Papiamento or Papiamentu is a creole language spoken in the Dutch Caribbean. It is the most-widely spoken language on the Caribbean ABC islands, having official status in Aruba and Curaçao. Papiamento is a recognized language in the Dutch public bodies of Bonaire, Sint-Eustatius and Saba. Papiamento is based on Portuguese and Spanish and has a considerable influence coming from the Dutch language; because of lexical similarities between Portuguese and Spanish, it is difficult to distinguish the exact origin of each word. Though there are different theories about its origins, nowadays most linguists believe that Papiamento has originated from the West African coasts, as it has great similarities with Cape Verdean Creole and Guinea-Bissau Creole; the precise historical origins of Papiamento have not been established. Its parent language is Iberian, but scholars dispute whether Papiamento is derived from Portuguese and its derived Portuguese-based creole languages or from old or new Spanish. Historical constraints, core vocabulary and grammatical features that Papiamento shares with Cape Verdean Creole and Guinea-Bissau Creole suggest that the basic ingredients are Portuguese, the Spanish and Dutch influences occurred at a time.
Jacoba Bouschoute made a study of the many Dutch influences in Papiamento.. The name of the language itself comes from papia or papear, a word present in Portuguese and colloquial Spanish. Spain claimed dominion over the islands in the 15th century, but made little use of them after the Spanish defeat to the Netherlands as a result of Eighty Years' War. Portuguese merchants had been trading extensively in the West Indies, with the Iberian Union, this trade extended to the Castillian West Indies, as the Spanish kings favoured the free movement of people. In 1634, the Dutch West India Company took possession of the islands, deporting most of the small remaining Arawak and Spanish population to the continent, turned them into the hub of the Dutch slave trade between Africa and the Caribbean; the first evidence of widespread use of Papiamento in Aruba can be seen through the Curaçao official documents in the early 18th century. In the 19th century, most materials in the islands were written in Papiamento including Roman Catholic schoolbooks and hymnals.
The first Papiamento newspaper was titled Civilisado. A summary of the debate on Papiamento's origins is provided in Bart Jacobs' study The Upper Guinea Origins of Papiamento. An outline of the competing theories is provided below. There are various local development theories. One such theory proposes that Papiamento developed in the Caribbean from an original Portuguese-African pidgin used for communication between African slaves and Portuguese slave traders, with Dutch and Spanish influences. Another theory is that Papiamento first evolved from the use in this region since 1499 of'lenguas' and the first Repopulation of the ABC islands by the Spanish by the Cédula real decreed in November 1525, in which Juan Martinez de Ampués, factor of Española, had been granted the right to repopulate the depopulated Islas inútiles of Oroba, Islas de los Gigantes and Buon Aire; the evolution of Papiamento continued under the Dutch colonization under the influence of the 16th century Dutch and Native American languages with the second repopulation of these ABC islands under Peter Stuyvesant, who arrived here from the ex-Dutch Brazilian colonies.
The Judaeo-Portuguese population of the ABC islands increased after 1654, when the Portuguese recovered the Dutch-held territories in Northeast Brazil – causing most of the Portuguese-speaking Jews and their Portuguese-speaking Dutch allies and Dutch-speaking Portuguese Brazilian allies in those lands to flee from religious persecution. The precise role of Sephardic Jews in the early development is unclear, but it is certain that Jews played a prominent role in the development of Papiamento. Many early residents of Curaçao were Sephardic Jews either from Portugal, Cape Verde or Portuguese Brazil. After the Eighty Years' War, a group of Sephardic Jews immigrated from Amsterdam. Therefore, it can be assumed that Judaeo-Portuguese was brought to the island of Curaçao, where it spread to other parts of the community; as the Jewish community became the prime merchants and traders in the area and everyday trading was conducted in Papiamento. While various nations owned the island and official languages changed with ownership, Papiamento became the constant language of the residents.
When Netherlands opened economic ties with Spanish colonies in what are now Venezuela and Colombia in the 18th century the students on Curaçao, Bonaire were taught predominantly in Spanish, Spanish began to influence the creole language. Since there was a continuous Latinization process the elite Dutch-Protestant settlers served better in Spanish than in Dutch. A wealth of local Spanish-language publications in the nineteenth century testify to this. Peter Stuyvesant's appointment to the ABC islands followed his service in Brazil, he brought Indians, etc. from Brazil to Curaçao as well as to New Netherland. Stuyvesant's Resolution Book shows the multi-ethnic makeup of the garrison and the use of local Indians: "... whereas the number of Indians, together with those of Aruba and Bonnairo, have increased here by half, we have learned that they ride..." They communicated with each other in'Papiamento' a language originating when the first Europeans began to arrive on these islands under Ojeda, Juan de Ampues and mixing with the natives.
