First Anglo-Mysore War
The First Anglo–Mysore War was a conflict in India between the Sultanate of Mysore and the East India Company. The war was instigated in part by the machinations of Asaf Jah II, the Nizam of Hyderabad, who sought to divert the company's resources from attempts to gain control of the Northern Circars; the eighteenth century was a period of great turmoil in Indian subcontinent. Although the century opened with much of the subcontinent under the control of the Mughal Empire, the death in 1707 of Emperor Aurangzeb resulted in the fracturing of the empire, a struggle among viceroys and other local rulers for territory. In the 1740s and 1750s French and British colonial companies became more active in these local conflicts, by the Third Carnatic War the British had not only gained somewhat solid footholds at Bombay and Calcutta, but they had marginalised but not eliminated the influence of other colonial powers, their eastern holdings at Madras were influenced by treaties with the Nawab of Carnatic, Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah, whose territory surrounded Madras.
The other major powers in the east were the Nizam of Hyderabad a viceroyalty of the Mughul Empire but declared independent in the 1720s, held in the 1760s by Asaf Jah II, the Sultanate of Mysore, which occupied the high plains between the Eastern and Western Ghats, the mountain ranges separating the coastal plains of India from the interior. Nominally ruled by the Wodeyar dynasty, control of Mysore had in 1761 come into the hands of Hyder Ali, a Muslim military leader; each of these powers intrigued with and against the others, sought to draw the power of the French and British colonial companies to serve their objectives. The colonial powers sought to influence the local powers to gain either direct control of territory, or the revenues from territory nominally controlled by a local ruler beholden to them for financial and military support. Since European military training was better than local practices, the latter was important; the British East India Company, seeking an overland connection between its holdings at Madras and Bengal, sought to gain access to the Northern Circars, a series of coastal territories held by the French until 1758, when they were ousted with British military support.
They had applied to the nizam, offering to pay rent well above that he was receiving from the nawab of Arcot. Lord Robert Clive next applied to Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II, who in August 1765 issued a decree granting the company rights to that territory. At the same time, the nizam was involved in an alliance with the Marathas. Both he and the Marathas' ruling peshwa, Madhavrao I were concerned over the expansionist threat posed by Hyder Ali. After assisting the Marathas in dealing with one of their confederates 1765, the allies began developing plans to invade Mysore; when the British began occupying the Northern Circars in March 1766, the nizam objected, issuing threatening letters to company authorities in Madras. He considered going to war against the company, but his poor financial condition made this impossible. Instead he negotiated a treaty with the company in November 1766. Under its terms the company received four of the five circar in exchange for 7 lakh rupees or military support to the nizam in his endeavours.
One historian describes the nizam's agreement to the treaty as one of financial necessity, that he was "resentful" of English power. Pursuant to this treaty, the company provided two battalions of troops to the nizam. Under the treaty, there were no limits placed on the number of troops the nizam could request, nor were there checks on the uses to which he could put them. Conflict involving Madras authorities, Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah and Hyder Ali, was simmering. Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah, allied to the British, whose territory his surrounded, was upset that Hyder was harbouring opponents of his, including his older brother Mahfuhz Khan, Raja Saheb, the son of Chanda Saheb, a previous contender for the throne of the Carnatic. Hyder was annoyed that the British had established a fortified outpost at Vellore, that the company had several times rebuffed his offers of alliance. An offer he made in late 1766 was rejected because the local company council viewed it as incompatible with the treaty signed with the nizam.
