La Rioja (Spain)
La Rioja is an autonomous community and a province in Spain, located in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Its capital is Logroño. Other cities and towns in the province include Calahorra, Alfaro, Santo Domingo de la Calzada, Nájera, it has an estimated population of 315,675 inhabitants, making it the least populated region of Spain. It covers part of the Iberian Range in the south; the community is a single province, so there is no County Council, it is organized into 174 municipalities. It borders the Basque Country to the north, Navarre to the northeast, Aragón to the southeast, Castilla y León to the west and south; the area was once occupied by pre-Roman Berones and Basques. After partial recapture from the Muslims in the early tenth century, the region became part of the Kingdom of Pamplona being incorporated into Castile after a century and a half of disputes. From the eighteenth century the Rioja region remained divided between the provinces of Burgos and Soria, until in 1833 the province of Logroño was created, changing the name of the province to La Rioja in 1980 as a prelude to its constitution under a single provincial autonomous community in 1982.
The name "Rioja" is first attested in 1099. The region is well known for its wines under the brand Denominación de Origen Calificada Rioja. In Roman times the territory of La Rioja was inhabited by the tribes of the Berones and the Vascones, it was part of the province of Hispania Tarraconensis. In medieval times La Rioja was a disputed territory; the Visigoths created the Duchy of Cantabria that included most of La Rioja, as a border march against the Vascones. After the Muslim invasion of AD 711, La Rioja fell into the Muslim domains of Al Andalus. Most of the territory was reconquered in 923 by Sancho I of Pamplona, acting for the Kingdom of Pamplona together with the Kingdom of León and the Counts of Castile, feudal lords of the Leonese King; the lower region around Arnedo came under control of his allies the Banu Qasi of Tudela. The territory to the east of the Leza River remained under Muslim control. There was a dispute between Count Fernán González of Castile and the kings of Pamplona-Navarra, involving great battles.
It was decided in favour of the Navarrese after the imprisonment of the Count's family in Cirueña, in 960. La Rioja formed the independent Kingdom of Viguera from 970 to about 1005, at which point it became a part of the Kingdom of Pamplona. Sancho Garcés moved the capital of the Kingdom of Pamplona to Nájera, creating the so-called kingdom of Nájera-Pamplona which was, due to its large size, the first Spanish Empire. After the independence of Castile in 1035, this new kingdom fiercely fought against Pamplona for the possession of Bureba, La Rioja and other territories. In 1076, after the murder of Sancho IV, Navarre was divided among Aragon. Castile obtained La Rioja, together with other Navarrese lands; the name "La Rioja" first appears in written records in the Miranda de Ebro charter of 1099. The territory was centred on the fortified site of Logroño: the 12th-century church Iglesia de Santa Maria de Palacio recalls its origin as a chapel of the administrative palace. Logroño was a borderland disputed between the kings of Navarre and the kings of Castile from the 10th century.
The region was awarded to Castile in a judgement by Henry II of England and annexed in 1177. Its importance lay in part in the pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela, the Camino de Santiago, which crossed the River Ebro on the stone bridge, the Puente de Piedra. Up to the 19th century the territory remained divided between the provinces of Soria; the region was taken by Napoleonic forces in the Peninsular War and remained solidly in French hands until 1814. In the 1810 project of Llorente it was to be a part of the prefecture of Arlanzón with its capital in Burgos; the Constitutional Cortes declared La Rioja an independent province at the time of the Liberal Constitution of 1812, during the Liberal Triennium in January 1822 the province of Logroño was created by royal decree as part of the administrative reform of Riego, taking in the whole of the historical territory of La Rioja. However, Ferdinand VII soon annulled these decisions and restored most of the previous territorial divisions.
In the 1833 reorganization, a province of Logroño was again formed within the region of Castilla la Vieja. The province increased its territory temporarily in 1841. In 1980 the province changed its name to La Rioja, following the adoption of the Estatuto de San Millán in 1982, during the reorganization following the Spanish transition to democracy, it was constituted as a uni-provincial autonomous community, it has the smallest population. Nearly half of its citizens live in the capital. La Rioja is bordered by the Basque Country, Aragón, Castile and León; the river Ebro flows through this region. The Ebro runs through the north of the community; the entire right bank belongs to La Rioja. There are only three municipalities, Briñas, San Vicente de la Sonsierra and Ábalos on the left bank(kn
Bobadilla, La Rioja
Bobadilla is a municipality in the Province of La Rioja, Spain
Provinces of Spain
Spain and its autonomous communities are divided into fifty provinces. Spain's provincial system was recognized in its 1978 constitution but its origin dates back to 1833. Ceuta and the Plazas de soberanía are not part of any provinces; the layout of Spain's provinces follows the pattern of the territorial division of the country carried out in 1833. The only major change of provincial borders since that time has been the subdivision of the Canary Islands into two provinces rather than one; the provinces served as transmission belts for policies enacted in Madrid, as Spain was a centralised state for most of its modern history. The importance of the provinces has declined since the adoption of the system of autonomous communities in the period of the Spanish transition to democracy, they remain electoral districts for national elections and as geographical references: for instance in postal addresses and telephone codes. A small town would be identified as being in, Valladolid province rather than the autonomous community of Castile and León.
