss of his residence at Jesus College. To support himself and his wife, he took a job as a reader at Buckingham Hall.
When Joan died during her first childbirth, Jesus College showed its regard for Cranmer by reinstating his fellowship. He began studying theology and by 1520 he had been ordained, the university having named him as one of their preachers, he received his Doctor of Divinity degree in 1526. Not much is known about Cranmer's experiences during his three decades at Cambridge. Traditionally, he has been portrayed as a humanist whose enthusiasm for biblical scholarship prepared him for the adoption of Lutheran ideas, which were spreading during the 1520s. However, a study of his marginalia reveals an early antipathy to Martin Luther and an admiration for Erasmus; when Cardinal Wolsey, the king's Lord Chancellor, selected several Cambridge scholars, including Edward Lee, Stephen Gardiner and Richard Sampson, to be diplomats throughout Europe, Cranmer was chosen to take a minor role in the English embassy in Spain. Two discovered letters written by Cranmer describe an early encounter with the king, Henry VIII of England: upon Cranmer's return from Spain, in June 1527, the king interviewed Cranmer for half an hour.
Cranmer described the king as "the kindest of princes". Henry VIII's first marriage had
The Holy See called the See of Rome, is the apostolic episcopal see of the bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, ex cathedra the universal ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the worldwide Catholic Church, a sovereign entity of international law. Founded in the 1st century by Saints Peter and Paul, by virtue of Petrine and Papal primacy according to Catholic tradition, it is the focal point of full communion for Catholic bishops and Catholics around the world organised in polities of the Latin Church, the 23 Eastern Catholic Churches, their dioceses and religious institutes; as a recognised sovereign subject of international law, headed by the Pope, the Holy See is headquartered in, operates from, exercises "exclusive dominion" over the independent Vatican City State enclave in Rome, Italy. The Holy See maintains bilateral diplomatic relations with 172 sovereign states, signs concordats and treaties, performs multilateral diplomacy with multiple intergovernmental organizations, including the United Nations and its agencies, the Council of Europe, the European Communities, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe the Organization of American States and the Organization for African Unity.
The Holy See is administered by the Roman Curia, similar to a centralised government, with the Cardinal Secretary of State as its chief administrator, in addition to various dicasteries, comparable to ministries and executive departments. Papal elections are carried out by the College of Cardinals. Although the Holy See is sometimes metonymically referred to as the "Vatican", the Vatican City State was distinctively established with the Lateran Treaty between the Holy See and Italy to ensure the temporal and spiritual independence of the Papacy; as such, ambassadors are accredited to the Holy See and not the Vatican City State. Conversely, Papal nuncios to states and international organisations are recognised as representing the Holy See and the integrity of the Catholic Church along with its 1.3 billion members, not the Vatican City State, as prescribed in the Canon law of the Catholic Church. The "Holy See" thus refers to the See of Rome viewed as the central government of the Catholic Church.
The Catholic Church, in turn, is the largest non-government provider of education and health care in the world, while the diplomatic status of the Holy See facilitates the access of its vast international network of charities. The word "see" comes from the Latin word "sedes", meaning "seat", which refers to the Episcopal throne; the term "Apostolic See" can refer to any see founded by one of the Apostles, when used with the definite article, it is used in the Catholic Church to refer to the see of the Bishop of Rome, whom that Church sees as successor of Saint Peter, the Prince of the Apostles. While Saint Peter's Basilica in Vatican City is the church most associated with the Papacy, the actual cathedral of the Holy See is the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran within the city of Rome; every see. In Greek, the adjective "holy" or "sacred" is applied to all such sees as a matter of course. In the West, the adjective is not added, but it does form part of an official title of two sees: besides the Diocese of Rome, the Bishopric of Mainz bears the title of "the Holy See of Mainz".
The apostolic see of Rome was established in the 1st century by Saint Peter and Saint Paul the capital of the Roman Empire, according to Catholic tradition. The legal status of the Catholic Church and its property was recognised by the Edict of Milan in 313 by Roman Emperor Constantine the Great, it became the state church of the Roman Empire by the Edict of Thessalonica in 380. After the Fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476, the temporal legal jurisdisction of the Papal primacy was further recognised as promulgated in Canon law; the Holy See was granted territory in Duchy of Rome by the Donation of Sutri in 728 of King Liutprand of the Lombards, sovereignty by the Donation of Pepin in 756 by King Pepin of the Franks. The Papal States held extensive territory and armed forces in 756–1870. Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne as Roman Emperor by translatio imperii in 800; the Papal coronations of the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire from 858 and the Dictatus papae in 1075 mark the peak of the pope's temporal power claims.
