The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement. Various definitions have been used; the international standard symbol for the avoirdupois pound is lb. The unit is descended from the Roman libra; the English word pound is cognate with, among others, German Pfund, Dutch pond, Swedish pund. All derive from a borrowing into Proto-Germanic of the Latin expression lībra pondō, in which the word pondō is the ablative case of the Latin noun pondus. Usage of the unqualified term pound reflects the historical conflation of weight; this accounts for the modern distinguishing terms pound-force. The United States and countries of the Commonwealth of Nations agreed upon common definitions for the pound and the yard. Since 1 July 1959, the international avoirdupois pound has been defined as 0.45359237 kg. In the United Kingdom, the use of the international pound was implemented in the Weights and Measures Act 1963; the yard or the metre shall be the unit of measurement of length and the pound or the kilogram shall be the unit of measurement of mass by reference to which any measurement involving a measurement of length or mass shall be made in the United Kingdom.
An avoirdupois pound is equal to 16 avoirdupois ounces and to 7,000 grains. The conversion factor between the kilogram and the international pound was therefore chosen to be divisible by 7, an grain is thus equal to 64.79891 milligrams. In the UK, the process of metrication and European units of measurement directives were expected to eliminate the use of the pound and ounce, but in 2007 the European Commission abandoned the requirement for metric-only labelling on packaged goods there, allowed for dual metric–imperial marking to continue indefinitely; when used as a measurement of body weight the UK practice remains to use the stone of 14 pounds as the primary measure e.g. "11 stone 4 pounds", rather than "158 pounds", or "72 kilograms" as used elsewhere. The US has not adopted the metric system despite many efforts to do so, the pound remains used as one of the key United States customary units. In different parts of the world, at different points in time, for different applications, the pound has referred to broadly similar but not identical standards of mass or force.
The libra is an ancient Roman unit of mass, equivalent to 328.9 grams. It was divided into ounces; the libra is the origin of the abbreviation for pound, "lb". A number of different definitions of the pound have been used in Britain. Amongst these were the avoirdupois pound and the obsolete Tower, merchant's and London pounds. Troy pounds and ounces remain in use only for the weight of certain precious metals in the trade; the pound sterling was a Tower pound of silver. In 1528, the standard was changed to the Troy pound; the avoirdupois pound known as the wool pound, first came into general use c. 1300. It was equal to 6992 troy grains; the pound avoirdupois was divided into 16 ounces. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth, the avoirdupois pound was redefined as 7,000 troy grains. Since the grain has been an integral part of the avoirdupois system. By 1758, two Elizabethan Exchequer standard weights for the avoirdupois pound existed, when measured in troy grains they were found to be of 7,002 grains and 6,999 grains.
In the United Kingdom and measures have been defined by a long series of Acts of Parliament, the intention of, to regulate the sale of commodities. Materials traded in the marketplace are quantified according to accepted units and standards in order to avoid fraud; the standards themselves are defined so as to facilitate the resolution of disputes brought to the courts. Quantifying devices used by traders are subject to official inspection, penalties apply if they are fraudulent; the Weights and Measures Act of 1878 marked a major overhaul of the British system of weights and measures, the definition of the pound given there remained in force until the 1960s. The pound was defined thus "The... platinum weight... deposited in the Standards department of the Board of Trade... shall continue to be the imperial standard of... weight... and the said platinum weight shall continue to be the Imperial Standard for determining the Imperial Standard Pound for the United Kingdom". Paragraph 13 states that the weight in vacuo of this standard shall be called the Imperial Standard Pound, that all other weights mentioned in the act and permissible for commerce shall be ascertained from it alone.
The First Schedule of the Act gave more details of the standard pound: it is a platinum cylinder nearly 1.35 inches high, 1.15 inches diameter, the edges are rounded off. It has a groove about 0.34 inches from the top, to allow the cylinder to be lifted
Tower of London
The Tower of London Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London. It lies within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, separated from the eastern edge of the square mile of the City of London by the open space known as Tower Hill, it was founded towards the end of 1066 as part of the Norman Conquest of England. The White Tower, which gives the entire castle its name, was built by William the Conqueror in 1078 and was a resented symbol of oppression, inflicted upon London by the new ruling elite; the castle was used as a prison from 1100 until 1952, although, not its primary purpose. A grand palace early in its history, it served as a royal residence; as a whole, the Tower is a complex of several buildings set within two concentric rings of defensive walls and a moat. There were several phases of expansion under Kings Richard I, Henry III, Edward I in the 12th and 13th centuries; the general layout established by the late 13th century remains despite activity on the site.
