A CD single is a music single in the form of a compact disc. The standard in the Red Book for the term CD single is an 8cm CD, it now refers to any single recorded onto a CD of any size the CD5, or 5-inch CD single. The format was introduced in the mid-1980s but did not gain its place in the market until the early 1990s. With the rise in digital downloads in the early 2010s, sales of CD singles have decreased. Commercially released CD singles can vary in length from two songs up to six songs like an EP; some contain multiple mixes of one or more songs, in the tradition of 12" vinyl singles, in some cases, they may contain a music video for the single itself as well as a collectible poster. Depending on the nation, there may be limits on the number of songs and total length for sales to count in singles charts. Dire Straits' "Brothers in Arms" is reported to have been the world's first CD single, issued in the UK in two separate singles as a promotional item, one distinguished with a logo for the tour, Live in'85, a second to commemorate the Australian leg of the tour marked Live in'86.
Containing four tracks, it had a limited print run. The first commercially released CD Single was Angeline by John Martyn released on 1 February 1986. CD singles were first made eligible for the UK Singles Chart in 1987, the first number 1 available on the format in that country was "I Wanna Dance with Somebody" by Whitney Houston in May 1987; the Mini CD single CD3 format was created for use for singles in the late 1980s, but met with limited success in the US. The smaller CDs were more successful in Japan and had a resurgence in Europe early this century, marketed as "Pock it" CDs, being small enough to fit in a shirt pocket. By 1989, the CD3 was in decline in the US, it was common in the 1990s for US record companies to release both a two-track CD and a multi-track maxi CD. In the UK, record companies would release two CDs but these consisted of three tracks or more each. During the 1990s, CD single releases became less common in certain countries and were released in smaller editions, as the major record labels feared they were cannibalizing the sales of higher-profit-margin CD albums.
Pressure from record labels made singles charts in some countries become song charts, allowing album cuts to chart based only on airplay, without a single being released. In the US, the Billboard Hot 100 made this change in December 1998, after which few songs were released in the CD single format in the US, but they remained popular in the UK and other countries, where charts were still based on single sales and not radio airplay. At the end of the 1990s, the CD was the biggest-selling single format in the UK, but in the US, the dominant single format was airplay. With the advent of digital music sales, the CD single has been replaced as a distribution format in most countries, most charts now include digital download counts as well as physical single sales. In Australia, the Herald Sun reported the CD single is "set to become extinct". In early July 2009, leading music store JB Hi-Fi ceased stocking CD singles because of declining sales, with copies of the week's No. 1 single selling as few as only 350 copies across all their stores nationwide.
While CD singles no longer maintain their own section of the store, copies are still distributed but placed with the artist's albums. That is predominantly the case for popular Australian artists such as Jessica Mauboy, Kylie Minogue and, most Delta Goodrem, whose then-recent singles were released on CD in limited quantities; the ARIA Singles Chart is now "predominantly compiled from legal downloads", ARIA stopped compiling their physical singles sales chart. "On a Mission" by Gabriella Cilmi was the last CD single to be stocked in Kmart and Big W, who concluded stocking newly released singles. Sanity Entertainment, having resisted the decline for longer than the other major outlets, has ceased selling CD singles. In China and South Korea, CD single releases have been rare since the format was introduced, due of the amount of infringement and illegal file sharing over the internet, most of the time singles have been album cuts chart based only on airplay, but with the advent of digital music the charts have occasionally included digital download counts.