The first anglo mysore war saw Hyder ali gain some measures of success against the British,almost capturing madras The war began in January 1767 when the Marathas anticipating movements by the nizam, invaded northern Mysore. They reached as far south as the Tunghabadhra River, before Hyder entered into negotiations to end the invasion. In exchange for payments of 30 lakhs rupees the Marathas agreed to withdraw north of the Kistna River. According to Mysore historian Mark Wilks, this action by the Marathas was a somewhat typical move to acquire wealth that might otherwise be claimed by other belligerents; the nizam advanced as far as Bangalore, accompanied by two battalions of company troops under Colonel Joseph Smith. In May, Smith discovered that the Hyder and the nizam were negotiating an alliance, withdrew most of his troops to the Carnatic frontier; the deal struck between the two powers called for them to join against the British. Hyder was to pay 18 lakhs rupees for the invasion to end, the nizam was to recognise Hyder's son Tipu Sultan a
Maharaja Jayachamarajendra Wadiyar, was the twenty-fifth maharaja of the Kingdom of Mysore from 1940 to 1971, ruling from 1940 until the monarchy was abolished in 1950, continuing to hold the title of maharaja until princely titles were abolished in 1971, remaining head of the erstwhile royal family with the unofficial title of maharaja thereafter through his death. He was a noted philosopher, political thinker, philanthropist. Jayachamarajendra Wadiyar was the only son of Yuvaraja Kanteerava Narasimharaja Wadiyar and Yuvarani Kempu Cheluvajamanni, he graduated from Maharaja's College, Mysore in 1938, earning five awards and gold medals. He was married the same year, on 15 May 1938, he toured Europe during 1939, visiting many associations in London and became acquainted with many artists and scholars. He ascended the throne of the Kingdom of Mysore on 8 September 1940 after the demise of his uncle Maharaja Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV, he married Maharani Tripura Sundari Ammani on 30 April 1944. Jayachamarajendra Wadiyar lost his father Yuvaraja Kanteerava Narasimharaja Wadiyar when he was 21.
Five months his reigning uncle, Maharaja Krishnarajendra Wadiyar IV expired, leaving his only nephew and successor what was dubbed one of the most prosperous states in Asia. Jayachamaraja Wadiyar followed democratic methods in his administration and was celebrated by his subjects alike his uncle. Jayachamarajendra Wadiyar was the first ruler to accede to merge his kingdom with the newly-formed Indian Union after the Indian Independence in 1947, he signed the Instrument of Accession with the Union of India on the eve of India attaining Independence in August 1947. The princely state of Mysore was merged with the Republic of India on 26 January 1950, he held the position of Rajpramukh of the State of Mysore from 26 January 1950 to 1 November 1956. After the integration of the neighbouring Kannada-majority parts of the States of Madras and Hyderabad, he became the first governor of the reorganised Mysore State, from 1 November 1956 to 4 May 1964 and was the Governor of the State of Madras from 4 May 1964 to 28 June 1966.
He died at the age of 55 on 23 September 1974, he was the last living person, premier king of a state with a 21-gun salute status in British India. He was a good horseman and a tennis player who helped Ramanathan Krishnan to participate at Wimbledon, he was well known for his marksmanship and was sought-after by his subjects whenever a rogue elephant or a man-eating tiger attacked their immediate surroundings. There are many wildlife trophies attributed to him in the Palace collections, he was responsible for the famous cricketer/off-spin bowler, E. A. S. Prasanna's visit to West Indies as his father was otherwise reluctant to send him, he was a connoisseur of both western and Carnatic music and an acknowledged authority of Indian Philosophy. He helped the Western world discover the music of a little-known Russian composer Nikolai Medtner, financing the recording of a large number of his compositions and founding the Medtner Society in 1949. Medtner's Third Piano Concerto is dedicated to the Maharaja of Mysore.
He became a Licentiate of the Guildhall School of Music and honorary Fellow of Trinity College of Music, London, in 1945. Aspirations to become a concert pianist were cut short by the untimely death of both his father the Yuvaraja Kanteerava Narasimharaja Wadiyar in 1939 and his uncle the Maharaja Krishnaraja Wadiyar IV in 1940, when he succeeded the throne of Mysore, he was the first president of the Philharmonia Concert Society, London in 1948. See below copy of the programme sheets of some of the earliest concerts held at Royal Albert Hall on 13 April, 27 April – 11 May 1949. Walter Legge, invited to Mysore by the Maharaja in this regard has stated: "The visit to Mysore was a fantastic experience; the Maharajah was a young man, not yet thirty. In one of his palaces he had a record library containing every imaginable recordings of serious music, a large range of loud speakers, several concert grand pianos....""In the weeks I stayed there, the Maharajah agreed to paying for the recordings of the Medtner piano concertos, an album of his songs, some of his chamber music.