Several contemporary states still trace their own sovereignty to recognition in medieval Papal bulls. Sovereignty of the Holy See was retained despite multiple sacks of Rome during the Early Middle Ages. Yet, relations with the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy Roman Empire were at times strained, reaching from the Diploma Ottonianum and Libellus de imperatoria potestate in urbe Roma regarding the "Patrimony of Saint Peter" in the 10th century, to the Investiture Controversy in 1076-1122, settled again by the Concordat of Worms in 1122; the exiled Avignon Papacy during 1309-1376 put a strain on the Papacy, however returned to Rome. Pope Innocent X was critical of the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 as it weakened the authority of the Holy See throughout much of Europe. Following the French Revolution, the Papal States were occupied as the "Roman Republic" from 1798 to 1799 as a sister republic of the First French Empire under Napoleon, before their territory was reestablished. Notwithstanding, the Holy See was represented in and identified as a "permanent subject of general customary international law vis-à-vis all states" in the Congress of Vien
During the Liturgy of the Eucharist, the second part of the Mass, the elements of bread and wine are considered to have been changed into the veritable Body and Blood of Jesus Christ. The manner in which this occurs is referred to by the term transubstantiation, a theory of St. Thomas Aquinas, in the Roman Catholic Church. Members of the Orthodox, Lutheran communions believe that Jesus Christ is and present in the bread and wine, but they believe that the way in which this occurs must forever remain a sacred mystery. In many Christian churches some portion of the consecrated elements is set aside and reserved after the reception of Communion and referred to as the reserved sacrament; the reserved sacrament is stored in a tabernacle, a locked cabinet made of precious materials and located on, above, or near the high altar. In Western Christianity only the Host, from Latin: hostia, meaning "victim", is reserved, except where wine might be kept for the sick who cannot consume a host; the reasons for the reservation of the sacrament vary by tradition, but until around 1000 AD the only reason for reserving the sacrament was to be taken to the ill, homebound, or dying.
After that devotional practices arose, as for Eucharistic Adoration and for Communion services when a priest is unavailable to celebrate the Eucharist. During the Triduum, the sacrament is taken in procession from the tabernacle, if on the high altar or otherwise in the sanctuary, to the Altar of Repose, reserved from the end of the Mass of the Lord's Supper until the Communion Rite on Good Friday; the Blessed Sacrament is absent from the tabernacle until the end of the first Mass of the Resurrection. The first mention of reservation describes the original and, primary purpose. In the Apology of Justin Martyr, a 2nd-century Christian writer, he describes the Eucharist ending with the distribution by the deacons to the parishioners "and to those who are absent, they carry away a portion." Reservation for distribution of the Communion to the sick is mentioned subsequently in the writings of Tertullian, St. Cyprian, St. Basil. People carried on their person as being a safe place. After the conversion of Constantine in the early 4th century, the more common place for reservation was in a church.
Indeed, a Council of Toledo in 480 denounced those who did not consume the sacred species when they received them from the priest at the altar, but at the same time numerous decrees of synods and penalties entered in penitential books impose upon parish priests the duty of reserving the Blessed Sacrament for the use of the sick and dying, at the same time of keeping it reverently and securely and providing by frequent renewal against any danger of the corruption of the sacred species. It would be kept either in the sacristy or in the church itself in a pyx hanging over the altar, an aumbry – a safe in the wall of the church – or in a tabernacle – a tent, but in fact a metal safe on or behind the altar itself, sometimes covered with a seasonally coloured cloth. Caskets in the form of a dove or of a tower, made for the most part of one of the precious metals, were used for the purpose, but whether in the early Middle Ages these Eucharistic vessels were kept over the altar, or elsewhere in the church, or in the sacristy, does not appear.
After the 10th century the commonest usage in England and France seems to have been to suspend the Blessed Sacrament in a dove-shaped vessel by a cord over the high altar. Fixed and locked tabernacles were known and indeed prescribed by the regulations of Bishop Quivil of Exeter at the end of the 13th century, though in England they never came into general use before the Reformation. In Germany, in the 14th and 15th centuries, a custom prevailed of enshrining the Eucharist in a "sacrament house" beautifully decorated, separate from the high altar but only a short distance away from it, on the north or Gospel side of the Church; this custom seems to have originated in the desire to allow the Blessed Sacrament to be seen by the faithful without contravening the synodal decrees which forbade any continuous exposition. In the sacrament house, the door was invariably made of metal lattice work, through which the vessel containing the sacred species could be discerned at least obscurely. A second purpose of reservation is.