In Greece and Cyprus, the term "CD single" is used to describe an extended play in which there may be anywhere from three to six different tracks. These releases charted on the Greek Singles Chart with songs released as singles; the original CD single is a music single released on a mini Compact Disc that measures 8 cm in diameter, rather than the standard 12 cm. They are manufactured using the same methods as standard full-size CDs, can be played in most standard audio CD players and CD-ROM disc drives; the format was first released in the United States, United Kingdom, France, West Germany, Hong Kong in 1987 as the replacement for the 7-inch single. While mini CDs have fallen out of popularity among most major record labels, they remain a popular, low cost way for independent musicians and groups to release music. Capable of holding up to 20 minutes of music, most mini CD singles contain at least two tracks, ofte
Alternative rock is a style of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1980s and became popular in the 1990s. In this instance, the word "alternative" refers to the genre's distinction from mainstream rock music; the term's original meaning was broader, referring to a generation of musicians unified by their collective debt to either the musical style or the independent, DIY ethos of punk rock, which in the late 1970s laid the groundwork for alternative music. At times, "alternative" has been used as a catch-all description for music from underground rock artists that receives mainstream recognition, or for any music, whether rock or not, seen to be descended from punk rock. Alternative rock broadly consists of music that differs in terms of its sound, social context and regional roots. By the end of the 1980s, magazines and zines, college radio airplay, word of mouth had increased the prominence and highlighted the diversity of alternative rock, helping to define a number of distinct styles such as noise pop, indie rock and shoegaze.
Most of these subgenres had achieved minor mainstream notice and a few bands representing them, such as Hüsker Dü and R. E. M. had signed to major labels. But most alternative bands' commercial success was limited in comparison to other genres of rock and pop music at the time, most acts remained signed to independent labels and received little attention from mainstream radio, television, or newspapers. With the breakthrough of Nirvana and the popularity of the grunge and Britpop movements in the 1990s, alternative rock entered the musical mainstream and many alternative bands became successful. In the past, popular music tastes were dictated by music executives within large entertainment corporations. Record companies signed contracts with those entertainers who were thought to become the most popular, therefore who could generate the most sales; these bands were able to record their songs in expensive studios, their works sold through record store chains that were owned by the entertainment corporations.
The record companies worked with radio and television companies to get the most exposure for their artists. The people making the decisions were business people dealing with music as a product, those bands who were not making the expected sales figures were excluded from this system. Before the term alternative rock came into common usage around 1990, the sort of music to which it refers was known by a variety of terms. In 1979, Terry Tolkin used the term Alternative Music to describe the groups. In 1979 Dallas radio station KZEW had a late night new wave show entitled "Rock and Roll Alternative". "College rock" was used in the United States to describe the music during the 1980s due to its links to the college radio circuit and the tastes of college students. In the United Kingdom, dozens of small do it yourself record labels emerged as a result of the punk subculture. According to the founder of one of these labels, Cherry Red, NME and Sounds magazines published charts based on small record stores called "Alternative Charts".
The first national chart based on distribution called the Indie Chart was published in January 1980. At the time, the term indie was used to describe independently distributed records. By 1985, indie' had come to mean a particular genre, or group of subgenres, rather than distribution status; the use of the term alternative to describe rock music originated around the mid-1980s. Individuals who worked as DJs and promoters during the 1980s claim the term originates from American FM radio of the 1970s, which served as a progressive alternative to top 40 radio formats by featuring longer songs and giving DJs more freedom in song selection. According to one former DJ and promoter, "Somehow this term'alternative' got rediscovered and heisted by college radio people during the 80s who applied it to new post-punk, indie, or underground-whatever music". At first the term referred to intentionally non–mainstream rock acts that were not influenced by "heavy metal ballads, rarefied new wave" and "high-energy dance anthems".
Usage of the term would broaden to include new wave, punk rock, post-punk, "college"/"indie" rock, all found on the American "commercial alternative" radio stations of the time such as Los Angeles' KROQ-FM. Journalist Jim Gerr wrote that Alternative encompassed variants such as "rap, trash and industrial". In December 1991, Spin magazine noted: "this year, for the first time, it became resoundingly clear that what has been considered alternative rock – a college-centered marketing group with lucrative, if limited, potential- has in fact moved into the mainstream"; the bill of the first Lollapalooza, an itinerant festival in North America conceived by Jane's Addiction frontman Perry Farrell, reunited "disparate elements of the alternative rock community" including Henry Rollins, Butthole Surfers, Ice-T, Nine Inch Nails and the Banshees and Jane's Addiction. That same year, Farrell coined the term Alternative Nation. In the late 1990s, the definition again became more specific. In 1997, Neil Strauss of The New York Times defined alternative rock as "hard-edged rock distinguished by brittle,'70s-inspired guitar riffing and singers agonizing over their problems until they take on epic proportions".
