North American Numbering Plan
The North American Numbering Plan is a telephone numbering plan that encompasses twenty-five distinct regions in twenty countries in North America, including the Caribbean. Some North American countries, most notably Mexico, do not participate in the NANP; the NANP was devised in the 1940s by AT&T for the Bell System and independent telephone operators in North America to unify the diverse local numbering plans, established in the preceding decades. AT&T continued to administer the numbering plan until the breakup of the Bell System, when administration was delegated to the North American Numbering Plan Administration, a service, procured from the private sector by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States; each participating country forms a regulatory authority that has plenary control over local numbering resources. The FCC serves as the U. S. regulator. Canadian numbering decisions are made by the Canadian Numbering Administration Consortium; the NANP divides the territories of its members into numbering plan areas which are encoded numerically with a three-digit telephone number prefix called the area code.
Each telephone is assigned a seven-digit telephone number unique only within its respective plan area. The telephone number consists of a four-digit station number; the combination of an area code and the telephone number serves as a destination routing address in the public switched telephone network. For international call routing, the NANP has been assigned the international calling code 1 by the International Telecommunications Union; the North American Numbering Plan conforms with ITU Recommendation E.164, which establishes an international numbering framework. From its beginnings in 1876 and throughout the first part of the 20th century, the Bell System grew from local or regional telephone systems; these systems expanded by growing their subscriber bases, as well as increasing their service areas by implementing additional local exchanges that were interconnected with tie trunks. It was the responsibility of each local administration to design telephone numbering plans that accommodated the local requirements and growth.
As a result, the Bell System as a whole developed into an unorganized system of many differing local numbering systems. The diversity impeded the efficient operation and interconnection of exchanges into a nationwide system for long-distance telephone communication. By the 1940s, the Bell System set out to unify the various numbering plans in existence and developed the North American Numbering Plan as a unified, systematic approach to efficient long-distance service that did not require the involvement of switchboard operators; the new numbering plan was accepted in October 1947, dividing most of North America into eighty-six numbering plan areas. Each NPA was assigned a numbering plan area code abbreviated as area code; these codes were first used by long-distance operators to establish long-distance calls between toll offices. The first customer-dialed direct call using area codes was made on November 10, 1951, from Englewood, New Jersey, to Alameda, California. Direct distance dialing was subsequently introduced across the country.
By the early 1960s, most areas of the Bell System had been converted and DDD had become commonplace in cities and most larger towns. In the following decades, the system expanded to include all of the United States and its territories, Canada and seventeen nations of the Caribbean. By 1967, 129 area codes had been assigned. At the request of the British Colonial Office, the numbering plan was first expanded to Bermuda and the British West Indies because of their historic telecommunications administration through Canada as parts of the British Empire and their continued associations with Canada during the years of the telegraph and the All Red Line system. Not all North American countries participate in the NANP. Exceptions include Mexico, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the Central American countries and some Caribbean countries; the only Spanish-speaking state in the system is the Dominican Republic. Mexican participation was planned, but implementation stopped after three area codes had been assigned, Mexico opted for an international numbering format, using country code 52.
The area codes in use were subsequently withdrawn in 1991. Area code 905 for Mexico City, was reassigned to a split of area code 416 in the Greater Toronto Area. Dutch-speaking Sint Maarten joined the NANP in September 2011, receiving area code 721; the NANP is administered by the North American Numbering Plan Administration. Today, this function is overseen by the Federal Communications Commission, which assumed the responsibility upon the breakup of the Bell System; the FCC solicits private sector contracts for the role of the administrator. The service was provided by a division of Lockheed Martin. In 1997, the contract was awarded to Neustar Inc.. In 2012, the contract was renewed until 2017. In 2015, the contract beginning 2017 was granted to Ericsson; the vision and goal of the architects of the North American Numbering Plan was a system by which telephone subscribers in the United States and Canada could themselves dial and establish a telephone call to any other subscriber wi
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Steuben County, Indiana
Steuben County is a county located in the northeast corner of the U. S. state of Indiana. The county was named after Baron von Steuben, a Prussian military officer who helped train the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War; the county seat is Angola. The area has many natural resources; the county contains 105 lakes of various sizes. Some of the larger lakes are Lake James, Lake George, Clear Lake, Jimmerson Lake, Lake Gage, Crooked Lake; as of 2010, the county population was 34,185. Steuben County comprises the Angola, IN Micropolitan Statistical Area; this area was occupied by the Potawatomi people, who were one of the three tribes in the Council of Three Fires. They lived in decentralized bands. Treaties signed by some leaders with United States representatives ceded large areas of their territory to the US. Steuben County was created by European Americans in 1837 from LaGrange County, named for Baron Frederick von Steuben, an officer of the American Revolutionary War. In 1840 the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from this area and neighboring territory in Michigan and Ohio to Indian Territory in Kansas.