The Tower of London has played a prominent role in English history. It was besieged several times, controlling it has been important to controlling the country; the Tower has served variously as an armoury, a treasury, a menagerie, the home of the Royal Mint, a public record office, the home of the Crown Jewels of England. From the early 14th century until the reign of Charles II, a procession would be led from the Tower to Westminster Abbey on the coronation of a monarch. In the absence of the monarch, the Constable of the Tower is in charge of the castle; this was a trusted position in the medieval period. In the late 15th century, the castle was the prison of the Princes in the Tower. Under the Tudors, the Tower became used less as a royal residence, despite attempts to refortify and repair the castle, its defences lagged behind developments to deal with artillery; the peak period of the castle's use as a prison was the 16th and 17th centuries, when many figures who had fallen into disgrace, such as Elizabeth I before she became queen, Sir Walter Raleigh, Elizabeth Throckmorton, were held within its walls.
This use has led to the phrase "sent to the Tower". Despite its enduring reputation as a place of torture and death, popularised by 16th-century religious propagandists and 19th-century writers, only seven people were executed within the Tower before the World Wars of the 20th century. Executions were more held on the notorious Tower Hill to the north of the castle, with 112 occurring there over a 400-year period. In the latter half of the 19th century, institutions such as the Royal Mint moved out of the castle to other locations, leaving many buildings empty. Anthony Salvin and John Taylor took the opportunity to restore the Tower to what was felt to be its medieval appearance, clearing out many of the vacant post-medieval structures. In the First and Second World Wars, the Tower was again used as a prison and witnessed the executions of 12 men for espionage. After the Second World War, damage caused during the Blitz was repaired, the castle reopened to the public. Today, the Tower of London is one of the country's most popular tourist attractions.
Under the ceremonial charge of the Constable of the Tower, operated by the Resident Governor of the Tower of London and Keeper of the Jewel House, the property is cared for by the charity Historic Royal Palaces and is protected as a World Heritage Site. The Tower was orientated with its strongest and most impressive defences overlooking Saxon London, which archaeologist Alan Vince suggests was deliberate, it stood out to traffic on the River Thames. The castle enclosures; the innermost ward is the earliest phase of the castle. Encircling it to the north and west is the inner ward, built during the reign of Richard I. There is the outer ward which encompasses the castle and was built under Edward I. Although there were several phases of expansion after William the Conqueror founded the Tower of London, the general layout has remained the same since Edward I completed his rebuild in 1285; the castle encloses an area of 12 acres with a further 6 acres around the Tower of London constituting the Tower Liberties – land under the direct influence of the castle and cleared for military reasons.
The precursor of the Liberties was laid out in the 13th century when Henry III ordered that a strip of land adjacent to the castle be kept clear. Despite popular fiction, the Tower of London never had a permanent torture chamber, although the basement of the White Tower housed a rack in periods. Tower Wharf was built on the bank of the Thames under Edward I and was expanded to its current size during the reign of Richard II; the White Tower is a keep, the strongest structure in a medieval castle, contained lodgings suitable for the lord – in this case, the king or his representative. According to military historian Allen Brown, "The great tower was by virtue of its strength and lordly accommodation, the donjon par excellence"; as one of the largest keeps in the Christian world, the White Tower has been described as "the most complete eleventh-century palace in Europe". The White Tower, not including its projecting corner towers, measures 36 by 32 metres at the base, is 27 m high at the southern battlements.
The structure was three storeys high, comprising a basement floor, an entrance level, an upper floor. The entrance, as is usual in Norman keeps, was above ground
The Lewes Pound is a local currency in use in the town of Lewes, East Sussex. Inspired by the Totnes pound and BerkShare, the currency was introduced with the blessing of the town council in September 2008 by Transition Town Lewes - a community response to the challenges of climate change and peak oil. Lewes first introduced its own currency in 1789, but this was discontinued in 1895 along with a number of other local currencies, its reintroduction in September 2008 achieved national media coverage. On 3 July 2009, it was announced that the scheme was to be extended and that new notes of £5, £10 and £21 denominations would be issued; the £21 note emphasises the fact that five pence of each Lewes pound bought goes to the local charity the Live Lewes Fund. As of 2017, notes in circulation are: 1 Pound, undated 1 Pound, green, 2009 1 Pound, green, 2017 5 Pounds, blue, 2009 5 Pounds, blue, 2013 5 Pounds, blue, 2017 10 Pounds, yellow, 2009 10 Pounds, blue, 2014 21 Pounds, red, 2009 The value of the Lewes Pound is fixed at £1 Sterling, by January 2009 could used in any of 130 shops in Lewes.
