In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, is adapted structurally to this way of life. The entomologist E. O. Wilson has characterised parasites as "predators that eat prey in units of less than one". Parasites include protozoans such as the agents of malaria, sleeping sickness, amoebic dysentery. There are six major parasitic strategies of exploitation of animal hosts, namely parasitic castration, directly transmitted parasitism, trophically transmitted parasitism, vector-transmitted parasitism and micropredation. Like predation, parasitism is a type of consumer-resource interaction, but unlike predators, with the exception of parasitoids, are much smaller than their hosts, do not kill them, live in or on their hosts for an extended period. Parasites of animals are specialised, reproduce at a faster rate than their hosts. Classic examples include interactions between vertebrate hosts and tapeworms, the malaria-causing Plasmodium species, fleas.
Parasites reduce host fitness by general or specialised pathology, from parasitic castration to modification of host behaviour. Parasites increase their own fitness by exploiting hosts for resources necessary for their survival, in particular by feeding on them and by using intermediate hosts to assist in their transmission from one definitive host to another. Although parasitism is unambiguous, it is part of a spectrum of interactions between species, grading via parasitoidism into predation, through evolution into mutualism, in some fungi, shading into being saprophytic. People have known about parasites such as roundworms and tapeworms since ancient Egypt and Rome. In Early Modern times, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek observed Giardia lamblia in his microscope in 1681, while Francesco Redi described internal and external parasites including sheep liver fluke and ticks. Modern parasitology developed in the 19th century. In human culture, parasitism has negative connotations; these were exploited to satirical effect in Jonathan Swift's 1733 poem "On Poetry: A Rhapsody", comparing poets to hyperparasitical "vermin".
In fiction, Bram Stoker's 1897 Gothic horror novel Dracula and its many adaptations featured a blood-drinking parasite. Ridley Scott's 1979 film Alien was one of many works of science fiction to feature a terrifying parasitic alien species. First used in English in 1539, the word parasite comes from the Medieval French parasite, from the Latin parasitus, the latinisation of the Greek παράσιτος, "one who eats at the table of another" and that from παρά, "beside, by" + σῖτος, "wheat", hence "food"; the related term parasitism appears in English from 1611. Parasitism is a kind of symbiosis, a close and persistent long-term biological interaction between a parasite and its host. Unlike commensalism and mutualism, the parasitic relationship harms the host, either feeding on it or, as in the case of intestinal parasites, consuming some of its food; because parasites interact with other species, they can act as vectors of pathogens, causing disease. Predation is by definition not a symbiosis, as the interaction is brief, but the entomologist E. O. Wilson has characterised parasites as "predators that eat prey in units of less than one".
Within that scope are many possible strategies. Taxonomists classify parasites in a variety of overlapping schemes, based on their interactions with their hosts and on their life-cycles, which are sometimes complex. An obligate parasite depends on the host to complete its life cycle, while a facultative parasite does not. Parasite life-cycles involving only one host are called "direct". An endoparasite lives inside the host's body. Mesoparasites - like some copepods, for example - enter an opening in the host's body and remain embedded there; some parasites can be generalists, feeding on a wide range of hosts, but many parasites, the majority of protozoans and helminths that parasitise animals, are specialists and host-specific. An early basic, functional division of parasites distinguished macroparasites; these each had a mathematical model assigned in order to analyse the population movements of the host–parasite groupings. The microorganisms and viruses that can reproduce and complete their life cycle within the host are known as microparasites.
Macroparasites are the multicellular organisms that reproduce and complete their life cycle outside of the host or on the host's body. Much of the thinking on types of parasitism has focussed on terrestrial animal parasites of animals, such as helminths; those in other environments and with other hosts have analogous strategies. For example, the snubnosed eel is a facultative endoparasite that opportunistically burrows into and eats sick and dying fish. Plant-eating insects such as scale insects and caterpillars resemble ectoparasites, attacking much larger plants; as female scale-insects cannot move, they are obligate parasites, permanently attached to their hosts. There are six major parasitic strategies, namely parasitic castration, directly transmitted parasitism, trophically transmitted parasitism, vector-transmitted parasitism, parasitoid
Maungaturoto is a small town in the Northland Region of New Zealand. The population was 837 in the 2006 Census, an increase of 87 from 2001; the township is located close to the Otamatea River, an estuarial arm of the Kaipara Harbour 25 kilometres north of Wellsford and 45 kilometres south of Whangarei. Maungaturoto is within reach of many popular beaches. Otamatea High School is a secondary school with a roll of 528; the school celebrated its 50th reunion in 2016. The District High School was established in Maungaturoto in 1939. Otamatea High School won the Goodman Fielder Composite School of the Year Award in 2000. Maungaturoto School is a contributing primary school with a roll of 206. A school first opened in Maungaturoto in 1874. Otamatea Christian School is a composite state-integrated school with a roll of 28, it is a ministry connected to the Maungaturoto Congregational Church. All these schools are coeducational and have a decile rating of 6–8. Maungaturoto's Official website
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed durin
Mohair is a silk-like fabric or yarn made from the hair of the Angora goat. Both durable and resilient, mohair is notable for its high luster and sheen, which has helped gain it the nickname the "Diamond Fiber", is used in fiber blends to add these qualities to a textile. Mohair takes dye exceptionally well. Mohair is warm in winter as it has excellent insulating properties, while remaining cool in summer due to its moisture wicking properties, it is durable elastic, flame resistant and crease resistant. It is considered to be a luxury fiber, like cashmere and silk, is more expensive than most wool, produced by sheep. Mohair is composed of keratin, a protein found in the hair, wool and skin of all mammals, but its special properties are unique to the Angora goat. While it has scales like wool, the scales are not developed indicated. Thus, mohair does not felt as wool does. Mohair fiber is 25–45 microns in diameter, it increases in diameter with the age of the goat, growing along with the animal.