This largesse proved sufficient to transform Legge's fortunes in 1949. He was able to engage Herbert von Karajan as conductor; the repertory the young Maharajah wished to sponsor were Balakirev's Symphony, Roussel's Fourth Symphony, Busoni's Indian Fantasy etc. The association produced some of the most memorable recordings of the post-war period; the Maharaja enabled Richard Strauss's last wish to be fulfilled by sponsoring an evening at the Royal Albert Hall by London's Philharmonia Orchestra with German conductor Wilhelm Furtwängler in the lead and soprano Kirsten Flagstad singing his Four Last Songs in 1950. The Maharaja was a good critic of music; when asked by Legge to pass judgement on recent additions to the EMI catalogue, his views were as trenchant as they were refreshingly unpredictable. He was thrilled by Karajan's Vienna Philharmonic recording of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, held Furtwängler's recording of the Fourth Symphony in high esteem, was disappointed by Alceo Galliera's account of the Seventh Symphony, which he would have preferred Karajan to record.
Above all, he expressed serious doubts about Arturo Toscanini's recordings.'The speed and energy are those of a demon', he wrote to Legge,'not an angel or superman as one would ardently hope for'. One of the reasons he so admi
Siege of Seringapatam (1799)
The Siege of Seringapatam was the final confrontation of the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War between the British East India Company and the Kingdom of Mysore. The British, with the allied Nizam of Hyderabad and Maratha. Achieved a decisive victory after breaching the walls of the fortress at Seringapatam and storming the citadel. Tipu Sultan, Mysore's ruler, was killed in the action; the British restored the Wodeyar dynasty to the throne after the victory, but retained indirect control of the kingdom. The battle consisted of a series of encounters around Seringapatam in the months of April and May 1799, between the combined forces of the British East India Company and their allies, numbering over 50,000 soldiers in all, the soldiers of the Kingdom of Mysore, ruled by Tipu Sultan, numbering up to 30,000; the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War came to an end with the death of Tipu Sultan in the battle. When the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War broke out, the British assembled two large columns under General George Harris.
The first consisted of over 26,000 British East India Company troops, 4,000 of whom were European while the rest were local Indian sepoys. The second column was supplied by the Nizam of Hyderabad, consisted of ten battalions and over 16,000 cavalry. Together, the allied force numbered over 50,000 soldiers. Tipu's forces had been depleted by the Third Anglo-Mysore War and the consequent loss of half his kingdom, but he still had up to 30,000 soldiers; the British forces consisted of the following: 19th Regiment of Dragoons 25th Regiment of Dragoons 12th Regiment of Foot 33rd Regiment of Foot 73rd Regiment of Foot 74th Regiment of Foot 75th Regiment of Foot 77th Regiment of Foot Scotch Brigade Regiment de Meuron The Indian forces consisted of the following: 1st Madras Native Infantry 2nd Madras Native Infantry 1st Madras Native Cavalry 2nd Madras Native Cavalry 3rd Madras Native Cavalry 4th Madras Native Cavalry Madras Pioneers Madras Artillery 1st Bengal Native Infantry 2nd Bengal Native Infantry Bengal Artillery Seringapatam was besieged by the British forces on 5 April 1799.
The River Cauvery, which flowed around the city of Seringapatam, was at its lowest level of the year and could be forded by infantry — if an assault commenced before the monsoon. When letters were exchanged with Tipu, it seemed, he requested two persons to be sent to him for discussions and stated that he was preoccupied with hunting expeditions. Tipu Sultan's Chief Minister, Mir Sadiq, is alleged to have been bought over by the British; the Governor-General of India, Richard Wellesley, planned the opening of a breach in the walls of Seringapatam. The location of the breach, as noted by Beatson, the author of an account of the Fourth Mysore War, was'in the west curtain, a little to the right of the flank of the north-west bastion; this being the old rampart appeared weaker than the new.' The Mysorean defence succeeded in preventing the establishment of a battery on the north side of the River Cauvery on 22 April 1799. However, by 1 May, working at night, the British had completed their southern batteries and brought them up to the wall.