A Potawatomi chief, Baw Beese, led a band, based at what became known as Baw Beese Lake nearby in Michigan. His daughter Winona lived in what is now Indiana, she was executed in the 1830s by her husband's people after she killed Negnaska for selling her pony. Winona's husband had pledged his rifle to Aaron B. Goodwin of Fremont, Indiana for the use of a 5-gallon keg; the Indians had the keg filled with whiskey at Nichols' store in Jamestown, he took all the money they had. Negnaska sold his wife Winona's pony. Winona owned the pony outright, either as a gift from her father or having bought it with her own money, she killed Negnaska in anger for selling. Winona was held by the tribe for a few hours, until her husband's nearest relative arrived to execute her; as was their custom, he stabbed her to the heart. John D. Barnard and Sheldon Havens were said to have encountered the Potawatomi group after the execution; the Indians did not bury the bodies. But Dr. B. F. Sheldon found out about it and exhumed the bodies for dissection a few days outraging the mourning Potawatomi.
About two weeks some Potawatomi returned the keg to Goodwin and tried to retrieve Negnaska's rifle, but Goodwin pretended not to know the man had been killed and refused to release the rifle to his friends. According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 322.47 square miles, of which 308.94 square miles is land and 13.53 square miles is water. Angola Ashley Clear Lake Fremont Hamilton Hudson Orland Pleasant Lake Clear Lake Fremont Jackson Jamestown Millgrove Otsego Pleasant Richland Salem Scott Steuben York Branch County, Michigan Hillsdale County, Michigan Williams County, Ohio DeKalb County Noble County LaGrange County Indiana Toll Road Interstate 69 U. S. Route 20 State Road 1 State Road 120 State Road 127 State Road 327 State Road 427 State Road 827 Pokagon State Park, a popular state park with year-round activities is located in the county. In recent years, average temperatures in Angola have ranged from a low of 14 °F in January to a high of 82 °F in July, although a record low of −27 °F was recorded in January 1981 and a record high of 106 °F was recorded in July 1936.
Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.83 inches in February to 4.08 inches in August. The county government is a constitutional body, is granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana, by the Indiana Code. County Council: The county council is the legislative branch of the county government and controls all the spending and revenue collection in the county. Representatives are elected from county districts; the council members serve four-year terms. They are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget, special spending; the council has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax, subject to state level approval, excise taxes, service taxes. Board of Commissioners: The executive body of the county is made of a board of commissioners; the commissioners are elected county-wide, in staggered terms, each serves a four-year term. One of the commissioners the most senior, serves as president; the commissioners are charged with executing the acts legislated by the council, collecting revenue, managing the day-to-day functions of the county government.