In the 3rd century, catechumens baptized at Easter or Pentecost might spend eight days in meditation before the Blessed Sacrament, reserved in a home-church, before Christianity was legalized. However, only since the year 1000, or later, was the Blessed Sacrament kept in churches so that the faithful might visit It or pray before It. Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament in the Roman Catholic Church and Anglican Churches for the purposes of adoration has been current since the 14th century and may be either private, where only the doors of the tabernacle are opened, or public exposition where the Host is placed in a monstrance so that it may be more seen. Public exposition permitted only on the feast of Corpus Christi, developed only in recent centuries into a formal service known as Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament. Reservation was prohibited in many Protestant churches in the 16th century. In England it was permitted in the First Book of Common Prayer of 1549, but disallowed in 1552; the Thirty-Nine Articles stated, "The Sacrament of the Lord's Supper was not by Ch
Nashdom known as Nashdom Abbey, is a former country house and former Anglican Benedictine abbey in Burnham, England. Designed in Neo-Georgian style by architect Edwin Lutyens, it is a Grade II* listed building, it was converted into apartments in 1997. The gardens are Grade II listed in the National Register of Historic Parks and Gardens; the name Nashdom is romanised Russian, meaning "our home". Lutyens' clients were Princess Dolgorouki. Prince Alexis, a son of Prince Serge Dolgorouki, was the chamberlain in the Russian court. In 1898 he married Frances, the only daughter and heiress of the Scottish shipping magnate Fleetwood Pellew Wilson, of Wappenham Manor, Northamptonshire; the couple's British residences included Braemar Castle, a house in Upper Grosvenor Street, London. The Princess wanted an additional residence, for royal guests and house parties. Lutyens visited the site in July 1905, thinking it beautiful but a difficult one for the Princess's ideal house, which he thought would cost £20,000.
Her initial budget was only £6,000, they agreed on a design costing £15,000. Sources differ on the house's completion date, ranging from 1908, to 1911; the Prince died, aged 68, in June 1915. Thereafter, the Princess lived in Pyrénées-Atlantiques, where she died in August 1919, aged 69. In her will, she left Nashdom for the use of the Dolgorouki family, under the stewardship of Serge Alexandrovitch Dolgorouki, aided by her executor, Herbert Brisbane Ewart. Lutyens built the house in Neo-Georgian style, it is one of his earliest neoclassical buildings. To accommodate the steeply sloping site, he built a basement level under the southwest half of the house; the northwest, entrance front had an urban appearance, built tight against the road. Massive and austerely neoclassical, it had at its centre a Doric colonnade giving into the entrance porch, directly beyond which was, not the main entrance door, but access via a wrought iron gate into a semicircular courtyard. Instead, the main door was inside the porch on the left.
A door in the porch on the right gave access to the service quarters. The entrance hall contained two staircases; the main one, straight ahead from the door and 12 feet wide, led up to the Big Room, the main room for entertaining. A second staircase, at right angles to the first and 8 feet wide, led towards the suite of rooms on the garden front, via a grand landing; the landing had a wind dial on the wall. It was connected to a weathervane on the roof; the southeast, garden front was much less severe than the entrance front, has been called one of the most unusual facades of any Georgian house. Lutyens made extensive use of green-shuttered sash windows, spaced exceptionally close together. Along the garden front, starting from the eastern end, were a loggia, the Big Room, a circular drawing room fronted by a broad bow window, a glass-domed hall known as the Winter Garden, a dining room fronted by another bow window, a smoking room; the bow windows continued up the facade, the circular drawing room was surmounted by a circular bedroom.
There was a semicircular dip in the centre of the facade in order to let light into the glass dome. The Anglican Benedictine community of Caldey Abbey, converted to Roman Catholicism in 1913, with the exception of a small Anglican remnant, which moved into Abbey House at Pershore Abbey, Worcestershire; the new community was formally established in May 1914, though it had only one professed monk and two oblates. In 1915 the monk, Anselm Mardon, went back to Caldey. Denys Prideaux, one of the oblates, was appointed warden, in 1922 became the first abbot; the community soon found itself in need of more space. The Dolgoroukis' agent, was a friend of the community, alerted it to Nashdom's availability; the community bought Nashdom in May 1924 for £8,000, moved there in September 1926. Nashdom Abbey was a centre of Anglican Papalism, used the Roman Rite, its leading exponent in this was the liturgical scholar Gregory Dix. He joined the community in 1926, just before the move from Pershore, in 1948 became prior.
