Letham is a village in Angus, Scotland. Letham is the largest village in Angus, with a population of nearly 2,000. Situated 17 miles from Dundee, 5 miles from Forfar, 10 miles from Arbroath and 10 miles from Carnoustie. There are some shops, including two groceries, one of which incorporates the Post Office and newsagent, a primary school, a bakery, a hairdresser, a take-away restaurant, a hotel with a function suite and bar, the Commercial Inn and a known craft shop; the village is part of the parish of Letham and Kirkden. In and around the Village is an extensive pattern of green paths which are kept cut by a group of volunteers, giving the village many and varied places to walk. Highlight of the village year is the Victorian Market; the Village Square is closed to traffic for 24 hours, allowing 50 stalls to be set up. The common theme is that stall-holders must wear Victorian dress, their wares being varied. Anything from antiques to roast-boar can be found. In March and December, Craft Fairs are held, with crafts-people coming from all over Scotland to exhibit their goods.
Many organisations and groups exist to enhance village life, the oldest of these being the Feuars Committee, which manages properties, held in trust for the people of the village. The Victorian market and the Christmas decorations, carol singing and visit by Santa are some of the activities that are organized and subsidized by the Feuars' Committee. There is a local drama group which puts on productions every year, working with young people in the village. Nearby is the village of Dunnichen, believed to be the site of the Battle of Nechtansmere, the villages of Bowriefauld and Craichie. To the north of the village there is a Pictish stone with a cup and ring marking, locally known as the Girdlestane. Pictish stones have been found in many sites in Angus. Letham is twinned with Monasterboice, County Louth, Ireland
Kirstene Janette Hair is a Scottish Conservative Party politician. She was elected as the Member of Parliament for Angus in June 2017. Hair was born in Brechin and was raised among a large farming family, she studied at the University of Aberdeen from dropped out. Hair was the Conservative candidate for Angus South in the 2016 Scottish Parliament election, being defeated by incumbent Scottish National Party MSP Graeme Dey, with an increased share of the vote for the Conservatives. Prior to her election as an MP, Hair worked for publishers DC Thomson. Hair was elected to the House of Commons in 2017, overturning a majority of over 11,000 to unseat the Scottish National Party chief whip Mike Weir in a sequence of seat gains for the Scottish Conservatives. Hair is the first Conservative Party representative for the area since 1987 and is one of the youngest MPs in Parliament. In September 2017, Hair said that she had not voted in the June 2016 referendum on Brexit because the choice was "very difficult".
She added: "I just couldn't make that decision and I thought I would therefore go with the will of the UK which if I'm honest I thought we would remain". Profile at Parliament of the United Kingdom Contributions in Parliament at Hansard 2010–present Voting record at Public Whip Record in Parliament at TheyWorkForYou
Aberdeenshire is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. It takes its name from the County of Aberdeen which has different boundaries; the Aberdeenshire council area includes all of the area of the historic counties of Aberdeenshire and Kincardineshire, as well as part of Banffshire. The county boundaries are used for a few purposes, namely land registration and lieutenancy. Aberdeenshire Council is headquartered at Woodhill House, in Aberdeen, making it the only Scottish council whose headquarters are located outside its jurisdiction. Aberdeen itself forms a different council area. Aberdeenshire borders onto Angus and Perth and Kinross to the south and Moray to the west and Aberdeen City to the east. Traditionally, it has been economically dependent upon the primary sector and related processing industries. Over the last 40 years, the development of the oil and gas industry and associated service sector has broadened Aberdeenshire's economic base, contributed to a rapid population growth of some 50% since 1975.
Its land represents 8% of Scotland's overall territory. It covers an area of 6,313 square kilometres. Aberdeenshire has a rich historic heritage, it is the locus of a large number of Neolithic and Bronze Age archaeological sites, including Longman Hill, Kempstone Hill, Catto Long Barrow and Cairn Lee. The area was settled in the Bronze Age by the Beaker culture, who arrived from the south around 2000–1800 BC. Stone circles and cairns were constructed predominantly in this era. In the Iron Age, hill forts were built. Around the 1st century AD, the Taexali people, who have left little history, were believed to have resided along the coast; the Picts were the next documented inhabitants of the area, were no than 800–900 AD. The Romans were in the area during this period, as they left signs at Kintore. Christianity influenced the inhabitants early on, there were Celtic monasteries at Old Deer and Monymusk. Since medieval times there have been a number of traditional paths that crossed the Mounth through present-day Aberdeenshire from the Scottish Lowlands to the Highlands.