Despite its nominal value, some businesses charge a lesser fee in Lewes Pounds, some of the earliest notes have been sold on eBay for higher values. The front features a picture of the South Downs with an image of Lewes resident Thomas Paine and a quotation of his: "We have it in our power to build the world anew". On the back is a picture of Lewes Castle; the notes are printed on traditional banknote paper and have a number of security features including unique numbering and heat marks. The Lewes Pound and the Transition Towns movement have received criticism for a failure to address the needs of the wider Lewes population lower socio-economic groups; such local currency initiatives have been more criticised in light of limited success in stimulating new spending in local economies and as an unrealistic strategy to reduce carbon emissions. Bristol Pound Stroud Pound Totnes pound BerkShares Toronto Dollar Brixton Pound Official web site details and bulletin board Community Currency Online Magazine
The Turkish lira is the currency of Turkey and the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. The lira, along with the related currencies of Europe and the Middle East, has its roots in the ancient Roman unit of weight known as the libra which referred to the Troy pound of silver; the Roman libra adoption of the currency spread it throughout Europe and the Near East, where it continued to be used into medieval times. The Turkish lira, the French livre, the Italian lira, the British pound are the modern descendants of the ancient currency; the Ottoman lira was introduced as the main unit of currency in 1844, with the former currency, kuruş, remaining as a 1⁄100 subdivision. The Ottoman lira remained in circulation until the end of 1927. Historical banknotes from the second and fourth issues have portraits of İsmet İnönü on the obverse side; this change was done according to the 12 January 1926 issue of the official gazette and canceled by the Democrat Party after World War II. After periods of the lira pegged to the British pound and the French franc, a peg of 2.8 Turkish lira = 1 U.
S. dollar was adopted in 1946 and maintained until 1960, when the currency was devalued to 9 Turkish lira = 1 dollar. From 1970, a series of hard soft pegs to the dollar operated as the value of the Turkish lira began to fall. 1966 – 1 U. S. dollar = 9 Turkish lira 1980 – 1 U. S. dollar = 90 Turkish lira 1988 – 1 U. S. dollar = 1,300 Turkish lira 1995 – 1 U. S. dollar = 45,000 Turkish lira 2001 – 1 U. S. dollar = 1,650,000 Turkish liraThe Guinness Book of Records ranked the Turkish lira as the world's least valuable currency in 1995 and 1996, again from 1999 to 2004. The Turkish lira had slid in value so far that one original gold lira coin could be sold for 154,400,000 Turkish lira before the 2005 revaluation. In December 2003, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey passed a law that allowed for redenomination by the removal of six zeros from the Turkish lira, the creation of a new currency, it was introduced on 1 January 2005, replacing the previous Turkish lira at a rate of 1 second Turkish lira = 1,000,000 first Turkish lira.
With the revaluation of the Turkish lira, the Romanian leu became the world's least valued currency unit. At the same time, the Government introduced two new banknotes with the denominations of 50 and 100. In the transition period between January 2005 and December 2008, the second Turkish lira was called Yeni Türk lirası, it was abbreviated "YTL" and subdivided into 100 new kuruş. Starting in January 2009, the "new" marking was removed from the second Turkish lira, its official name becoming just "Turkish lira" again, abbreviated "TL". All obverse sides of current banknotes have portraits of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk; until 2016, the same held for the reverse sides of all current coins, but in 2016 one-lira coins were issued to commemorate the "martyrs and veterans" of the 2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt, the reverse sides of some of which depict hands holding up a Turkish flag while others show in stylized form a collection of five-pointed stars topped by a Turkish flag. From 1 January 2009, the phrase "new" was removed from the second Turkish lira, its official name in Turkey becoming just "Turkish lira" again.