Korlai Portuguese creole
Korlai Indo-Portuguese is a creole language based on Portuguese, spoken by some 1,000 Luso-Indian Christians in an isolated area around the village of Korlai in Raigad District of Maharashtra state, India. It is located between Daman, it has vigorous use and it is known as Kristi, Korlai Creole Portuguese, Korlai Portuguese, or Nou Ling. The village of Korlai lies on the mouth of Kundalika River, across from the ruins of a large Portuguese fort, located in Revdanda; until the 20th century, its Christian inhabitants, its language were isolated from the Marathi-speaking Hindus and Muslims surrounding them. Since 1986, there is a bridge across the Kundalika River, because of which industry has now moved into the area. What is known about the history and the grammar of No Ling can be found in the 1996 book The Genesis of a Language: Formation and Development of Korlai Portuguese written by J. Clancy Clements. Thanks a lot: Muit'obrigad! From Port. Muito Obrigado I: yo. Eu You: wo. Vós You: usé. Você He and She: el.
Ele and ela We: no. Nós You: udzó. Vós outros They: eló. Eles outros Numerals: ũ, tre, sink, set, nob, dey. Um, dois, três, cinco, sete, nove, dez First, Second: Primer, Sigun. Primeiro, Segundo How are you?: Use, kile te? All are eating and drinking their fill: tud gent cumen beben tem fart. Toda a gente come e bebe até fartaSong of Korlai: Maldita Maria Madulena, Maldita firmosa, Ai, contra ma ja foi a Madulena, Vastida de mata! Portuguese translation: Maldita Maria Madalena, Maldita Formosa, Ai, contra minha vontade foi a Madalena, Vestida de mata! English translation: Cursed Maria Madalena, Cursed Beautiful one, Oh, against my will it was Madalena, Dressed in leaves and branches! Clements, J. Clancy; the Genesis of a Language: the formation and development of Korlai Portuguese. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. ISBN 9789027252388. Clements, J. Clancy. "Portuguese Settlement of the Chaul/Korlai area and the Formation of Korlai Creole Portuguese". Journal of Language Contact. 8: 13–35. Doi:10.1163/19552629-00801002
São Tomé Island
São Tomé Island, at 854 km2, is the largest island of São Tomé and Príncipe and is home to about 157,000 or 96% of the nation's population. The island is divided into six districts, it is located 2 km north of the equator. São Tomé Island is about 48 kilometres long by 32 kilometres wide, it rises to 2,024 metres at Pico de São Tomé and includes the capital city, São Tomé, on the northeast coast. The nearest city on mainland Africa is the port city of Port Gentil in Gabon located 240 kilometres to the east; the island is surrounded by a number of small islands, including Ilhéu das Rolas, Ilhéu das Cabras and Ilhéu Gabado. The main language is Portuguese, but there are many speakers of Forro and Angolar, two Portuguese-based creole languages; the entire island of São Tomé is a massive shield volcano that rises from the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, over 3,000 m below sea level. It formed along the Cameroon line, a line of volcanoes extending from Cameroon southwest into the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the lava erupted on São Tomé over the last million years has been basalt.
The youngest dated rock on the island is about 100,000 years old, but numerous more recent cinder cones are found on the southeast side of the island. The higher slopes of the island are forested and form part of the Parque Natural Obô de São Tomé, but agriculture is important near the north and east coasts; the chief exports are cocoa, coffee and palm products, while there is a fishing industry. Large reserves of oil are in the ocean between Nigeria and São Tomé; the discovery has been lamented by some as endangering the nation's political stability and natural environment. In response to these concerns the government of São Tomé and Príncipe has drawn up legislation in an attempt to ensure the efficient and equitable use of oil revenues over time; the island has a total of 63 regular bird species, plus an additional 36 vagrant and unconfirmed species. Of these, 19 are endemic and 3 near endemic. Six species are considered vulnerable, two critically endangered. São Tomé is divided into the following six districts: Água Grande Cantagalo Caué Lembá Lobata Mé-Zóchi Villages on the island include: "Sao Tome".
Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. CIA Word Fact Book
São Tomean Portuguese
São Toméan Portuguese is a dialect of Portuguese spoken in São Tomé and Príncipe. It contains many archaic features in pronunciation, vocabulary and syntax, similar to Angolan Portuguese, it was once the dialect of the owners of the roças and the middle class, but now it is the dialect of the lower and middle classes, as the upper class uses modern European Portuguese standard pronunciation, now used by lower and middle classes. São Tomé is the third country in order of percentage of Portuguese speakers, with more than 95% of the population speaking Portuguese, more than 50% using it as their first language; the rest of the population speak Portuguese creoles. Portuguese in Equatorial Guinea Mozambican Portuguese Papiamento Bibliography on São Tomean Portuguese Português é crescentemente a língua materna Língua de São Tomé e Príncipe: Crioulo? Dialecto? Ou Português? Português em São Tomé e Príncipe Universo linguístico de São Tomé e Príncipe As Línguas de S. Tomé e Príncipe Aménagement linguistique dans le monde, São Tomé-et-Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, is an island country in the Gulf of Guinea, off the western equatorial coast of Central Africa. It consists of two archipelagos around the two main islands of São Tomé and Príncipe, about 140 kilometres apart and about 250 and 225 kilometres off the northwestern coast of Gabon, respectively; the islands were uninhabited until their discovery by Portuguese explorers in the 15th century. Colonised and settled by the Portuguese throughout the 16th century, they collectively served as a vital commercial and trade center for the Atlantic slave trade; the rich volcanic soil and close proximity to the Equator made São Tomé and Príncipe ideal for sugar cultivation, followed by cash crops such as coffee and cocoa. Cycles of social unrest and economic instability throughout the 19th and 20th centuries culminated in peaceful independence in 1975. São Tomé and Príncipe has since remained one of Africa's most democratic countries. With a population of 199,910, São Tomé and Príncipe is the second-smallest African sovereign state after Seychelles, as well as the smallest Portuguese-speaking country.
Its people are predominantly with most practising Roman Catholicism. The legacy of Portuguese rule is visible in the country's culture and music, which fuse European and African influences. São Tomé and Príncipe is a founding member state of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries; the islands of São Tomé and Príncipe were uninhabited when the Portuguese arrived sometime around 1470. The islands were discovered by João de Pêro Escobar. Portuguese navigators explored the islands and decided that they would be good locations for bases to trade with the mainland; the dates of discovery are sometimes given as 21 December 1471, for São Tomé. Príncipe was named Santo Antão, changing its name in 1502 to Ilha do Príncipe, in reference to the Prince of Portugal to whom duties on the island's sugar crop were paid; the first successful settlement of São Tomé was established in 1493 by Álvaro Caminha, who received the land as a grant from the crown. Príncipe was settled in 1500 under a similar arrangement.
Attracting settlers proved difficult and most of the earliest inhabitants were "undesirables" sent from Portugal Jews. In time these settlers found the volcanic soil of the region suitable for agriculture the growing of sugar. By 1515, São Tomé and Príncipe had become slave depots for the coastal slave trade centered at Elmina; the cultivation of sugar was a labour-intensive process and the Portuguese began to enslave large numbers of Africans from the mainland. By the mid-16th century the Portuguese settlers had turned the islands into Africa's foremost exporter of sugar. São Tomé and Príncipe were taken over and administered by the Portuguese crown in 1522 and 1573, respectively. However, competition from sugar-producing colonies in the Western Hemisphere began to hurt the islands; the large enslaved population proved difficult to control, with Portugal unable to invest many resources in the effort. Sugar cultivation thus declined over the next 100 years, by the mid-17th century, the economy of São Tomé had changed.
It was now a transit point for ships engaged in the slave trade between the West and continental Africa. In the early 19th century, two new cash crops and cocoa, were introduced; the rich volcanic soils proved well suited to the new cash crop industry, soon extensive plantations, owned by Portuguese companies or absentee landlords, occupied all of the good farmland. By 1908, São Tomé had become the world's largest producer of cocoa, which remains the country's most important crop; the roças system, which gave the plantation managers a high degree of authority, led to abuses against the African farm workers. Although Portugal abolished slavery in 1876, the practice of forced paid labour continued. Scientific American magazine documented in words and pictures the continued use of slaves in São Tomé in its 13 March 1897 issue. In the early 20th century, an internationally publicized controversy arose over charges that Angolan contract workers were being subjected to forced labour and unsatisfactory working conditions.