Some of the most well known and important trackways are the Causey Mounth and Elsick Mounth. Aberdeenshire played an important role in the fighting between the Scottish clans. Clan MacBeth and the Clan Canmore were two of the larger clans. Macbeth fell at Lumphanan in 1057. During the Anglo-Norman penetration, other families arrives such as House of Balliol, Clan Bruce, Clan Cumming; when the fighting amongst these newcomers resulted in the Scottish Wars of Independence, the English king Edward I traveled across the area twice, in 1296 and 1303. In 1307, Robert the Bruce was victorious near Inverurie. Along with his victory came new families, namely the Forbeses and the Gordons; these new families set the stage for the upcoming rivalries during the 15th centuries. This rivalry grew worse during and after the Protestant Reformation, when religion was another reason for conflict between the clans; the Gordon family adhered to the Forbes to Protestantism. Aberdeenshire was the historic seat of the clan Dempster.
Three universities were founded in the area prior to the 17th century, King's College in Old Aberdeen, Marischal College in Aberdeen, the University of Fraserburgh. After the end of the Revolution of 1688, an extended peaceful period was interrupted only by such fleeting events such as the Rising of 1715 and the Rising of 1745; the latter resulted in the end of the ascendancy of Episcopalianism and the feudal power of landowners. An era began of industrial progress. During the 17th century, Aberdeenshire was the location of more fighting, centered on the Marquess of Montrose and the English Civil Wars; this period saw increased wealth due to the increase in trade with Germany and the Low Countries. The present council area is named after the historic county of Aberdeenshire, which has different boundaries and was abandoned as an administrative area in 1975 under the Local Government Act 1973, it was replaced by Grampian Regional Council and five district councils: Banff and Buchan, Gordon and Deeside, Moray and the City of Aberdeen.
Local government functions were shared between the two levels. In 1996, under the Local Government etc Act 1994, the Banff and Buchan district, Gordon district and Kincardine and Deeside district were merged to form the present Aberdeenshire council area. Moray and the City of Aberdeen were made their own council areas; the present Aberdeenshire council area consists of all of the historic counties of Aberdeenshire and Kincardineshire, as well as northeast portions of Banffshire. The population of the council area has risen over 50% since 1971 to 261,800, representing 4.7% of Scotland's total. Aberdeenshire's population has increased by 9.1% since 2001, while Scotland's total population grew by 3.8%. The census lists a high proportion of under 16s and fewer people of working-age compared with the Scottish average. Aberdeenshire is one of the most homogeneous regions of the UK. In 2011 82.2% of residents identified as'White Scottish', followed by 12.3% who are'White British'. The largest ethnic minority group are Asian Scottish/British at 0.8%.
The fourteen biggest settlements in Aberdeenshire are: Peterhead Fraserburgh (12,54
2011 Scottish Parliament election
The 2011 Scottish Parliament election was held on Thursday, 5 May 2011 to elect 129 members to the Scottish Parliament. The election delivered the first majority government since the opening of Holyrood, a remarkable feat as the Additional Member System used to elect MSPs was implemented to prevent any party achieving an overall parliamentary majority; the Scottish National Party won 69 seats, the most the party has held at either a Holyrood or Westminster election, allowing leader Alex Salmond to remain First Minister of Scotland. The SNP gained 32 constituencies, twenty two from the Scottish Labour Party, nine from the Scottish Liberal Democrats and one from the Scottish Conservatives; such was the scale of their gains that, of the 73 constituencies in Scotland, only 20 came to be represented by MSPs of other political parties. The Scottish Labour Party lost seven seats and suffered their worst election defeat in Scotland since 1931, with huge losses in their traditional Central Belt constituencies and for the first time having to rely on the regional lists to elect members within these areas.