The center and ring alloys of the 50 kuruş and 1 Turkish lira coins were reversed. A new series of banknotes, the "E-9 Emission Group" entered circulation on 1 January 2009, with the E-8 group ceasing to be valid after 31 December 2009; the E-9 banknotes refer to the currency as "Turkish lira" rather than "new Turkish lira" and include a new 200-Turkish-lira denomination. The new banknotes have different sizes to prevent forgery; the main specificity of this new series is that each denomination depicts a famous Turkish personality, rather than geographical sites and architectural features of Turkey. The dominant color of the 5-Turkish-lira banknote has been determined as "purple" on the second series of the current banknotes. In 2018, the lira's exchange rate accelerated deterioration, reaching a level of 4.5 USD/TRY by mid-May and of 4.9 a week later. Among economists, the accelerating loss of value was attributed to Recep Tayyip Erdoğan preventing the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey from making the necessary interest rate adjustments.
Erdoğan, who claimed interest rates beyond his control to be "the mother and father of all evil", said that "the central bank can't take this independence and set aside the signals given by the president." Despite Erdogan's apparent opposition, Turkey's Central Bank raised interest rates sharply. In the campaign for the 2018 general election in Turkey, a widespread conspiracy theory claimed that the Turkish lira's decline were the work of a shadowy group, made up of Americans, Dutch and "some Jewish families" who would want to deprive incumbent President Erdogan of support in the elections. According to a poll from April 2018, 42 percent of Turks, 59 percent of governing AK Party voters, saw the decline in the lira as a plot by foreign powers. According to Turkish foreign minister Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu and analysis, Trumps wish to let the Turkish-USA current tensions to long up to the November 2018 US elections so to appeal to his christian base and gain some points for his party; the current currency
The pound is the currency of Guernsey. Since 1921, Guernsey has been in currency union with the United Kingdom and the Guernsey pound is not a separate currency but is a local issue of banknotes and coins denominated in pound sterling, in a similar way to the banknotes issued in Scotland and Northern Ireland, it can be exchanged at par with notes. For this reason, ISO 4217 does not include a separate currency code for the Guernsey pound, but where a distinct code is desired GGP is used; until the early 19th century, Guernsey used predominantly French currency. Coins of the French livre were legal tender until 1834, with French francs used until 1921. In 1830, Guernsey began production of copper coins denominated in doubles; the double was worth 1⁄80 of a French franc. The name "double" derived from the French "double deniers", although the value of the coin was equal to the liard still circulating. Coins were issued in denominations of 2, 4 and 8 doubles; the 8 double coin was a "Guernsey penny", with twelve to the "Guernsey shilling".
However, this shilling was not equal to the British shilling. Banknotes were produced by the States of Guernsey from 1827, denominated in pounds. In 1848, an ordinance was passed that the pound sterling should be legal tender at a value of £1 1s 3d; this was rescinded two years and French currency, supplemented by local issues, continued to circulate. In 1870, British coins were made legal tender, with the British shilling circulating at 12 1⁄2 Guernsey pence. Bank of England notes became legal tender in 1873. In 1914, new banknotes appeared, some of which carried denominations in Guernsey shillings and francs. After the First World War, the value of the franc began to fall relative to sterling; this caused Guernsey to adopt a pound equal to the pound sterling in 1921. For amounts below 1 shilling, the conversion rate of 1 Guernsey penny = 1 British penny applied, allowing the Guernsey coins to continue to circulate. For amounts above 1 shilling, an exchange rate of 21 Guernsey shillings to the pound sterling was used, applying an approximation to the pre-war exchange rate of 25.2 francs = 1 pound sterling, rather than the exact rate of 25.22.
This conversion increased the value of the double from 1⁄2016 to 1⁄1920 of a pound. The World War I issues of banknotes were overstamped with the word "British" to indicate this change. New banknotes and British silver coinage circulated alongside the double coins, with 3-pence coins minted specially for Guernsey from 1956. In 1971, along with the rest of the British Isles, Guernsey decimalised, with the pound subdivided into 100 pence, began issuing a full range of coin denominations from 1⁄2p to 50p; the Guernsey pound, other notes denominated in pound sterling may be used in Guernsey. The Guernsey pound is legal tender only in the Bailiwick of Guernsey although it circulates in Jersey but cannot be used in the UK, it can be exchanged in other places at banks and bureaux de change. Between 1830 and 1956, Guernsey's four coin denominations, 1, 2, 4 and 8 doubles, all carried similar designs, with the Island's arms and name on the obverse and the denomination and date on the reverse. In addition, the 8 double coins featured a wreath on both sides.