The provinces were the "building-blocks". No province is divided between more than one of these communities. Most of the provinces—with the exception of Álava, Biscay, Guipúzcoa, Balearic Islands, La Rioja, Navarra — are named after their principal town. Only two capitals of autonomous communities — Mérida in Extremadura and Santiago de Compostela in Galicia — are not the capitals of provinces. Seven of the autonomous communities comprise no more than one province each: Asturias, Balearic Islands, Cantabria, La Rioja, Madrid and Navarra; these are sometimes referred to as "uniprovincial" communities. The table below lists the provinces of Spain. For each, the capital city is given, together with an indication of the autonomous community to which it belongs and a link to a list of municipalities in the province; the names of the provinces and their capitals are ordered alphabetically according to the form in which they appear in the main Wikipedia articles describing them. Unless otherwise indicated, their Spanish language names are the same.
List of Spanish provinces by population List of Spanish provinces by area Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces Autonomous communities of Spain Comarcas of Spain ISO 3166-2:ESGeneral: Political divisions of Spain Maps of the provinces of Spain Maps of Spain's Provinces List of municipalities of Spain listed by province from the Spanish INE
Aguilar del Río Alhama
Aguilar del Río Alhama is a village in the province and autonomous community of La Rioja, Spain. The municipality covers an area of 54.11 square kilometres and as of 2011 had a population of 549 people. It is located in the foothills of the Iberian System, it is washed by the waters of the Alhama river. The municipality is located in the extreme southeast of La Rioja, in the foothills of the Sierra del Pelago, it is bordered to the north and east by Cervera del Rio Alhama, west by Valdemadera and Navajún, to the south by four municipalities in Soria province, San Felices, Dévanos and Ágreda. The earliest record of the municipality dates from the 12th century when it was incorporated into Castile in 1198. In 1269 Theobald II of Navarre included it in the jurisdiction of Viana and granted a weekly market on Tuesdays. In 1271 Henry I of Navarre ordered the residents of the village of Rio to relocate to the village to form a single municipality. In 1273 Pedro Sanchez de Monteagut, lord of Cascante, who owned the village, donated it to King Henry.
In 1302 toll collectors from Tudela claimed rights over the village as a result of which they complained to Alfonso Robray, governor of Navarre, who ordered them not to worry. In the 14th century, it was integrated into the lordship of Cameros. John II, in 1452, liberated the entire village from the perpetual tax on wine which they sold, for having been faithful, although they may have experienced theft, arrest or were killed. In 1463 Henry IV of Castile subjected many villages to his dominion, including Aguilar, under the compromisal ruling granted by Louis XI of France. In the 16th century, the Aguilar County was created; until the late 16th century, Aguilar del Rio Alhama was an Islamic community of Moriscos. In the 1580s, it was the scene of one of the worst collective persecutions of an entire Morisco community in the history of the Inquisition, when nearly 30 adults from a village of some hundred households were burned at the stake or died in prison for secretly practising Islamic rituals.
The Morisco community never recovered, in the early years of the 17th century, all Moriscos were expelled from Spain by royal edict. An alcohol mine was discovered in 1747 in a place called Santo de la Peña. Here a small extraction was conducted and this was sold to potters from Ágreda. There is no evidence. During the Cretaceous period the zone where Aguilar del Río Alhama occupies formed part of a flooded plain, eroded periodically, leaving behind muddy areas where dinosaur tracks remained marked into its path; these were dried and covered with new sediment whose weight compressed the lower layers, causing them to solidify into rocks over millions of years. Erosion has been wearing down the upper layers resulting in many of these rock formations becoming visible, revealing the footprints; the town is the site of "La Virgen del Prado", declared Bien de Interés Cultural in the category of Historic Site on 23 June 2000. It is located near the village of Inestrillas next to the chapel that lends its name to the site, 2.4 km from the road.
It is accessible. In it there are 36 footprints of carnivorous dinosaurs between 30 and 32 cm in the length which shows three stylized fingers. Four of the footprints form the rest are isolated. Aguilar del Río Alhama has the peculiarity of containing the oldest footprints in La Rioja. Fish scales of the genus Lepidotes have been found; the closure, in 1959, of a textile factory which employed a number of people, caused a rapid decline in the population, as many had to move to other areas in search of work. On 1 January 2010 the population was 573 inhabitants, 275 men and 298 women; as at 1 January 2010, Aguilar del Río Alhama had a population of 493 inhabitants with 241 men and 252 women. County road 284 connects Aguilar to the head of the region. Inestrillas, a village located in this same county, is found on this road. Route 388 connects to the Soria towns of San Castilruiz. Route 490 connects to Navajún. There is bus service from: Logroño Cervera del Rio Alhama Calahorra. Weekdays only. Alfaro. Weekdays only.