At sunrise on 2 May, the batteries of the Nizam of Hyderabad succeeded in opening a practical breach in the outer wall. In addition, the mines that were laid under the breach were hit by artillery and blew up prematurely; the leader of the British troops was Major General David Baird, an implacable enemy of Tipu Sultan: twenty years earlier, he had been held captive for 44 months. The storming troops, including men of the 73rd and 74th regiments, clambered up the breach and fought their way along the ramparts; the assault was to begin at 1:00 p.m. to coincide with the hottest part of the day when the defenders would be taking refreshment. Led by two forlorn-hopes, two columns would advance upon the defences around the breach wheel right and left to take over the fortifications. A third reserve column, commanded by Arthur Wellesley, would deploy as required to provide support where needed. At 11:00 a.m. on 4 May 1799, the British troops were briefed and whiskey and a biscuit issued to the European soldiers, before the signal to attack was given.
The forlorn-hopes, numbering seventy-six men, led the charge. The columns formed, were ordered to fix bayonets, began to move forward; the storming party dashed across the River Cauvery in water four feet deep, with covering fire from British batteries, within 16 minutes had scaled the ramparts and swept aside the defenders quickly. The British follow-up columns turned right and left, sweeping along the inside of the walls until they met on the far side of the city. Tipu's Tiger, an automaton now in the Victoria & Albert Museum, was captured at Seringapatam; the column that rounded the northwest corner of the outer wall was involved in a serious fight with a group of Mysorean warriors under a short fat officer, which defended every traverse. The officer was observed to be discharging hunting weapons and passed to him by servants, at the British. After the fall of the city, in the gathering dusk, some of the British officers went to look for the body of Tipu Sultan, he was identified as the fat officer who had fired hunting weapons at the attackers, his body was found in a choked tunnel-like passage near the Water Gate.
Benjamin Sydenham described the body as:'wounded a little above the right ear, the ball lodged in the left cheek, he had three wounds in the body, he was in stature about 5 ft 8 in and not fair, he was rather corpulent, had a short neck and high shoulders, but his wrists and ankle
Gajendragad is a town and a taluk place in Gadag District, India. The name Gajendragad has its own history; this place is known for its hill hill strip. Highest populated city after Gadag in the district, it is about 55 kilometers from Gadag, 110 kilometers from Hubballi and 450 kilometers from Bengaluru. Gajendragad, is a historical place in the Gadag district; the name Gajendragad is a combination of a fort. This is. Local people call it as Gada, it is one of the big town in the Gadag District. Gajendragad is known for film shooting because of its land on its hills, it is a place. Several Kannada films including Veera Madakari, Raate, Bahuparak, Bheema teeradalli, Rakshit Shetty's Avane Shrimannaraya and many more. Telugu movies like Damarugam, Alludu seenu, Balupu Bharjeri and many more are shot here. Gajendragad is a pilgrimage destination due to its Kalakaleshwara temple, it is known for the long hill strip, hill station, film shooting spots, kalakaleshwara temple, market for Javali / Dress Materials for marriage and festivals, Handloom, Gajendragad Kubusa Kana.
Gajendragad is surrounded by the historical places associated with Badami Chalukyas and Western Chalukya and the places are Badami, Pattadakal, Banashankari, Mahadeva Temple at Itagi and Kudalasangama. Rastrakuta Monuments at Kuknur. Gajendragad Fort was renewed by Shivaji. Founder of the Ghorpade family was Shri Valabhasinh Cholaraj Ghorpade and the descended Bahirjirao Ghorpade The Royal families of Kapsi and Gajendragad owe their origin to Vallabhasinha and the Chiefs of Sondur are descended from the third son of Cholraj. After the 2nd Mysore War, Tippu Sultan had to engage in an armed conflict with the Marathas and the Nizam; the war concluded with the treaty of Gajendragad. Mysore was ceded Badami to the Marathas; the fort and Taluka of Gajendragad, taken by Fate Alikhan was retaken by Government. Half the province was surrendered to the Nawab according to Treaty of Gajendragad. Remaining was made over to Dawalatrao Ghorpade; the pilgrim Kalakaleshwara temple, is a huge mountain with the temple carved into it.