In 1956, new designs were introduced for the 8 doubles. These featured the Island's seal and name on the obverse with the English name, the date and the Guernsey lily on the reverse. Threepence coins were issued from 1956, with the same obverse and a reverse featuring the Guernsey cow; as in the UK, 5- and 10-new-pence coins were introduced in 1968, followed by 50-new-pence coins in 1969, before decimalisation took place in 1971 and the 1⁄2-, 1- and 2-new-pence coins were introduced. These coins were the same composition as the corresponding British coins; the word "new" was dropped in 1977. The £1 coin was introduced in 1981, two years before its introduction in the UK, although the 20-pence and £2 coins were introduced at the same time as in the UK: 1982 and 1998, respectively; the thickness of the 1981 coin was thinner than the modern version and the diameter measured less. The 1-pound coin ceased to be legal tender on 15 October 2017 to coincide with the withdrawal of the circular £1 coin in the UK.
The UK's new twelve-sided £1 coin will be the only £1 coin, legal tender on the island. The first decimal issues continued with the same obverse as the last pre-decimal issues until 1985, when Raphael Maklouf's portrait of Queen Elizabeth II was added. Ian Rank-Broadley's portrait of the Queen has appeared since 1998. Designs on the reverses of Guernsey's decimal coins are: In 1827, the States of Guernsey introduced one-pound notes, with the Guernsey Banking Company and the Guernsey Commercial Banking Company issuing one-pound notes from 1861 and 1886, respectively; the commercial banks lost their right to issue notes in 1914, although the notes circulated until 1924. In 1914, the States introduced five- and ten-shilling notes denominated as 6 and 12 francs. In 1921, States notes were over-stamped with the word "British" to signify the island's conversion to a pound equal to sterling. From 1924, ten-shilling notes were issued without any reference to the franc; the five-shilling note was discontinued.
History of the English penny (c. 600 – 1066)
The history of the English penny can be traced back to the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of the 7th century: to the small, thick silver coins known to contemporaries as pæningas or denarii, though now referred to as sceattas by numismatists. Broader, thinner pennies inscribed with the name of the king were introduced to southern England in the middle of the 8th century. Coins of this format remained the foundation of the English currency until the 14th century; the history of Anglo-Saxon coinage spans more than five centuries, from the end of Roman rule in Britain in the 5th century, down to the death of Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066. It can be divided into four basic phases: c. 450 – c. 550: a low level of coin-use in Britain, characterised by re-use of Roman coinage, though in a non-monetary context. A small number of coins continued to be brought in from Gaul and elsewhere on the Continent. C. 550 – c. 680: the'gold' phase of currency, which began with an increase in the rate of importation of continental gold, principally in the form of tremisses.
From around 620 English gold coins of similar format were produced known to numismatists as thrymsas. By the middle of the 7th century the quantity of gold in these coins was falling such that by the 670s they were more or less silver. C. 680 – c. 750: the age of the sceattas – small, thick silver coins which evolved out of the latest, debased gold coins. These should more be referred to as pennies or denarii as in weight and fineness they approximated the form the English penny was to retain for centuries, contemporary references suggest this is how they were known. Most sceattas are thus difficult to attribute, it should be noted that in Northumbria, coins of this format continued to be struck under closer royal control until the 860s, though by the early 9th century they contained only a negligible quantity of precious metal. C. 750 – 14 October 1066: the silver coinage of sceattas petered out in Southumbrian England in the middle of the 8th century, to be replaced by a broader, thinner model of silver coinage modelled on that of contemporary Carolingian coinage.
These new coins carried legends naming the king and the mint of origin. With various modifications in weight and fineness this format of coinage remained standard for the rest of the period, indeed silver pennies of similar design remained the basis for the English currency until the 14th century. Pennies of this form were made by English kings from Offa onwards, by Viking rulers from the 9th century. In the gold phase of the coinage, the currency consisted overwhelmingly of gold tremisses or thrymsas of c. 1.10 – 1.30g, though a few solidi exist, modelled on Roman coins. Thereafter the currency was less based on a single denomination: the silver penny. In the early 870s the first round halfpennies were produced under Alfred the Great and Ceolwulf II of Mercia; the only known examples of larger silver denominations are two'offering pieces' produced in the reign of Alfred the Great weighing the equivalent of six regular pennies, which were made as alms-pieces to be sent abroad. Although gold ceased to be the predominant form of currency in the 7th century, from the late 8th century onwards there was some use of fine gold coinage for special, high-value transactions.