Defining music as alt
Hello (Poe album)
Hello is the debut album by the American singer-songwriter Poe. It was released in 1995 on Modern Records; the album was called "innovative" by critics due to its incorporation of R&B samples into an electronic soundscape, something, unheard of at the time. The first music video for the album was for the single "Angry Johnny"; the song's rage-filled lyrics found her being lumped into the "angry female rocker" category, the video was played on MTV's Alternative Nation. The second single, "Hello", did not fare as well, until a remix version was released two years after the album's initial release. At least one other track was remixed as well, since the 1999 cd-quality download of'Hello' contains a version of'Junkie' with more instrument layers, 6 seconds shorter than the 3:06 original. Hello was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America on November 20, 1996. All songs are written by Poe. Sample credits"Fingertips" contains a vocal sample from "Like a Lover" as performed by Sérgio Mendes and Brasil'66.
Poe – vocals Richard Barrow – flute Alex Blanc – guitar Jon Brooks – drums Jeffrey Connor – bass guitar, guitar Amp Fiddler – keyboard Eric Garcia – guitar, keyboard Dean Pleasants – guitar RJ Rice – keyboard Matt Sorum – drums Cameron Stone – cello Tony Wilson – guitar Jay Dee – drum programming Manager: Scott Ross, Maven Management Producers: RJ Rice, Jeffrey Connor, Dave Jerden, Poe Executive producer: Dave Jerden Engineers: Richard Barrow. Alex Blanc, Bryan Carlstrom, Eric Garcia, Dave Jerden, Steve Klein Assistant engineers: Amanda Cruz, Eddie Miller Mixing: Eric Garcia, Dave Jerden, Steve Klein, Poe Mastering: Eddy Schreyer Editing: Alex Blanc, Eric Garcia, Poe Production coordination: Amanda Cruz Programming: Lionel Cole, Rice, Jay Dee Bass programming: Jeffrey Connor Art direction: Stuart Beau Barton & Thomas Bricker Design: Stuart Beau Barton and Thomas Bricker Album Cover Photography: Stuart Beau Barton Photography: Thomas Bricker, Amanda Cruz Album – Billboard Singles – Billboard
In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
Haunted (Poe album)
Haunted is the second album by American singer-songwriter Poe, released in 2000 after a five-year hiatus from her debut album Hello in 1995. The self-produced album was created as a tribute to her father, counterpart to her brother Mark Z. Danielewski's novel House of Leaves. Haunted found Poe combining traditional pop notions with electronic and hard rock music; the album was a critical success. The song "Hey Pretty" was released as a promo single, but Poe's vocals had been replaced with a chapter reading from her brother, it reached No. 13 on Billboard's US Modern Rock chart. "Wild" was planned as a third single, garnering some radio play in the Chicago area after a promotional edit was released. The single was never released commercially, but featured a shorter radio mix in addition to an acoustic/rock version of the song; the title track was used as the theme song to the film Book of Shadows: Blair Witch 2. Haunted was referenced in the 2002 film Panic Room. In a conversation between Jodie Foster's character and the agent selling the home containing the panic room, Sarah Altman asks "Ever read any Poe?", to which the response given is "No, but I loved her last album!".
The song "Haunted" was featured at the end of the second episode of the video game Alan Wake for Xbox 360, as well as the Tai Chi Warmup in the Les Mills BodyBalance/BodyFlow program release number 54. The album featured samples of audio recordings made by Poe's father, film director Tad Danielewski; the cassettes were found by Poe and Mark after their father had died and were audio-letters to the two of them that spanned back as far as their birth. Thus, the album is interpreted as a real woman singing tributes to her deceased father while telling the story of a group of fictional characters. Haunted received positive reviews. On Metacritic, the album has a score of 76 out of 100, indicating "generally favorable reviews". MacKenzie Wilson of AllMusic gave the album a positive review, writing "Haunted is in its own class of twisted intelligence and beauty." In another positive review, PopMatters's Eden Miller wrote "Few musicians are on the same level as Poe in terms of her bravery exposing and expressing her own personal fears.