He was buried in the abbey cemetery. The composer and musicologist Anselm Hughes was Nashdom's director of music, 1922–45, prior, 1936–45, he died at Nashdom in 1974. Another member of the community, Bernard Clements, became a broadcaster and the vicar of All Saints, Margaret Street, London. In 1935, Nashdom started the training of a group of American Episcopalians led by Paul Severance. In 1939, they founded St Gregory's House known as St Gregory's Priory, in Valparaiso, Indiana. In 1946 the priory moved to Michigan, it remained a dependency of Nashdom until 1969. In 1987, the shrinking community left Nashdom for Elmore Abbey, near Newbury, where they built an abbey church, completed in 1995. Justin Welby, who became the Archbishop of Canterbury, was a regular visitor to the abbey from the early 1990s, became an Anglican Benedictine oblate in 2004. In September 2010 the remaining four monks moved again, into the Principal's House of Sarum College, in the close of Salisbury Cathedral, Wiltshire.
In June 2011, they gained planning permission to build an extension to the house, including an oratory. Nashdom and its outbuildings were converted into an apartment complex in 1997; the house was turned into 15 apartments. Although the interior was much changed, the wind dial on the landing was kept, together with a bust of Princess Dolgorouki; the complex includes gym. There ar
The pope known as the supreme pontiff, is the Bishop of Rome and ex officio leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. Since 1929, the pope has been head of state of Vatican City, a city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy; the current pope is Francis, elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI. While his office is called the papacy, the episcopal see and ecclesiastical jurisdiction is called the Holy See, it is the Holy See, the sovereign entity of international law headquartered in the distinctively independent Vatican City State, established by the Lateran Treaty in 1929 between Italy and the Holy See to ensure its temporal and spiritual independence. The primacy of the Bishop of Rome is derived from his role as the apostolic successor to Saint Peter, to whom primacy was conferred by Jesus, giving him the Keys of Heaven and the powers of "binding and loosing", naming him as the "rock" upon which the church would be built; the apostolic see of Rome was founded by Saint Peter and Saint Paul in 1st century, according to Catholic tradition.
The papacy is one of the most enduring institutions in the world and has had a prominent part in world history. In ancient times the popes helped spread Christianity, intervened to find resolutions in various doctrinal disputes. In the Middle Ages, they played a role of secular importance in Western Europe acting as arbitrators between Christian monarchs. In addition to the expansion of the Christian faith and doctrine, the popes are involved in ecumenism and interfaith dialogue, charitable work, the defense of human rights. In some periods of history, the papacy, which had no temporal powers, accrued wide secular powers rivaling those of temporal rulers. However, in recent centuries the temporal authority of the papacy has declined and the office is now exclusively focused on religious matters. By contrast, papal claims of spiritual authority have been firmly expressed over time, culminating in 1870 with the proclamation of the dogma of papal infallibility for rare occasions when the pope speaks ex cathedra—literally "from the chair"—to issue a formal definition of faith or morals.
Still, the Pope is considered one of the world's most powerful people because of his extensive diplomatic and spiritual influence on 1.3 billion Catholics and beyond, as well as the official representative of the Catholic Church being the largest non-government provider of education and health care in the world, with a vast international network of charities. The word pope derives from Greek πάππας meaning "father". In the early centuries of Christianity, this title was applied in the east, to all bishops and other senior clergy, became reserved in the west to the Bishop of Rome, a reservation made official only in the 11th century; the earliest record of the use of this title was in regard to the by deceased Patriarch of Alexandria, Pope Heraclas of Alexandria. The earliest recorded use of the title "pope" in English dates to the mid-10th century, when it was used in reference to the 7th century Roman Pope Vitalian in an Old English translation of Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum.
The Catholic Church teaches that the pastoral office, the office of shepherding the Church, held by the apostles, as a group or "college" with Saint Peter as their head, is now held by their successors, the bishops, with the bishop of Rome as their head. Thus, is derived another title by which the pope is known, that of "Supreme Pontiff"; the Catholic Church teaches that Jesus appointed Peter as leader of the Church, the Catholic Church's dogmatic constitution Lumen gentium makes a clear distinction between apostles and bishops, presenting the latter as the successors of the former, with the pope as successor of Peter, in that he is head of the bishops as Peter was head of the apostles. Some historians argue against the notion that Peter was the first bishop of Rome, noting that the episcopal see in Rome can be traced back no earlier than the 3rd century; the writings of the Church Father Irenaeus who wrote around AD 180 reflect a belief that Peter "founded and organized" the Church at Rome.