They did, remain the largest opposition party. Party leader Iain Gray announced his resignation following his party's disappointing result; the Scottish Liberal Democrats were soundly defeated. Tavish Scott announced his resignation as party leader shortly after the election. For Scottish Conservatives, the election proved disappointing as their popular vote dropped and their number of seats fell by 2, with party leader Annabel Goldie announcing her resignation. During the campaign, the four main party leaders engaged in a series of televised debates, as they had in every previous general election; these key debates were held on 29 March, 1 May, 3 May. The results of the election were broadcast live on BBC Scotland and STV, on the night of the election, it was the fourth general election since the devolved parliament was established in 1999 and was held on the same day as elections to the National Assembly for Wales and the Northern Ireland Assembly, as well as English local elections and the UK-wide referendum on the alternative vote.
Under the Scotland Act 1998, an ordinary general election to the Scottish Parliament was held on the first Thursday in May four years after the 2007 election. Because of the problems of voter confusion and a high number of spoilt ballots in 2007 due to holding Scottish parliamentary and local elections and under different voting systems, the next Scottish local elections were held in 2012 instead of 2011; this policy decision was contradicted, however, by the staging of the Alternative Vote referendum on 5 May 2011 as well. Labour MP Ian Davidson expressed opposition to the referendum being staged on the same date as other elections. Scottish Secretary Michael Moore stated that having the referendum on another date would cost an additional £17 million. British, Irish and European Union citizens living in Scotland who were aged 18 or over on election day were entitled to vote; the deadline to register to vote in the election was midnight on Friday 15 April 2011, though anyone who qualified as an anonymous elector had until midnight on Tuesday 26 April 2011 to register.
It was held on the same day as elections for Northern Ireland's 26 local councils, the Northern Irish Assembly and Welsh Assembly elections, a number of local elections in England and the United Kingdom Alternative Vote referendum. The table below shows the notional figures for seats won by each party at the last election; the Conservatives have been the biggest gainers as a result of the boundary changes, winning an extra 3 seats and Labour has lost the most seats, losing 2 overall. The total number of Members of the Scottish Parliament elected to the Parliament is 129; the First Periodical Review of the Scottish Parliament's constituencies and regions by the Boundary Commission for Scotland was announced on 3 July 2007. The Commission published its provisional proposals for the regional boundaries in 2009; the Scottish Parliament uses an Additional Members System, designed to produce approximate proportional representation for each region. There are 8 regions each sub-divided into smaller constituencies.
There are a total of 73 constituencies. Each constituency elects one by the plurality system of election; each region elects seven additional member MSPs using an additional member system. A modified D'Hondt method, using the constituency results, is used to calculate which additional member MSPs the regions elect; the Scottish Parliament constituencies have not been coterminous with Scottish Westminster constituencies since the 2005 general election, when the 72 former Westminster constituencies were replaced with a new set of 59 larger, constituencies. For details of the Revised proposals for constituencies at the Next Scottish Parliament election - Scottish Parliament constituencies and regions from 2011 The Boundary Commission have recommended changes to the electoral regions used to elect "list" members of the Scottish Parliament; the recommendations can be summarised below. Glasgow Govan was replaced by Glasgow Southside; the seats of Glasgow Maryhill, Glasgow Springburn and Glasgow Baillieston were abolished and their territory was divided between the newly created Glasgow Maryhill and Springburn and Glasgow Provan, as well as the existing Glasgow Shettleston seat, moved eastwards.