Fine hair from younger animals is used for finer applications such as clothing, the thicker hair from older animals is more used for carpets and heavy fabrics intended for outerwear. The term mohair is sometimes used to describe a type of material used for the folding roof on convertible cars. In this instance, mohair refers to a form of denim-like canvas. Shearing is done twice a year, in the spring and in the fall. One goat will produce 11 to 17 pounds of mohair a year. Shearing is done on a cleanly swept floor and extra care is taken to keep the hair clean and free of debris; the hair is processed to remove natural grease and vegetable matter. Mohair grows in uniform locks; the Angora goat is a single-coat breed, unlike pygora or cashmere, there is no need to dehair a mohair fleece to separate the coarse hair from the down hair. South Africa is the world's largest mohair producer, producing around 50% of the total world production. Due to animal cruelty in the South African farms, Zara, H&M, Topshop and many more will no longer sell Mohair clothing.
Mohair is one of the oldest textile fibers in use. The Angora goat is thought to originate from the mountains of Tibet, reaching Turkey in the 16th century. However, fabric made of mohair was known in England as early as the 8th century; the word "mohair" was adopted into English sometime before 1570 from the Arabic: mukhayyar, a type of haircloth, literally'choice', from khayyara,'he chose'. In about 1820, raw mohair was first exported from Turkey to England, which became the leading manufacturer of mohair products; the Yorkshire mills spun yarn, exported to Russia, Austria, etc. as well as woven directly in Yorkshire. Until 1849, the Turkish province of Ankara was the sole producer of Angora goats. Charles V is believed to be the first to bring Angora goats to Europe. Due to the great demand for mohair fiber, throughout the 1800s there was a great deal of crossbreeding between Angora goats and common goats; the growing demand for mohair further resulted in attempts on a commercial scale to introduce the goat into South Africa in 1838, the United States in 1849, Australia from 1856–1875, still New Zealand.
In 1849, Angora goats made their way to America as a gift from Turkey. During the 1960s, a blend of mohair and wool suiting fabric known as Tonik or Tonic was developed in England; this had a shiny, color changing appearance and was popular among rude boys and the mod subculture. Similar suits were worn by mod revivalists and fans of ska punk and Two Tone music during the early to mid-1980s. Today, South Africa is the largest mohair producer in the world, with the majority of South African mohair being produced in the Eastern Cape; the United States is the second-largest producer, with the majority of American mohair being produced in Texas. Turkey produces good-quality mohair; because the goats are sheared once a year, Turkey produces the longest mohair of the world. In December 2006, the General Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed 2009 to be the International Year of Natural Fibres, so as to raise the profile of mohair and other natural fibers. Mohair is used in scarves, winter hats, sweaters, coats and home furnishing.
Mohair fiber is found in carpets, wall fabrics, craft yarns, many other fabrics, may be used as a substitute for fur. Because its texture resembles fine human hair, mohair is used in making high grade doll wigs or in rooting customized dolls. Mohair is a soft yarn when compared with other natural and synthetic fibers. Due to mohair lacking prominent, protruding scales along the hair's surface, it is blended with wool or alpaca. Blending the scaled wool helps the smooth mohair fibers hold their shape and stick together when spun into yarn. Mohair is valued for certain other unique characteristics: it is warmer than other fibers when used to make a light-weight garment, is blended with wool for this reason. Combined with mohair's ability to absorb dyes exceptionally well, pure mohair yarns are recognizable for their vivid saturated colours. Fibers from young goats are softest and are used to manufacture yarn for clothing. Fibers from mature goats are used to produce such things as rugs and carpets.