This is a weekend destination. One can see many windmills lined on the hill opposite the hill. A little known pilgrim of North Karnataka. Gajendragad is a small town lying amidst hills, in one of, encapsulated Kalakaleshwara temple of Lord Shiva, worshipped in the form of Kalakaleswara. There are some large steps, it is a traditional temple with Udhbhava Lingu. There we can find God Virabhadra temple in the same premises, but one would be amazed at the story in which the significance of the destination lies. Just outside the temple exit is a small square water reservoir called AtharaGange, it is an evergreen water resource that falls along the roots of Peepal tree into the pond all throughout the year. It is said to be flowing in the peaks of summer season and has an unknown root. More amazing is the story attached to this destination that has taken a few lives too; these were the daring people who wanted to try to learn more about a miracle that happens on the previous night of Ugadi, New Year of Kannadigas.
The pandit/pujari of the temple prepares a solution of limestone, keeps it ready for application along with a brush, inside the temple. The next morning, the jobs done, but the temple is painted on its own and this happens without fail every year. A hookah, kept along with it seems to be used when seen the next morning. Legend has it and so do elderly people that there used to be a bell equivalent to the size of soaked kidney beans that fit into 22 gunny bags. In the 1970s, it so happened that the bell vanished all of a sudden towards the heavens and sounds of the bell echoing and resonating in into the blue skies, and there was an epidemic of plague that spread across the place, which people blame was due the bells act of vanishing. Mallikarjuna Temple, Twin Towered Temple, Ishwara in a stone made shelter and Naga Kunda are prime attractions of Sudi; the temple of Bhimambika, about 13 km from Gajendragad It is known for temple of Banashankari, Annual car festival. Badami Aihole Pattadakal MahakutaMahakuta is the source of an important Badami Chalukya inscription called Mahakuta Pillar inscription.
MahaMaya temple, Navalinga Temples at Kuknur. At Kudalasangama the rivers Krishna and Malaprabha merge here, This place is associated with the 12th-century poet and social reformer Basavanna. There is a temple dedicated to Lord Sangameswara, worshipped in the form of a linga; the temple is an ancient monument built in the Chalukya style architecture. This place is well developed as one of the great tourism place. Minerals & Metals Trading Corporation Limited under the ministry of commerce and industry. MMTC's Gajendragad plant Started in 2007, the plant has delivered electricity power of over 102 million units to Hubli Electricity Supply Company Limited; the plant generate a total capacity of 15 MW of power, with 25 wind energy generators, can each generate 600 KV. Windmills set up to generate wind energy, are posing a threat to the existence of rare hyenas and wolves at Gajendragad. Earlier Gajendragad was recognised as a safe haven for endangered species like the Indian grey wolf and striped hyenas, but came wind farming
The Napoleonic Wars were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions and led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict; the wars are categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon: the Third Coalition, the Fourth, the Fifth, the Sixth, the Seventh. Napoleon, upon ascending to First Consul of France in 1799, had inherited a chaotic republic. In 1805, Austria and Russia waged war against France. In response, Napoleon defeated the allied Russo-Austrian army at Austerlitz in December 1805, considered his greatest victory. At sea, the British defeated the joint Franco-Spanish navy in the Battle of Trafalgar on October 1805; this victory prevented the invasion of Britain itself. Concerned about the increasing French power, Prussia led the creation of the Fourth Coalition with Russia and Sweden, the resumption of war in October 1806.
Napoleon defeated the Prussians in Jena and the Russians in Friedland, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. The peace failed, though, as war broke out in 1809, when the badly prepared Fifth Coalition, led by Austria, was defeated in Wagram. Hoping to isolate Britain economically, Napoleon launched an invasion of Portugal, the only remaining British ally in continental Europe. After occupying Lisbon in November 1807, with the bulk of French troops present in Spain, Napoleon seized the opportunity to turn against his former ally, depose the reigning Spanish Bourbon family and declare his brother King of Spain in 1808 as Joseph I; the Spanish and Portuguese revolted with British support, after six years of fighting, expelled the French from Iberia in 1814. Concurrently, unwilling to bear economic consequences of reduced trade violated the Continental System, enticing Napoleon to launch a massive invasion of Russia in 1812; the resulting campaign ended with the dissolution and disastrous withdrawal of the French Grande Armée.