These gold pieces were known as mancuses. The form of gold coinage varied in the 8th and 9th centuries, drawing inspiration from Roman, Byzantine and Carolingian gold coinages, but by the 10th century gold coins were made by striking a gold piece with the same dies as were used for regular minting of silver. Only eight English gold coins with intelligible legends survive from between the 8th century and 1066, it is difficult to ascertain the extent of coin-use in Anglo-Saxon England. Written references to minting and money are scarce, it is that a single silver penny had considerable buying power – something in the region of £10–£30 in modern currency, their use may have been concentrated in certain classes of society, was most associated with particular transactions such as the payment of rents and legal fees. However, analysis of surviving single-finds shows that coins were used extensively in the eastern half of England, both within and outside towns. Substantial numbers of English coins have been found elsewhere in Europe in Italy and Scandinavia, while English designs were influential on the emergent coinages of Ireland, Sweden and Bohemia.
At the end of the 4th century, the Roman provinces of Britain were still part of a vibrant and quite efficient economic and monetary system that stretched over the whole Roman world. Precious metal coins of gold and silver were used for the payment of taxes reminted for payment to the military and civil service. Bronze coinage was issued on a more occasional basis and was produced to serve the needs of commerce in the provinces. Minting – and control over precious metals in general – across the western empire was under the control of the Comes sacrarum largitionum, with a number of major mints situated at Trier, Milan, Raven
British West African pound
The British West African Pound was the currency of British West Africa, a group of British colonies and mandate territories. It was equal to the pound sterling and was subdivided into 20 shillings, each of 12 pence. In the 19th century, the pound sterling became the currency of the British West African territories and standard issue United Kingdom coinage circulated; the West African territories in question were the Gold Coast, Sierra Leone and The Gambia. In 1912, the authorities in London set up the West African Currency Board and issued a distinctive set of sterling coinage for use in British West Africa; the circumstance prompting this move was a tendency for existing UK coins used in the West African territories to leave the region and return to the UK, hence causing a local dearth of coinage. A unique British West African variety of the sterling coinage would not be accepted in the shops of Britain and so would remain in circulation locally. There was a precedent for this move: in 1910, Australia had commenced issuing its own distinctive varieties of sterling coinage, but the reasons for doing so were quite different from those relating to British West Africa.
Australian authorities issued local coinage as a step towards full nationhood. With the exception of Jamaica where special low denomination coins were issued in place of the United Kingdom copper coins, due to local superstitions surrounding the use of copper coinage for church collections, authorities in London did not replace any UK sterling coins with local issues for any other British colony; the British West African pound was adopted by Liberia in 1907, replacing the Liberian dollar, although it was not served by the West African Currency Board. Liberia changed to the U. S. dollar in 1943. Togo and Cameroon adopted the West African currency in 1914 and 1916 when British and French troops took over those colonies from Germany as part of World War I. Beginning in 1958, the British West African pound was replaced by local currencies in the individual territories; the replacements were: In 1907, aluminium 1⁄10 penny and cupro-nickel 1 penny coins were introduced. Both coins were holed. In 1908, cupro-nickel replaced aluminium in the 1⁄10 penny and, in 1911, cupro-nickel ½ penny coins were introduced.
In 1913, silver 3 and 6 pence, 1 and 2 shillings were introduced. In 1920, brass replaced silver in these denominations. In 1938, cupro-nickel 3 pence coins were introduced, with nickel-brass replacing brass in the higher denominations. In 1952, bronze replaced cupro-nickel in the 1/2 and 1 penny coins; the last coins of British West Africa were struck in 1958. In 1916, the West African Currency Board introduced notes for 2, 10 and 20 shillings, followed by 1 shilling notes in 1918. Only the 10 and 20 shillings notes were issued after 1918, until 100 shillings notes were introduced in 1953; the last notes were produced in 1962. Biafran pound Gambian pound Ghanaian pound Gold Coast ackey Nigerian pound West African Monetary Zone Economic Community of West African States References Sources Coins from British West Africa