Highlands and Islands retained 8 constituency seats. Caithness and Easter Ross was replaced with the larger Caithness and Ross seat. Ross, Skye an
Lunan is a hamlet in Angus, Scotland, in the parish of the same name, 6 kilometres south of Montrose. The hamlet overlooks Lunan Bay, itself a hamlet, at the mouth of the Lunan Water. A 16th-century priest of Lunan church, in the hamlet of Lunan Bay, Walter Mill, was one of the last Scottish Protestant martyrs to be burned at St. Andrews; the church itself was rebuilt in 1844. The 15th-century Red Castle, so called from the red sandstone it is built from, is located 500 metres to the south of the hamlet, on the south bank of the Lunan Water. Lunan in the Gazetteer for Scotland. "Red Castle, Site Number NO65SE 10.00". CANMORE. RCAHMS. Retrieved 2009-09-14
Voter turnout is the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election. Eligibility varies by country, the voting-eligible population should not be confused with the total adult population. Age and citizenship status are among the criteria used to determine eligibility, but some countries further restrict eligibility based on sex, race, or religion. After increasing for many decades, there has been a trend of decreasing voter turnout in most established democracies since the 1980s. In general, low turnout is attributed to indifference, or a sense of futility. According to Stanford University political scientists Adam Bonica and Michael McFaul, there is a consensus among political scientists that "democracies perform better when more people vote."Low turnout is considered to be undesirable. As a result, there have been many efforts to increase voter turnout and encourage participation in the political process. In spite of significant study into the issue, scholars are divided on the reasons for the decline.
Its cause has been attributed to a wide array of economic, cultural and institutional factors. Different countries have different voter turnout rates. For example, turnout in the United States 2012 presidential election was about 55%. In both Belgium, which has obligatory attendance, Malta, which does not, participation reaches about 95%. In Belgium there is obligatory attendance, misinterpreted as compulsory voting The chance of any one vote determining the outcome is low; some studies show that a single vote in a voting scheme such as the Electoral College in the United States has an lower chance of determining the outcome. Other studies claim that the Electoral College increases voting power. Studies using game theory, which takes into account the ability of voters to interact, have found that the expected turnout for any large election should be zero; the basic formula for determining whether someone will vote, on the questionable assumption that people act rationally, is P B + D > C, where P is the probability that an individual's vote will affect the outcome of an election, B is the perceived benefit that would be received if that person's favored political party or candidate were elected, D stood for democracy or civic duty, but today represents any social or personal gratification an individual gets from voting, C is the time and financial cost involved in voting.
Since P is zero in most elections, PB is near zero, D is thus the most important element in motivating people to vote. For a person to vote, these factors must outweigh C. Experimental political science has found that when P is greater than zero, this term has no effect on voter turnout. Enos and Fowler conducted a field experiment that exploits the rare opportunity of a tied election for major political office. Informing citizens that the special election to break the tie will be close has little mobilizing effect on voter turnout. Riker and Ordeshook developed the modern understanding of D, they listed five major forms of gratification that people receive for voting: complying with the social obligation to vote. Other political scientists have since added other motivators and questioned some of Riker and Ordeshook's assumptions. All of these concepts are inherently imprecise, making it difficult to discover why people choose to vote. Several scholars have considered the possibility that B includes not only a personal interest in the outcome, but a concern for the welfare of others in the society.
In particular, experiments in which subject altruism was measured using a dictator game showed that concern for the well-being of others is a major factor in predicting turnout and political participation. Note that this motivation is distinct from D, because voters must think others benefit from the outcome of the election, not their act of voting in and of itself. There are philosophical and practical reasons that some people cite for not voting in electoral politics. Robert LeFevre, Francis Tandy, John Pugsley, Frank Chodorov, George H. Smith, Carl Watner, Wendy McElroy, Lysander Spooner are some moderately well-known authors who have written about these reasons. High voter turnout is considered to be desirable, though among political scientists and economists specializing in public choice, the issue is still debated. A high turnout is seen as evidence of the legitimacy of the current system. Dictators have fabricated high turnouts in showcase elections for this purpose. For instance, Saddam Hussein's 2002 plebiscite was claimed to have had 100% participation.
Opposition parties sometimes boycott votes they feel are unfair or illegitimate, or if the election is for a government, considered illegitimate. For example, the Holy See instructed Italian Catholics to boycott national elections for several decades after the creation of the state of Italy. In some countries, there are threats of violence against those who vote, such as during the 2005 Iraq elections, an example of voter suppression. However, some political scientists question the view that high turnout is an implicit endorsement of the system. Mark
Scottish Parliament Building
The Scottish Parliament Building is the home of the Scottish Parliament at Holyrood, within the UNESCO World Heritage Site in central Edinburgh. Construction of the building commenced in June 1999 and the Members of the Scottish Parliament held their first debate in the new building on 7 September 2004; the formal opening by Queen Elizabeth II took place on 9 October 2004. Enric Miralles, the Spanish architect who designed the building, died before its completion. From 1999 until the opening of the new building in 2004, committee rooms and the debating chamber of the Scottish Parliament were housed in the General Assembly Hall of the Church of Scotland located on The Mound in Edinburgh. Office and administrative accommodation in support of the Parliament were provided in buildings leased from the City of Edinburgh Council; the new Scottish Parliament Building brought together these different elements into one purpose-built parliamentary complex, housing 129 MSPs and more than 1,000 staff and civil servants.