Encouraged by the defeat, Prussia and Russia formed the Sixth Coalition and began a new campaign against France, decisively defeating Napoleon at Leipzig in October 1813 after several inconclusive engagements. The Allies invaded France from the East, while the Peninsular War spilled over southwestern French territory. Coalition troops captured Paris at the end of March 1814 and forced Napoleon to abdicate in early April, he was exiled to the island of Elba, the Bourbons were restored to power. However, Napoleon escaped in February 1815, reassumed control of France; the Allies responded with the Seventh Coalition, defeating Napoleon permanently at Waterloo in June 1815 and exiling him to St Helena where he died six years later. The Congress of Vienna redrew the borders of Europe, brought a lasting peace to the continent; the wars had profound consequences on global history, including the spread of nationalism and liberalism, the rise of the British Empire as the world's foremost power, the appearance of independence movements in Latin America and subsequent collapse of the Spanish Empire, the fundamental reorganisation of German and Italian territories into larger states, the establishment of radically new methods of conducting warfare.
Napoleon seized power in 1799. There are a number of opinions on the date to use as the formal beginning of the Napoleonic Wars; the Napoleonic Wars began with the War of the Third Coalition, the first of the Coalition Wars against the First French Republic after Napoleon's accession as leader of France. Britain ended the Treaty of Amiens and declared war on France in May 1803. Among the reasons were Napoleon's changes to the international system in Western Europe in Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands. Kagan argues that Britain was irritated in particular by Napoleon's assertion of control over Switzerland. Furthermore, Britons felt insulted when Napoleon stated that their country deserved no voice in European affairs though King George III was an elector of the Holy Roman Empire. For its part, Russia decided that the intervention in Switzerland indicated that Napoleon was not looking toward a peaceful resolution of his differences with the other European powers; the British enforced a naval blockade of France to starve it of resources.
Napoleon responded with economic embargoes against Britain, sought to eliminate Britain's Continental allies to break the coalitions arrayed against him. The so-called Continental System formed a league of armed neutrality to disrupt the blockade and enforce free trade with France; the British responded by capturing the Danish fleet, breaking up the league, secured dominance over the seas, allowing it to continue its strategy. Napoleon won the War of the Third Coalition at Austerlitz, forcing the Austrian Empire out of the war and formally dissolving the Holy Roman Empire. Within months, Prussia declared war; this war ended disastrously for Prussia and occupied within 19 days of the beginning of the campaign. Napoleon subsequently defeated the Russian Empire at Friedland, creating powerful client states in Eastern Europe and ending the fourth coalition. Concurrently, the refusal of Portugal to commit to the Con
Hyder Ali, Haidarālī was the Sultan and de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore in southern India. Born as Sayyid Mir Hyder Ali, he distinguished himself militarily drawing the attention of Mysore's rulers. Rising to the post of Dalavayi to Krishnaraja Wodeyar II, he came to dominate the titular monarch and the Mysore government, he became the de facto ruler of Mysore as Sarvadhikari by 1761. He offered strong resistance against the military advances of the British East India Company during the First and Second Anglo–Mysore Wars, he was the innovator of military use of the iron-cased Mysorean rockets, he significantly developed Mysore's economy. Though illiterate, Hyder Ali earned an important place in the history of southern India for his administrative acumen and military skills, he concluded an alliance with the French against the British and used the services of French workmen in raising his artillery and arsenal. His rule of Mysore was characterised by frequent warfare with his neighbours and rebellion within his territories.