While it's a bit obvious to say it, Haunted will haunt you." In another positive review, Jason Mandell of LA Weekly wrote "Those without patience for such abstractions may find Haunted tiresome. The rest of us can rejoice in its originality and thank our lucky stars that Poe had the confidence and imagination to make it."In a mixed review, Rolling Stone's Neva Chonin wrote "Unfortunately, Haunted reverberates with tired samples, rehashed echo effects and beats so plodding they could stop a metronome." Q gave the album a mixed review, writing "The mood is too heavy for far too long, but some good songs and more cohesive, melodic structures augur well for this damaged daughter's future." Poe – vocals Daris Adkins – guitar Charlie Bisharat – violin Kenneth Burgomaster – keyboards David Campbell – viola Larry Corbett – cello Mark Z. Danielewski – vocals Mike "La Bomba" Elizondo – bass guitar Brandon Fields – saxophone Josh Freese – drums Gary Grant – trumpet Jerry Hey – trumpet Trevor Lawrence, Jr. – drums Priscilla Loeb – vocals Jamie Muhoberac – keyboards John O'Brien – fiddle Melissa Rogers – vocals Samantha Rogers – vocals Madison Rubel – vocals Bill Reichenbach – trombone Michael Urbano – drums Joey Waronker – drums Producers: Poe, Olle Romo, Matt Wilder, Matt Wallace, Mike Urban Engineers: Kirk Fyvie, Phil Kaffel, Chad Bamford Mixing: Paul Leary, Olle Romo, David Thoener Programming: Poe, John O'Brien, Olle Romo Arranger: David Campbell Album – Billboard Singles – Billboard
"Hey Pretty" is a song by singer-songwriter Poe. The song in its original version, on her 2000 album Haunted, was a sultry pop rant of a woman seeking sexual satisfaction on any grounds possible, it was remade with most of her vocals eliminated and replaced with a reading by her brother, author Mark Z. Danielewski, from his hit book House of Leaves; this new version became. Getting "Hey Pretty" on the radio was a challenge in 2001 as alternative radio was playing few female-led acts in the post-Lilith Fair backlash. In an interview with MTV, Poe explained the way in which the Drive-By Remix came about: "Radio was not interested. I called a few program directors, they,'We love the record, but we're just not playing women.' This one in Portland, said,'My station is in the same boat. Do some crazy mix that you think will fit this format, I'll play it once.' I go home, I'm like,'They're not playing women? Fine, I've got a brother.' So I called my brother, I'm like,'You gotta come over and read a piece of your book in this song.'... played it and got inundated with phone calls.
By the end of the week he had played it 25 times, which wouldn't have meant all that much because it's a small station in Portland. But the next week, KROQ in Los Angeles had it...."There are at least two different versions. One ends with the line, "Dark Languages Rarely Survive," followed by a woman saying, "Das nicht zu Hause sein" twice; this is German for a recurring phrase in the book House of Leaves. The second ending has that line followed by Poe coming back in with the chorus; the video, directed by Matthew Rolston, features erotic imagery of a scantily-dressed Poe washing and lounging on a vintage car along with a look-alike model with a similar build and identical outfit. The car scenes are interlaced with shots of Mark Danielewski performing the spoken-word portions of the song, as well as footage of Poe and her look-alike mud wrestling; the song was featured on the soundtrack to the MTV original series Spyder Games. In January 2009 Ford began using the original version of the song in television commercials.
"Hey Pretty" – 3:53 "Hey Pretty" – 3:46 Billboard
Big Shiny Tunes
Big Shiny Tunes is a series of rock albums compiled and released by the Canadian music television station MuchMusic, through MusiquePlus in Quebec, beginning in 1996. The best-selling album of the series was Big Shiny Tunes 2, certified Diamond in Canada by the CRIA on March 25, 1998, it has been cited as the best-selling album series in Canadian history, with 5 million albums sold in ten years. The Big Shiny Tunes albums are each thought to be composed of a combination of rock songs that are major hits by well-known artists, less successful songs by well-known artists and songs by more obscure artists, released in the same year as the albums' publication. There are a combination of Canadian and American performers. One common feature among the selected artists is that they are attached to Universal Music, Warner Bros. EMI Music Canada, and/or MuchMusic, who come together to produce Big Shiny Tunes albums; the most appearing band in the Big Shiny Tunes series is Nickelback, who appeared on 7 releases in the series Part of the appeal of the series is that those who do not buy albums will find Big Shiny Tunes provides several well-known songs, as opposed to a CD by a single artist whose non-single tracks may be unfamiliar.