Moreover, Irenaeus was not the first to write of Peter's presence in the early Roman Church. Clement of Rome wrote in a letter to the Corinthians, c. 96, about the persecution of Christians in Rome as the "struggles in our time" and presented to the Corinthians its heroes, "first, the greatest and most just columns", the "good apostles" Peter and Paul. St. Ignatius of Antioch wrote shortly after Clement and in his letter from the city of Smyrna to the Romans he said he would not command them as Peter and Paul did. Given this and other evidence, such as Emperor Constantine's erection of the "Old St. Peter's Basilica" on the location of St. Peter's tomb, as held and given to him by Rome's Christian community, many scholars agree that Peter was martyred in Rome under Nero, although some scholars argue that he may have been martyred in Palestine. First-century Christian communities would have had a group of presbyter-bishops functioning as leaders of their local churches. Episcopacies were established in metropolitan areas.
Antioch may have developed such a structure before Rome. In Rome, there were many who claimed to be the rightful bishop, though again Irenaeus stressed the validity of one line of bishops from the time of St. Peter up to his contemporary Pope Victor I and listed them; some writers claim that the emergence of a single bishop in Rome did not occur until the middle of the 2nd century. In their view, Linus and Clement were prominent presbyter-bishops
Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament
Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament called Benediction with the Blessed Sacrament or the Rite of Eucharistic Exposition and Benediction, is a devotional ceremony, celebrated in the Roman Catholic Church, but in some other Christian traditions such as Anglo-Catholicism, whereby a bishop, priest, or a deacon blesses the congregation with the Eucharist at the end of a period of adoration. The actual benediction or blessing follows exposition of the Blessed Sacrament, i.e. the placing of the consecrated Host in a monstrance set upon the altar or at least exposition of a ciborium containing the Blessed Sacrament. Thus "the blessing with the Eucharist is preceded by a reasonable time for readings of the word of God, prayers, a period for silent prayer", while "exposition for the purpose of giving benediction is prohibited"; the readings and prayers are meant to direct attention to worship of Christ in the Eucharist. A prayerful spirit is encouraged by periods of silence and by a homily or brief exhortations aimed at developing a better understanding of the mystery of the Eucharist.
Latin hymns traditionally sung during the exposition are "O Salutaris Hostia", "Tantum Ergo", "Laudate Dominum" and "Ave verum corpus". The Divine Praises are a prayer traditionally recited but no specific hymn or prayer is required, except that before the blessing, one or other of seven prayers given in the Rite of Eucharistic Exposition and Benediction, 98 and 224-229 is to be recited. Before publication of the 1973 Rite of Eucharistic Exposition and Benediction, there was no codification of the rite. However, the guidelines for the Diocese of Rome issued under Pope Clement XII and drawn up by the Cardinal Vicar, Prospero Lambertini, were adopted; the rite now in force for the Latin Church requires the use of incense at the beginning of the exposition and before the blessing, if the Blessed Sacrament is exposed in a monstrance, but not if a ciborium is used. The priest or deacon, wearing an alb or a surplice, should put on a cope and use a humeral veil when giving the blessing with the Blessed Sacrament in a monstrance, but the cope is not required when using a ciborium.
A person other than a priest or deacon authorized to expose the Eucharist for adoration cannot give the blessing with it. After the benediction, the Blessed Sacrament is replaced in the church tabernacle, while an acclamation such as "O sacrament most holy" is sung. Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament is used in some Eastern churches; these include the Melkite Church, one of the Eastern Catholic churches in communion with Rome, the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the USA, not in communion with the Eastern Orthodox churches, e.g. Greek Orthodox or Russian Orthodox churches. While Benediction with the Blessed Sacrament is not a practice of most Eastern Orthodox or Oriental Orthodox churches, or of the Assyrian Church of the East, these churches do believe in the real presence; as a sign of this in many Eastern Orthodox churches the consecrated elements are venerated during the Divine Liturgy, however this is part of the liturgy and not a distinct form of benediction. When the deacon brings the chalice out before the Communion of the Faithful, all either make a full prostration or bow.
At the Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts, during the Great Entrance, as the priest carries the chalice and diskos to the Holy Doors, everyone prostrates themselves in veneration before the consecrated gifts. Corpus Christi Elevation Eucharistic adoration