This was not unusual for the time as much of the Indian subcontinent was in turmoil. He left his eldest son, Tipu Sultan, an extensive kingdom bordered by the Krishna River in the north, the Eastern Ghats in the east and the Arabian Sea in the west; the exact date of Hyder Ali's birth is not known with certainty. Various historical sources provide dates ranging between 1722 for his birth. There are some variations in reports of his ancestry. According to some accounts, his grandfather was descended from a line tracing their lineage back to Baghdad, while another traces his lineage instead to the area of present-day Afghanistan. In a third account, written by one of his French military officers, Hyder himself claimed descent from the Arabs Bani Hashim clan of the Quraysh, the tribe of the Prophet Muhammad, his father, Fath Muhammad, was born in Kolar, served as a commander of 50 men in the bamboo rocket artillery in the army of the Nawab of Carnatic. Fath Muhammad entered the service of the Wodeyar Rajas of the Kingdom of Mysore, where he rose to become a powerful military commander.
The Wodeyars awarded him Budikote as a jagir, where he served as Naik. Hyder Ali was born in Budikote, his early years are not well documented. After serving for a number of years under the rulers of Arcot, they came to Seringapatam, where Hyder's uncle served, he introduced them to Devaraja, the dalwai of Krishnaraja Wodeyar II, his brother Nanjaraja, who held important ministerial posts. Hyder and his brother were both given commands in the Mysorean army. In 1748, Qamar-ud-din Khan, Asaf Jah I, the longtime Nizam of Hyderabad, died; the struggle to succeed him is known as the Second Carnatic War, pitted Asaf Jah's son Nasir Jung against a nephew, Muzaffar Jung. Both sides were supported by other local leaders, French and British forces were involved. Devaraja had started vesting more military authority in his brother, in 1749 Nanjaraja marched the Mysorean army in support of Nasir Jung; the army went to Devanhalli. The fort was held by Muzaffar Jung's forces and the siege was conducted by the Marquis de Bussy.
During the successful eight-month siege, the Hyder Ali and his brother distinguished themselves, were rewarded by the dalwai with enlarged commands. By 1755 Hyder Ali commanded 3,000 infantry and 1,500 cavalry, was reported to be enriching himself on campaigns by plunder. In that year he was appointed Faujdar of Dindigul. In this position he first retained French advisers to train his artillery companies, he is known to have served alongside de Bussy, is believed to have met both Muzaffar Jung and Chanda Shahib. In these early wars he came to dislike and mistrust Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah, the Nawab of the Carnatic. In fact Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah and the Mysorean leaders were long at odds with each other, seeking territorial gains at the other's expense. Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah had by formed an alliance with the British, he was accused by Hyder Ali in years of preventing him from making any sort of long-lasting alliances or agreements with the British. Throughout the Carnatic Wars, Hyder Ali and his Mysore battalions served alongside French commanders such as Joseph Francois Dupleix, Count de Lally and de Bussy, he assisted Chanda Sahib on various occasions.
Hyder Ali supported the claims of Muzaffar Jung and sided with Salabat Jung. Early in his career, Hyder Ali retained as one of his chief financial assistants a Brahmin named Khande Rao. Hyder Ali, illiterate, was reported to be blessed with a prodigious memory and numerical acumen. Hyder Ali could rival or outperform expert accountants with his great arithmetic skills and worked to develop a system, with Rao, that included checks and balances so sophisticated that all manner of income, including plunder of physical goods of all types, could be accounted for with little possibility for fraud or embezzlement; this financial management may have played a role in Hyder Ali's rise in power. In 1757 Hyder Ali was called to Seringapatam to support Devaraja against threats from Hyderabad and the Marathas. Upon his arrival he found the Mysorean army in near mutiny over pay. While Devaraja bought his way out of the threats to Seringapatam, Hyder Ali ar
Third Anglo-Mysore War
The Third Anglo–Mysore War was a conflict in South India between the Kingdom of Mysore and the East India Company and its allies, including the Maratha Empire and the Nizam of Hyderabad. It was the third of four Anglo–Mysore Wars. Tipu Sultan, the ruler of Kingdom of Mysore, his father Hyder Ali before him, had fought twice with the forces of the British East India Company; the First Anglo-Mysore War, fought in the 1760s, had ended inconclusively, with treaty provisions including promises of mutual assistance in future conflicts. British failure to support Mysore in conflicts with the Maratha Empire and other actions supportive of Mysore's enemies led Hyder to develop a dislike for the British. After the British took the French-controlled port of Mahé in 1779, receiving military supplies through that port and had placed it under his protection, opened the Second Anglo–Mysore War; this war ended with the last British-Indian treaty with an Indian ruler on equal footing, the 1784 Treaty of Mangalore, which restored the status quo ante bellum under terms company officials such as Warren Hastings found unfavourable for the British East India Company.