Mohair is used in'climbing skins' for randonnee skiing and ski touring. The mohair is used in a carpet allowing the skier an appropriate ascension method without sliding downhill; as of 2009, world output of mohair was estima
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
The Angora rabbit, one of the oldest types of domestic rabbit, is bred for the long fibers of its coat, known as Angora wool, that are gathered by shearing, combing, or plucking. Because rabbits do not possess the same allergy-causing qualities as many other animals, their wool is an important alternative. There are at least 11 distinct breeds of Angora rabbit, four of which are recognized by the American Rabbit Breeders Association: English Angora, French Angora, Giant Angora, Satin Angora. Others include: German Angora, Chinese Angora, Finnish Angora, Japanese Angora, Korean Angora, Russian Angora, St. Lucian Angora, Swiss Angora. Furred rabbits existed during the reign of King Henry VIII; the Angora is said to have originated in Ankara, in present-day Turkey, is known to have been brought to France in 1723. The Angora rabbit became a popular pet of the French royalty in the mid-18th century, Angoras spread to other parts of Europe by the end of that century, they first appeared in the United States in the early 20th century.
Author of Domestic Rabbits & Their Histories: Breeds of the World, Bob D. Whitman, suggests that the Angora breed could date back ten centuries: "it has been written that the indigenous Trelicians, which were small and frail people, first bred the Angora rabbit in the southern Carpathian mountains around the 6th century." This information has not been substantiated and Whitman himself acknowledges that "we will never know for sure". Angoras are bred for their wool, silky and soft. At only 14-16 microns in diameter, it is similar to cashmere in fineness and softness to touch. Which must be lower than 14 microns. A healthy adult Angora's wool will grow 3 centimetres per month. Regular grooming is necessary to prevent the fiber from matting and felting on the rabbit, which causes discomfort that can lead to pain and infection. Angora wool is harvested every three to four months throughout the year; the coat needs to be monitored after 6 months of re-growth, as it may tend to "die" and mat. Angora wool may be gathered periodically by hand-plucking the hairs within the coat that are being shed.
A full harvesting is done by shearing the coat with clippers or small scissors while the rabbit sits atop a groomer's turntable. Starting with top & sides of head. Moving across shoulders to tail. Flipped for underside, tail to chin, watch for nipples! 12 ounces —and up to 18 ounces —of wool may be harvested from a Giant Angora. Because of the length and abundance of their hair, Angora rabbits are susceptible to wool block, a potentially-lethal blockage of the digestive tract. All rabbits ingest some of their wool when they groom themselves, but their digestive system is not able to pass that foreign matter; the length of Angora hairs compounds the risk of impaction. Clipping or plucking their wool every 90-120 days is considered a must to prevent wool block in Angora breeds. Cheyletiella parasitovorax is a skin parasite found in Angora rabbits. Signs of infestation are fur loss. Wool mites reduce fiber yields and the resulting skin flakes are detrimental to the fiber quality. Wool mites may be treated with carbaryl powder.
The iconic long coat of the Angora is the result of a rabbit gene referred to as: l This "Angora gene" is present in all Angora breeds. It has sometimes been utilized in the development of other rabbit breeds or other breeds' new varieties. "Dwarf Angora" breeds including American Fuzzy Lop, Loin Head and Jersey Woolie, are now recognized in US by ARBA. Belgium and France have their own Dwarf Angora breeds.. There is a rare Mini English Angora breed in New Zealand. Weight: 2.0–3.5 kg. ARBA-recognized varieties: Agouti, Pointed White, Ruby-eyed White and Shaded Prior to 1939, there was one breed of "Angora Wooler". In 1939 ARBA reclassified "Angora Wooler" into "English Type" and "French Type". In 1944 ARBA separated Angora rabbits into two breeds: English Angora and French Angora. Rabbits of the Angora breed are adorned with "fur", growths of wool on the ears and the entire face except above the nose, front feet, along with their thick body, wool, they are gentle in nature. Their wool is dense and needs to be groomed twice a week.