Sporadic labor unrest and dissatisfaction continued well into the 20th century, culminating in an outbreak of riots in 1953 in which several hundred African laborers were killed in a clash with their Portuguese rulers. This "Batepá Massacre" remains a major event in the colonial history of the islands, its anniversary is observed by the government. By the late 1950s, when other emerging nations across the African Continent demanded their independence, a small group of São Toméans had formed the Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe, which established its base in nearby Gabon. Picking up momentum in the 1960s, events moved after the overthrow of the Caetano dictatorship in Portugal in April 1974; the new Portuguese regime was committed to the dissolution of its overseas colonies. In November 1974, their representatives met with the MLSTP in Algiers and worked out an agreement for the transfer of sovereignty. After a period of transitional government, São Tomé and Príncipe achieved independence on 12 July 1975, choosing as the first president the MLSTP Secretary General
Cape Verdean Creole
Cape Verdean Creole is a Portuguese-based creole language spoken on the islands of Cape Verde. It is called kriolu or kriol by its native speakers, it is the native creole language of all Cape Verdeans and is used as a second creole language by the Cape Verdean diaspora. The creole has particular importance for creolistics studies, it is the most spoken Portuguese-based creole language. The current designation of this creole is Cape Verdean Creole. However, in everyday usage the creole is called kriolu by its speakers; the names Cape Verdean and Cape Verdean language have been proposed for whenever the creole will be standardized. The history of Cape Verdean Creole is hard to trace due to a lack of written documentation and to ostracism during the Portuguese administration of Cape Verde. There are presently three theories about the formation of Creole; the monogenetic theory claims that the creole was formed by the Portuguese by simplifying the Portuguese language in order to make it accessible to African slaves.
That is the point of view of authors like Prudent, Chaudenson, Lopes da Silva. Authors like Adam and Quint argue that Creole was formed by African slaves using the grammar of Western African languages and replacing the African lexicon with the Portuguese one. Linguists like Chomsky and Bickerton argue that Creole was formed spontaneously, not by slaves from continental Africa, but by the population born in the islands, using the grammar with which all human beings are born. According to A. Carreira, Cape Verdean Creole was formed from a Portuguese pidgin, on the island of Santiago, starting from the 15th century; that pidgin was transported to the west coast of Africa by the lançados. From there, that pidgin diverged into two proto-Creoles, one, the base of all Cape Verdean Creoles, another, the base of the Guinea-Bissau Creole. Cross referencing information regarding the settlement of each island with the linguistic comparisons, it is possible to form some conjectures; the spreading of Cape Verdean Creole within the islands was done in three phases: In a first phase, the island of Santiago was occupied, followed by Fogo.
In a second phase, the island of São Nicolau was occupied, followed by Santo Antão. In a third phase, the remaining islands were occupied by settlers from the first islands: Brava was occupied by population from Fogo, Boa Vista by population from São Nicolau and Santiago, Maio by population from Santiago and Boa Vista, São Vicente by population from Santo Antão and São Nicolau, Sal by population from São Nicolau and Boa Vista. In spite of Creole being the first language of nearly all the population in Cape Verde, Portuguese is still the official language; as Portuguese is used in everyday life and Cape Verdean Creole live in a state of diglossia. Due to this overall presence of Portuguese, a decreolization process occurs for all the different Cape Verdean Creole variants. Check in this fictional text: Santiago variant: Quêl mudjêr cú quêm m’ encôntra ónti stába priocupáda púrqui êl sqêci dí sês minínus nâ scóla, í cándu êl bâi procurâ-’s êl câ olhâ-’s. Alguêm lembrâ-’l quí sês minínus sâ tâ pricisába dí material pâ úm pesquisa, entõ êl bâi encontrâ-’s nâ biblioteca tâ procúra úqui ês cría.
Pâ gradêci â túdu quêm djudâ-’l, êl cumêça tâ fála, tâ flâ cômu êl stába contênti di fúndu di curaçãu. São Vicente variant: Quêl m’djêr c’ quêm m’ encontrá ônt’ táva priocupáda púrq’ êl sq’cê d’ sês m’nín’s nâ scóla, í cónd’ êl bái procurá-’s êl câ olhá-’s. Alguêm lembrá-’l qu’ sês m’nín’s táva tâ pr’cisá d’ material pâ úm pesquisa, entõ êl bâi encontrá-’s nâ biblioteca tâ procurá úq’ ês cría. Pâ gradecê â túd’ quêm j’dá-’l, êl c’meçá tâ fála, tâ dzê côm’ êl táva contênt’ d’ fúnd’ d’ curaçãu. Translation to Portuguese: Aquela mulher com quem eu encontrei-me ontem estava preocupada porque ela esqueceu-se das suas crianças na escola, e quando ela foi procurá-las ela não as viu. Alguém lembrou-lhe que as suas crianças estavam a precisar de material para uma pesquisa, então ela foi encontrá-las na biblioteca a procurar o que elas queriam. Para agradecer a todos os que ajudaram-na, ela começou a falar, dizendo como ela estava contente do fundo do coração. Translation to English: That woman with whom I met yesterday was worried because she forgot her children at school, when she went to seek them she didn’t see them.