Tipu, who gained control of Mysore after his father's death in December 1782, maintained an implacable hatred of the British, declared not long after signing the 1784 treaty that he intended to continue battle with them given the opportunity. He refused to free British prisoners taken during one of the conditions of the treaty. Tipu Sultan further strengthened his alliances with Ali Raja Bibi Junumabe II the Muslim ruler and the Muslim Mappila community of a region under the Zamorin of Calicut empire,thus expanding the Sultanate of Mysore's sphere of influence. British General Charles, 2nd Earl Cornwallis became the Governor-General of India and Commander-in-Chief for the East India Company in 1786. While he formally abrogated agreements with the Marathas and Hyderabad that violated terms of the 1784 treaty, he sought informally to gain their support and that of the Nizam of Hyderabad, or at least their neutrality, in the event of conflict with Mysore. In 1788 the company gained control of the Circar of Guntur, the southernmost of the Northern Circars, which the company had acquired under earlier agreements with the Nizam.
In exchange, the company provided the Nizam with two battalions of company troops. Both of these acts placed British troops closer to Mysore, but guaranteed the Nizam would support the British in the event of conflict; the kingdom of Travancore had been a target of Tipu for acquisition or conquest since the end of the previous war. Indirect attempts to take over the kingdom had failed in 1788, Archibald Campbell, the Madras president at the time, had warned Tipu that an attack on Travancore would be treated as a declaration of war on the company; the rajah of Travancore angered Tipu by extending fortifications along the border with Cochin into territory claimed by Mysore as belonging to its vassal state,and by purchasing from the Dutch East India Company two forts in the Kingdom of Cochin, a state paying tribute to Tipu Sultan. In 1789 Tipu Sultan sent forces onto the Malabar Coast to put down a rebellion. Many people fled to Travancore, a state independent of Mysore and to Cochin, a state paying tribute to Tipu, in the wake of his advance.
To follow them, Tipu began, in the fall of 1789 to build up troops at Coimbatore in preparation for an assault on the Nedumkotta, a fortified line of defence built by Dharma Raja of Travancore to protect his domain. Cornwallis, observing this build-up, reiterated to Campbell's successor, John Holland, that an attack on Travancore should be considered a declaration of war, met with a strong British response. Tipu, aware that Holland was not the experienced military officer that Campbell was, that he did not have the close relationship that Campbell and Cornwallis had decided that this was an opportune time to attack. On 29 December 1789, Tipu attacked the Nedumkotta; the first phase was an embarrassing defeat for Tipu, when the defenders inflicted severe losses on the Tipu's forces and drove them back. While the Mysorean forces and their allies regrouped, Governor Holland, much to Cornwallis' dismay, engaged in negotiations with Tipu rather than mobilising the military. Cornwallis was on the brink of going to Madras to take command when he received word that Holland's replacement, General William Medows was about to arrive.
Medows forcibly removed Holland, set about planning operations against Tipu while building up troops at Trichinopoly. It was May. In the meantime, Tipu had renewed his attack on Travancore, breached the Nedumkotta line in late April 1790, despite the heavy losses inflicted by the Tranvancorean army. British forces in Travancore were too few to withstand the assault, withdrew to the Ayacotta fortress and the Travancorean army made a strategic retreat to the further bank of the Periyar river and prepared to contest the crossing of the river; the monsoon rains prevented the Mysorean army from fording the river and as Tipu received the news that the British campaign from Madras began to take shape as a significant threat, he retreated from Travancore. The plan of attack developed by Medows called for a two-pronged attack, with the main thrust against the Coimbatore district and a diversionary thrust into Mysore from the northeast. Cornwallis was unhappy with this plan, due in part to the lateness of the season, the lengthy supply lines from Madras that the plan entailed.
However, he was willing to give Medows the opportunity for independent co