The music is aimed at young adults. There has been some criticism of consistency in regards to the use of censored versus uncensored versions of songs from album to album. In addition to the ordinary albums in the series, MuchMusic released albums that compile the biggest hits across a span of years, such as Big Shiny 80s that included classics like Billy Idol's "White Wedding." There have been two volumes of Big Shiny 90s released. The album Big Shiny Tunes was released in 1996. A new edition was released every year after until 2009, with Big Shiny Tunes 2 being successful. Big Shiny Tunes 2 had been accompanied by heavy advertising; the next year, MuchMusic assembled Big Shiny Tunes 3 by having its audience vote on which songs they would like to have included, a novel process. The success of the series continued as Big Shiny Tunes 6 sold 68,500 copies in its first week in 2001, more than any other album in Canada that week. However, the series soon lost its predominance with the growth in popularity of rap music, as the next year Big Shiny Tunes 7 was outsold in its first week in Canada by Eminem's soundtrack to the film 8 Mile.
Still, Big Shiny Tunes 7 sold 25,100 copies that week. Big Shiny Tunes 8, released in 2003 made the best-seller list in Canada; the last album in the series, Big Shiny Tunes 14, was released on October 20, 2009. As of 2010, the series is on an indefinite hiatus. Note: Was certified 3x Platinum in Canada on April 24, 1997. Note: Best-selling album of the series. Was certified Diamond in Canada on March 25, 1998. Note: Was certified 8x Platinum in Canada on February 19, 1999. Note: Was certified 8x Platinum in Canada on November 6, 2000. Note: Was certified 6x Platinum in Canada on December 6, 2001. Note: Sold 68,500 copies in its first week. However, it has not been certified by the CRIA. Note: Was certified 3x Platinum in Canada on September 17, 2009. Note: Was certified 2x Platinum in Canada on January 22, 2004. Note: Was certified Platinum in Canada on March 22, 2005. Notes: When the track listing was shown via online music stores such as Mymusic before the official site opened, songs by Green Day, System of a Down, Arcade Fire and the Foo Fighters were shown to be on the album.
Notes: The album's official site lists "Stricken" by Disturbed as being on the album as well, but it doesn't appear in the final product. The album was certified Platinum in Canada on February 1, 2007. Note: Was certified Gold in Canada on July 30, 2008. Disc 1: Disc 2: Note: Was certified 2x Platinum in Canada in February 2004. Disc 1: Disc 2: Disc 1: The Buggles – "Video Killed the Radio Star" Gary Numan – "Cars" Blondie – "Call Me" Duran Duran – "Hungry Like the Wolf" A Flock of Seagulls – "I Ran" The Fixx – "One Thing Leads to Another" Talk Talk – "It's My Life" INXS – "Original Sin" David Bowie – "Modern Love" Peter Gabriel – "Shock the Monkey" The Cars – "You Might Think" Devo – "Whip It" Martha and the Muffins – "Echo Beach" Squeeze – "Another Nail in My Heart" Nena – "99 Luftballons" Disc 2: The Clash – "Train in Vain" The Boomtown Rats – "I Don't Like Mondays" Billy Idol – "White Wedding" The Pretenders – "Back on the Chain Gang" Fine Young Cannibals – "Suspicious Minds" Ramones – "Rock'n' Roll High School" The B-52's – "Love Shack" Rough Trade – "High School Confidential" The Psychedelic Furs – "Love My Way" Split Enz – "I Got You" The Dream Academy – "Life in a Northern Town" Chalk Circle – "April Fool" Tears for Fears – "Pale Shelter" The Cure – "In Between Days" Naked Eyes – "Always Something There to Remind Me" MuchDance MuchMusic's Big Shiny Tunes 12 website MuchMusic's Big Shiny Tunes 13 website