From the outset, the building and its construction have been controversial. The choices of location, architect and construction company were all criticised by politicians, the media and the Scottish public. Scheduled to open in 2001, it did so in 2004, more than three years late with an estimated final cost of £414 million, many times higher than initial estimates of between £10m and £40m. A major public inquiry into the handling of the construction, chaired by the former Lord Advocate, Lord Fraser of Carmyllie, was established in 2003; the inquiry concluded in September 2004 and criticised the management of the whole project from the realisation of cost increases down to the way in which major design changes were implemented. Despite these criticisms and a mixed public reaction, the building was welcomed by architectural academics and critics; the building aimed to achieve a poetic union between the Scottish landscape, its people, its culture, the city of Edinburgh. The Parliament Building won numerous awards including the 2005 Stirling Prize and has been described by landscape architect Charles Jencks as "a tour de force of arts and crafts and quality without parallel in the last 100 years of British architecture".
Comprising an area of 1.6 ha, with a perimeter of 480 m, the Scottish Parliament Building is located 1 km east of Edinburgh city centre on the edge of the Old Town. The large site housed the headquarters of the Scottish and Newcastle brewery which were demolished to make way for the building; the boundary of the site is marked by the Canongate stretch of the Royal Mile on its northern side, Horse Wynd on its eastern side, where the public entrance to the building is, Reid's Close on its western side. Reid's Close connects the Holyrood Road on the southwestern side of the complex; the south eastern side of the complex is bounded by the Our Dynamic Earth visitor attraction which opened in July 1999, Queen's Drive which fringes the slopes of Salisbury Crags. In the immediate vicinity of the building is the Palace of Holyroodhouse, bordered by the broad expanse of Holyrood Park. To the south of the parliamentary complex are the steep slopes of Salisbury Crags and Arthur's Seat; the Holyrood and Dumbiedykes areas, to the west of the site, have been extensively redeveloped since 1998, with new retail and office developments, including Barclay House, the new offices of The Scotsman Publications Ltd.
Before 1707, the Kingdom of Scotland was a sovereign independent state which had its own legislature—the Parliament of Scotland—which met, latterly, at Parliament House on the Royal Mile in Edinburgh. The Treaty of Union, signed in 1707, created an incorporating political union between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England; this created the Kingdom of Great Britain. The two previous Acts of Union had dissolved the previous parliaments; the Treaty of Union created the Parliament of Great Britain, housed in the Palace of Westminster in London. As a consequence, Scotland was directly governed from London for the next 292 years without a legislature or a Parliament building of its own. Pressure for a devolved legislature of some sort grew in the 1970s with the growth of the Scottish National Party, monies were invested into the conversion of the former Royal High School on Calton Hill into an official parliament building. Whilst much of this conversion was completed and the building was renamed New Parliament House it was determined that the facility was too small for its stated purpose.
Following the April 1992 election, when a weakened John Major was re-elected, a campaign group set up adjacent to the Royal High School at the foot of the access road to Calton Hill. Starting informally this became a permanently manned "vigil" to keep the concept in the public mind; this led to the Royal High School being the "popular" choice of site in the public mindset. A referendum of the Scottish electorate, held on 11 September 1997, approved the establishment of a directly elected Scottish Parliament to legislate on most domestic affairs. Following this, the Scottish Office, led by the Secretary of State for Scotland, Donald Dewar, decided that a new purpose-built facility would be constructed in Edinburgh, to house the Scottish Parliament. Three sites in and around Edinburgh were considered as possible locations for the building, including St Andrew's House/New Parliament House St Andrews House being the home of the Scottish Office—later th