Court: The county maintains a small claims court that can handle some civil cases. The judge on the court is elected to a term of four years and must be a member of the Indiana Bar Association; the judge is assisted by a constable, elected to a four-year term. In some cases, court decisions can be appealed to the state level circuit court. County Officials: The county has several other elected offices, including sheriff, auditor, recorder and circuit court clerk; each of these elected officers serves a term of four years and oversees a different part of county government. Members elected to county government positions are required to declare party affiliations and to be residents of the county. Steuben County is part of Indiana's 3rd congressional district and in 2008 was represented by Mark Souder in the United States Congress; as of the 2010 United States Census, there wer
Area code 260
Area code 260 is a North American Numbering Plan area code for northeast Indiana. Cities served include Angola, Bluffton, Columbia City, Fort Wayne, New Haven, Wabash. Eventual depletion of numbers in area code 219 in the late 1990s prompted a three-way split of 219; as the result of a random drawing, northwest Indiana retained 219, 574 was assigned to north-central Indiana, northeast Indiana, received 260. The split was on January 2002, with mandatory dialing effective five months later. NANPA Area Code Map of Indiana List of exchanges from AreaCodeDownload.com, 260 Area Code
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Trine University known as Tri-State University, is a private, non-profit, post-secondary institution located in Angola, Indiana. The school was founded in 1884, offers degrees in the arts and sciences, business and engineering. Trine University is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission and is a member of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools. Trine was founded in 1884 as Tri-State Normal College, retained the reference to the "Tri-State" area for more than 120 years — so named because of the school's location in Indiana and its proximity to Michigan and Ohio. In 1906 the school was renamed Tri-State College, again in 1975 as Tri-State University. In 2008, the school's name was changed to the current Trine University, in honor of alumnus Dr. Ralph Trine and his wife Sheri; the dropping of the "Tri-State" identifier reflected a desire to brand the school as a nationally competitive private university, not to be confused as being state-funded, or as being associated with businesses or organizations nationwide using the prevalent "Tri-State" tag.
Throughout the 1990s, the university opened several satellite campuses in locations throughout northern and central Indiana. The main campus covers 450 acres in Indiana. Graduate programs for the Rinker-Ross School of Health Sciences are housed at Trine's Health Sciences Education Center in Fort Wayne. There is another campus for the College of Graduate and Professional Studies in Angola, as well as other satellite campuses in Fort Wayne in Indiana, as well as Detroit, Michigan; the institution is a member of the Midwestern Undergraduate Private Engineering Colleges and accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools. There are associate's degrees, bachelor's degrees, master's degrees and a doctorate in 36 major fields of study and a 16:1 student-to-faculty ratio; the university launched a Master of Physician Assistant Studies degree in fall 2018 and is planning a major expansion to its health sciences programs. More than 2,000 students live on the main campus. 26% of male and 19% of female undergraduates are involved in Greek life.
National fraternities on the campus include Acacia, Alpha Sigma Phi, Delta Chi, Kappa Sigma, Phi Kappa Theta, Sigma Phi Epsilon, Tau Kappa Epsilon and Sigma Phi Delta, while sororities on campus include the local organizations Kappa Sigma Alpha, Phi Sigma, as well as National Chapters of Theta Phi Alpha and Alpha Sigma Tau. The school features a Christian Campus House ministry. Trine sports teams are known as the Thunder. Trine has been a member of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III and the Michigan Intercollegiate Athletic Association, the nation’s oldest athletic conference, since 2004. Trine has more than 600 student-athletes who compete in 32 varsity sports, added men's and women's hockey in the fall of 2017. Men's volleyball, which had last played at the varsity level in 2002, returned to full varsity status for the 2019 season and plays in the single-sport Midwest Collegiate Volleyball League. Trine’s Zollner Golf Course hosted the 2012 NCAA Division III Women’s Golf National Championships.
Men’s golf coach Bill SanGiacomo has more than 45 years of service at the school and is a member of the school’s athletic hall of fame. He has led Trine golf teams to 14 appearances in the National Championships. Ralph Ketner - In 1957, Ketner co-founded Food Town to become Food Lion, a successful 1,300 store grocery chain in the mid-Atlantic and southeast United States; until he died in 2016, he kept an office at Catawba College in Salisbury, N. C. where he was a consultant to the business school. Isabelle French - National president of the Society of Women Engineers from 1964-66. Gustavo Rojas Pinilla - Was the 19th President of Colombia from June 1953 to May 1957. An Army General, he mounted a successful coup d'état against the incumbent President, Laureano Gómez Castro, imposing martial law and establishing a dictatorship-style government in Colombia. Rojas enacted legislation, he introduced the television and constructed several hospitals and the National Astronomic Observatory. Rupa Shanmugam - President and COO of SoPark Corporation in New York.
She will become owner of the company this year. Official website Official athletics website