Tudela Church of the Assumption: Made up of a single nave with three sections and was built with stone and ashlar in the 16th century. It has starry ribbed four side chapels, it features baroque altarpieces. There is a Gothic sculpture of the Virgen de los Remedios and a recumbent Christ from the 18th century; the Valvanera or Santa María La Antigua Hermitage: From the Romanesque period. Castle: It was located on top of the hill next to the village and was built in the 12th century. Only its ruins remain. Contrebia Leukade: was a Celtiberian city, its ruins are preserved in good condition. It is adjacent to the village of Inestrillas. Gutur: is a deserted village. There are a lot of vultures flying over the town. There are golden eagles and hawks. There is the Mustela putorius or European polecat. In the municipality, besides common trees such as the oak or elder, there is found the pistacia terebinthus or turpentine tree, the acer monspessulanum or black maple, Juniperus phoenicea or Phoenicean Juniper, the Juniperus oxycedrus or prickly Juniper, cistus albidus or white rockrose.
January 17, San Antón. May 3, Day of the Cross, it was moved to the first Saturday in May and is a pilgrimage to the shrine of the Virgen de los Remedios in Gutur. Bodigos (bread stuffed with egg and saus
Cañas, La Rioja
Cañas is a municipality of La Rioja, Spain. It was the birthplace of Saint Dominic of Silos; the abbey of Santa María de San Salvador de Cañas for Cistercian nuns was founded in this town by Lope Díaz I de Haro and his wife Aldonza in 1169 and 1170. Its wealth and power culminated during the 13th century under the abbess Urraca Díaz de Haro, between 1222 and 1262; the nuns benefited from the patronage of the Haro family until its extinction in 1322. The community is still active today and retains fragments of it medieval library a complete Burgundian antiphonary from around 1200, a Castilian missal from 1267–1279
Autonomous communities of Spain
In Spain, an autonomous community is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain. Spain is not a federation, but a decentralized unitary state. While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the nation has, in variable degrees, devolved power to the communities, which, in turn, exercise their right to self-government within the limits set forth in the constitution and their autonomous statutes; each community has its own set of devolved powers. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name, or a "federation without federalism". There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies"; the two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet exercised it.
This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, which contain all the competences that they assume. Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a diverse country made up of several different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical and cultural traditions. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown in 1479 this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation; the constituent territories—be it crowns, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories exhibited a variety of local customs, laws and currencies until the mid nineteenth century.
From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries; this culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served as transmission belts for policies developed in Madrid. However, unlike in other European countries such as France, where regional languages were spoken in rural areas or less developed regions, two important regional languages of Spain were spoken in some of the most industrialized areas, moreover, enjoyed higher levels of prosperity, in addition to having their own cultures and historical consciousness; these were Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism; therefore and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. As such, Spanish history since the late 19th century has been shaped by a dialectical struggle between Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalisms in Catalonia and the Basque Country, to a lesser degree in Galicia.
In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1914, only to be abolished in 1923. It was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonia's mediaeval institution of government, was restored; the constitution of 1931 envisaged a territorial division for all Spain in "autonomous regions", never attained—only Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia had approved "Statutes of Autonomy"—the process being thwarted by the Spanish Civil War that broke out in 1936, the victory of the rebel Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco. During General Franco's dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the "unity of the Spanish nation". Peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats, his attempts to fight separatism with heavy-handed but sporadic repression, his severe suppression of language and regional identities backfired: the demands for democracy became intertwined with demands for the recognition of a pluralistic vision of the Spanish nationhood.
When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy. The most difficult task of the newly democratically elected Cortes Generales in 1977 acting as a Constituent Assembly was to transition from a unitary centralized state into a decentralized state in a way that would satisfy the demands of the peripheral nationalists; the Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. Shortly after, the government allowed the creation of "assemblies of members of parliament" integrated by deputies and senators of the different territories of Spain, so that they could constitute "pre-autonomic regimes" for their regions as well; the Fathers of the Constitution had to strike a balance between the opposing views of Spain—on the one hand, the centralist view inherited from Franco's regime, on the other hand federalism and a pluralistic view of Spain as a "nation of nations".
Cabezón de Cameros
Cabezón de Cameros, a municipality in La Rioja, with a population of only 24, is one of the 10 least populated municipalities in this region, one of the 100 least populated of Spain, as a whole. In 2001, the population was 21, in 1991, 32. Cabezón de Cameros ranks fourth in Spain with respect to the male:female population ratio, its surface is 12 km² and its population density, 1,75 p/km². Its geographic coordinates are: 42 ° 11' N, longitude: 2 ° 31' W, altitude: 923 meters; the distance from Logroño, the regional capital, is 43 kilometers. The mayor of Cabezón de Cameros is Mr. Valentín Gerardo Aragón Blanco, of the Partido Popular. In the 2004 Spanish General Election the Partido Socialista Obrero Español got 80.0% in Cabezón de Cameros, the Partido Popular got 15.0% of the vote, Izquierda Unida, got 5.0%