Someone reminded her that her children were needing some material for a research, so she found them at the library searching what they needed. To thank to everyone who helped her, she started speaking, telling how she was glad from the bottom of her heart. In this text, several situations of decreolization / Portuguese intromission can be noted: cú quêm / c’ quêm – Portuguese order of words com quem.
Angola the Republic of Angola, is a west-coast country of south-central Africa. It is the seventh-largest country in Africa, bordered by Namibia to the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Zambia to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Angola has an exclave province, the province of Cabinda that borders the Republic of the Congo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo; the capital and largest city of Angola is Luanda. Although inhabited since the Paleolithic Era, what is now Angola was molded by Portuguese colonisation, it began with, was for centuries limited to, coastal settlements and trading posts established starting in the 16th century. In the 19th century, European settlers and hesitantly began to establish themselves in the interior; the Portuguese colony that became Angola did not have its present borders until the early 20th century because of resistance by groups such as the Cuamato, the Kwanyama and the Mbunda. After a protracted anti-colonial struggle, independence was achieved in 1975 as the Marxist–Leninist People's Republic of Angola, a one-party state supported by the Soviet Union and Cuba.
The civil war between the ruling People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola and the insurgent anti-communist National Union for the Total Independence of Angola, supported by the United States and South Africa, lasted until 2002. The sovereign state has since become a stable unitary, presidential constitutional republic. Angola has vast mineral and petroleum reserves, its economy is among the fastest-growing in the world since the end of the civil war. Angola's economic growth is uneven, with most of the nation's wealth concentrated in a disproportionately small sector of the population. Angola is a member state of the United Nations, OPEC, African Union, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, the Southern African Development Community. A multiethnic country, Angola's 25.8 million people span tribal groups and traditions. Angolan culture reflects centuries of Portuguese rule, in the predominance of the Portuguese language and of the Catholic Church; the name Angola comes from the Portuguese colonial name Reino de Angola, which appeared as early as Dias de Novais's 1571 charter.
The toponym was derived by the Portuguese from the title ngola held by the kings of Ndongo. Ndongo in the highlands, between the Kwanza and Lukala Rivers, was nominally a possession of the Kingdom of Kongo, but was seeking greater independence in the 16th century. Modern Angola was populated predominantly by nomadic Khoi and San prior to the first Bantu migrations; the Khoi and San peoples hunter-gatherers. They were displaced by Bantu peoples arriving from the north, most of whom originated in what is today northwestern Nigeria and southern Niger. Bantu speakers introduced the cultivation of bananas and taro, as well as large cattle herds, to Angola's central highlands and the Luanda plain. Hendese Bantu established a number of political entities, it established trade routes with other city-states and civilisations up and down the coast of southwestern and western Africa and with Great Zimbabwe and the Mutapa Empire, although it engaged in little or no transoceanic trade. To its south lay the Kingdom of Ndongo, from which the area of the Portuguese colony was sometimes known as Dongo.
Portuguese explorer Diogo Cão reached the area in 1484. The previous year, the Portuguese had established relations with the Kongo, which stretched at the time from modern Gabon in the north to the Kwanza River in the south; the Portuguese established their primary early trading post at Soyo, now the northernmost city in Angola apart from the Cabinda exclave. Paulo Dias de Novais founded São Paulo de Loanda in 1575 with a hundred families of settlers and four hundred soldiers. Benguela was fortified in 1587 and became a township in 1617; the Portuguese established several other settlements and trading posts along the Angolan coast, principally trading in Angolan slaves for Brazilian plantations. Local slave dealers provided a large number of slaves for the Portuguese Empire in exchange for manufactured goods from Europe; this part of the Atlantic slave trade continued until after Brazil's independence in the 1820s. Despite Portugal's territorial claims in Angola, its control over much of the country's vast interior was minimal.
In the 16th century Portugal gained control of the coast through a series of wars. Life for European colonists was progress slow. John Iliffe notes that "Portuguese records of Angola from the 16th century show that a great famine occurred on average every seventy years. During the Portuguese Restoration War, the Dutch West India Company occupied the principal settlement of Luanda in 1641, using alliances with local peoples to carry out attacks against Portuguese holdings elsewhere. A fleet under Salvador de Sá retook Luanda in 1648. New treaties with the Kongo were signed in 1649.