Linguistic anglicisation is the practice of modifying foreign words and phrases in order to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English. The term refers to the respelling of foreign words to a more drastic degree than that implied in, for example, romanisation. One instance is the word "dandelion", modified from the French dent-de-lion; the term can refer to phonological adaptation without spelling change: spaghetti, for example, is accepted in English with Italian spelling, but anglicised phonetically. The anglicisation of non-English words for use in English is just one case of the more widespread domestication of foreign words, a feature of many languages, sometimes involving shifts in meaning; the term does not cover the unmodified adoption of foreign words into English. Non-English words may be anglicised by changing their form and/or pronunciation to something more familiar to English speakers. Changing grammatical endings is common; the Latin word obscenus /obskeːnʊs/ has been imported into English in the modified form "obscene" /obˈsiːn/.
The plural form of a foreign word may be modified to fit English norms more conveniently, like using "indexes" as the plural of index, rather than indices, as in Latin. The word "opera" is understood in English to be a singular noun, so it has received an English plural form, "operas"; the English word "damsel" is an anglicisation of the Old French damoisele, meaning "young lady". Another form of anglicising is the inclusion of a foreign article as part of a noun. "Rotten Row", the name of a London pathway, a fashionable place to ride horses in the 18th and 19th centuries, is an adaptation of the French phrase Route du Roi. The word "genie" has been anglicized via Latin from jinn or djinn from Arabic: الجن, al-jinn meaning demon or spirit; some changes are motivated by the desire to preserve the pronunciation of the word in the original language, such as the word "schtum", phonetic spelling for the German word stumm, meaning silent. The word "charterparty" is an anglicisation of the French homonym charte partie.
The French word "homage" was introduced by the Normans after 1066, its pronunciation became anglicised as /ˈhɒmɪdʒ/, with stress on the first syllable. Some foreign place names are anglicised in English. Examples include the Danish city København, the Russian city Москва Moskva, the Swedish city Göteborg, the Dutch city Den Haag, the Spanish city of Sevilla, the Egyptian city of القاهرة Al-Qāhira, the Italian city of Firenze; such anglicisation was once more common. In the late 19th century, use of non-English place names in English began to become more common; when dealing with languages that use the same Latin alphabet as English, names are now more written in English as in their local language, sometimes with diacritical marks that do not appear in English. With languages that use non-Latin alphabets, such as the Arabic, Greek, Korean Hangul, other alphabets, a direct transliteration is used, often pronounced according to English rules. Non-Latin based languages may use standard romanisation systems, such as Japanese Rōmaji or Chinese Pīnyīn.
The Japanese and Chinese names in English follow these spellings with some common exceptions without Chinese tone marks and without Japanese macrons for long vowels: Chóngqìng to Chongqing, Shíjiāzhuāng to Shijiazhuang, both in China. Many English names for foreign places have been directly taken over from the French version, sometimes unchanged, such as Cologne, Munich, sometimes only changed, like Vienna, Lisbon, Seville; the English city-name for the Czech capital, Prague, is taken with spelling unaltered from the French name for the city, itself descended from the Latin name for the city, borrowed from an earlier Czech name. De-anglicisation has become a matter of national pride in some places and in regions that were once under colonial rule, where vestiges of colonial domination are a sensitive subject. Following centuries of English rule in Ireland, Douglas Hyde delivered an argument for de-anglicisation before the Irish National Literary Society in Dublin, 25 November 1892: "When we speak of'The Necessity for De-Anglicising the Irish Nation', we mean it, not as a protest against imitating what is best in the English people, for that would be absurd, but rather to show the folly of neglecting what is Irish, hastening to adopt, pell-mell, indiscriminately, everything, English because it is English."
Despite its status as an official language, Irish has been reduced to a minority language in Ireland due to centuries of English rule, as is the case in North America where indigenous languages have been replaced by that of the British colonists. In the process of r
Waynesville Main Street Historic District is a national historic district located at Waynesville, Haywood County, North Carolina. It includes 35 contributing buildings in the central business district of Waynesville, it includes notable examples of Classical Revival style architecture, including the separately listed Waynesville Municipal Building, Citizens Bank and Trust Company Building, Gateway Club, Haywood County Courthouse. Other notable buildings include Sherrill's Studio and Library building, Stringfield Medical Building, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2005
The Godwin–Knowles House is a historic former house in downtown East Liverpool, United States. A Colonial Revival structure built in 1890, it has played important parts both in the city's industry and in its society; the house was constructed for a leader in the pottery industry. At this time, pottery was East Liverpool's dominant industry. Like most buildings in the city's central business district, the house is a masonry structure: its foundation is stone, its walls are built of brick. After Goodwin left the house, it became the home of his nephew, Homer Knowles, a major figure in the city's pottery industry. Knowles only lived in the house for a short time, selling it to the city's Masonic lodge in 1910. Soon after buying the house, the Masons modified the house for their purposes: they enclosed the front porch and expanded the overall facade of the building to provide more interior room for their meetings; these modifications were carried out in the spirit of the original construction: the same types of materials were used as when the house was erected, additions such as the extended roof and new dormers were built to appear identical to the original features.
In 1985, the Godwin–Knowles House was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, due to its significance in local history. Due to the care exercised by the Masons in their 1910s renovations and few changes after that date, it resembles the grand mansion constructed in 1890. Many other downtown East Liverpool buildings were added to the Register at the same time as part of a multiple property submission. Among them were lodge buildings for two other fraternal organizations: the Elks Club and the Odd Fellows Temple. Sixteen years much of the city's downtown was designated the East Liverpool Downtown Historic District.