This is the smallest Angora rabbit of the four ARBA-recognized breeds. This breed is more common as a pet because of the facial features that give it a puppy dog or teddy bear look. If the texture of the wool is correct, the maintenance is easy; some may find wool a challenge for beginning Spinners. The English Angora can be bred to have broken colors—i.e. White with black spots—but this is not accepted by ARBA standards, would lead to a disqualification when showing the rabbit; when showing an English Angora rabbit, the toenails should be only one color, the ears could be folded over at the tips, the furnishings on the face may cover their eyes. The English Angora is the only one of the Angora breeds. Weight: 3.5–4.5 kg. ARBA-recognized varieties: Agouti, Pointed White, Shaded and Wide BandThis breed has a dense undercoat. If the texture is correct, it requires less maintenance than other Angora breeds. Small ear tufts are allowed, but not preferred by breeders. ARBA recognizes the same colors as with English Angora, plus
The Karoo is a semi desert natural region of South Africa. No exact definition of what constitutes the Karoo is available, so its extent is not defined; the Karoo is defined by its topography and climate, above all, its low rainfall, arid air, cloudless skies, extremes of heat and cold. The Karoo hosted a well-preserved ecosystem hundreds of million years ago, now represented by many fossils; the Karoo formed an impenetrable barrier to the interior from Cape Town, the early adventurers, explorers and travelers on the way to the Highveld unanimously denounced it as a frightening place of great heat, great frosts, great floods, great droughts. Today, it is still a place of great heat and frosts, an annual rainfall of between 50 and 250 mm, though on some of the mountains it can be 250 to 500 mm higher than on the plains. However, underground water is found throughout the Karoo, which can be tapped by boreholes, making permanent settlements and sheep farming possible; the xerophytic vegetation consists of aloes, mesembryanthemums, euphorbias and desert ephemerals, spaced 50 cm or more apart, becoming sparse going northwards into Bushmanland and, from there, into the Kalahari Desert.
The driest region of the Karoo, however, is its southwestern corner, between the Great Escarpment and the Cederberg-Skurweberg mountain ranges, called the Tankwa Karoo, which receives only 75 mm of rain annually. The eastern and north-eastern Karoo are covered by large patches of grassland; the typical Karoo vegetation used to support large game, sometimes in vast herds. Today, sheep thrive on the xerophytes, though each sheep requires about 4 ha of grazing to sustain itself; the Karoo is distinctively divided into the Great Karoo and the Little Karoo by the Swartberg Mountain Range, which runs east-west, parallel to the southern coastline, but is separated from the sea by another east-west range called the Outeniqua–Langeberg Mountains. The Great Karoo lies to the north of the Swartberg range; the only sharp and definite boundary of the Great Karoo is formed by the most inland ranges of Cape Fold Mountains to the south and south-west. The extent of the Karoo to the north is vague and imperceptibly into the arid Bushmanland towards the north-west.
To the north and north-east, it fades into the savannah and grasslands of Griqualand West and the Highveld. The boundary to the east grades into the grasslands of the Eastern Midlands; the Great Karoo is itself divided by the Great Escarpment into the Upper Karoo and the Lower Karoo on the plains below at 700–800 m. A great many local names, each denoting different subregions of the Great Karoo, some more or more known than others. In the Lower Karoo, going from west to east, they are the Tankwa Karoo, the Moordenaarskaroo, the Koup, the Vlakte, the Camdeboo Plains; the Hantam, Kareeberge and uweveldare the better known subregions of the Upper Karoo, though most of it is known as the Upper Karoo in the north. The Little Karoo’s boundaries are defined by mountain ranges to the west and south; the road between Uniondale and Willowmore is considered, by convention, to form the approximate arbitrary eastern extremity of the Little Karoo. Its extent is much smaller than that of the Great Karoo. Locally, it is called the Klein Karoo, Afrikaans for Little Karoo.
The Great Karoo straddles the 30° S parallel on the west of the continent, in a similar position to other semidesert areas on earth and south of the equator. It is furthermore in the rainfall shadow of the Cape Fold Mountains along the western coastline; the western "Lower Karoo" contain remnants of the Cape Fold Mountains which give it a moderate hilly appearance, but further east, the Lower Karoo becomes a monotonously flat plain. The "Upper Karoo" has been intruded by dolerite sills, creating multiple flat-topped hills, or Karoo Koppies, which are iconic of the Great Karoo; the vegetation of the Upper is similar to the Lower Karoo, so few people make a distinction between the two. The main highway and railway line from Cape Town to the north enter the Lower Karoo from the Hex River Valley just before Touws River and follow a course about 50 km south of the Great Escarpment up to Beaufort West. Thereafter, they ascend the Great Escarpment along a broad valley to Three Sisters on the Central Plateau and the Upper Karoo.
Turning north from the N1 between Touws River and Beaufort West, at Matjiesfontein, the road ascends the Great Escarpment through the Verlatenkloof Pass to reach Sutherland, at 1456 m above sea level, reputedly the coldest town in South Africa with average minimum temperatures of -6.1 °C during winter. Parts of the eastern Mpumalangan Highveld do at times experience lower temperatures than Sutherland, but not as as Sutherland does. Snowfalls are not infrequent during the southern winter months; the South African Astronomical Observatory has an emplacement of telescopes about 20 km east of the town, on a small plateau 1798 m above sea level, is home to the Southern African Large Telescope, the largest optical telescope in the Southern Hemisphere. To the north, still on the Plateau, 75 km north-west of Carnarvon, seven radio dishes form part of the Square Kilometer Array which will, 2500 in total, be scattered in other parts of South Africa and Australia, to survey the southern skies at radio frequencies.
Our galaxy, the Milky Way, one of the main targets of this enterprise, is b