The Lovozero Massif is a mountain range located in the center of the Kola Peninsula in Russia, between Lovozero and Lake Umbozero, constitutes a horseshoe-shaped ridge of picturesque hills, that surround the Seydozero Lake. The slopes are covered with spruce and pine; the highest point is Mount Angvundaschorr. The area around the lake is inhabited by Saami, many place names are of non-Russian origin; the Lovozero Massif is underlain by a complex of agpaitic to hyperagpaitic rocks containing minerals as eudialyte, natrosilite, etc. At least 105 valid minerals have been described in the massif and 39 minerals were discovered there; the only other areas with similar geology and mineralogy are Khibiny Massif, Ilimaussaq in SW Greenland and Mont-Saint-Hilaire, Canada. The area is well accessible from railroads. In winter the area is accessible from Khibiny Mountains via the ice of Umbozero. In summer there are usable mountain trails. Ilma Puncha Motka Lovozero Umbozero Seidozero Sengisyavr Rayavr Motka Bay Ilmayok Elmorayok Seidyok Kiftuay Kitkuay Uelkuay Sigsuay Tavayok Muruay Chivruay Kuansuay Iidichyok Vavnyok Koklukhtiuay Alluayv Angvundaschorr Sengischorr Mannepakhk Elmorayok Pass Kuftuay Pass Chivruay-Ladv Pass Strashempakhk Engpor Suoluayv Punkaruayv Ninchurt Mount Karnasurta Mount Kuyvchorr Mount Kuamdespakhk Mount Vavnbed References: Pekov, Igor: Lovozero Massif Vneshtorgizdat Publishing Moscow 2000 Khomyakov, A. P.: Mineralogy of Hyperagpaitic Alkaline Rocks Clarendon Press 1995 Lovozero Tundras, In Russian Geology and minerals
The Kola Peninsula is a peninsula in the far northwest of Russia. Constituting the bulk of the territory of Murmansk Oblast, it lies completely inside the Arctic Circle and is bordered by the Barents Sea in the north and the White Sea in the east and southeast; the city of Murmansk is the most populous human settlement on the peninsula, with a population of over 300,000 as of the 2010 Census. While the north of the peninsula was settled in the 7th–5th millennium BCE, the rest of its territory remained uninhabited until the 3rd millennium BCE, when various peoples started to arrive from the south. However, by the 1st millennium CE only the Sami people remained; this changed in the 12th century, when Russian Pomors discovered the peninsula's game and fish riches. Soon after, the Pomors were followed by the tribute collectors from the Novgorod Republic, the peninsula became a part of the Novgorodian lands. No permanent settlements, were established by the Novgorodians until the 15th century; the Novgorod Republic lost control of the peninsula to the Grand Duchy of Moscow in 1471, but the Russian migration did not stop.
Several new settlements were established during the 16th century, the Sami and Pomor people were forced into serfdom. In the second half of the 16th century, the peninsula became a subject of dispute between the Tsardom of Russia and the Kingdom of Denmark–Norway, which resulted in the strengthening of the Russian position. By the end of the 19th century, the indigenous Sami population had been forced north by the Russians as well as by newly arriving Izhma Komi and Kominized Nenets, who migrated here to escape a reindeer disease epidemic in their home lands in the southeast of the White Sea; the original administrative and economic center of the area was Kola, situated at the estuary of the Kola River into the Kola Bay. However, in 1916, Romanov-na-Murmane was founded and became the largest city and port on the peninsula; the Soviet period saw a rapid increase of the population, although most of it remained confined to urbanized territories along the sea coast and the railroads. The Sami people were subject to forced collectivization, including forced relocation to Lovozero and other centralized settlements, overall the peninsula was industrialized and militarized due to its strategic position and the discovery of the vast apatite deposits in the 1920s.
As a result, the ecology of the peninsula suffered major ecological damage, including contamination by military nuclear waste and nickel smelting. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the economy went into decline and the population started to decrease. Between 1989 and 2002, Murmansk Oblast lost a quarter of its population; the economy rebounded somewhat in the first decade of the 2000s and the peninsula remains the most industrially developed and urbanized region in northern Russia. Despite the peninsula's northerly location, its proximity to the Gulf Stream leads to unusually high temperatures in winter, but results in high winds due to the temperature variations between land and the Barents Sea. Summers are rather chilly, with the average July temperature of only 11 °C; the peninsula is covered by taiga in the south and tundra in the north, where permafrost limits the growth of the trees resulting in landscape dominated by shrubs and grasses. The peninsula supports a small variety of mammals, its rivers are an important habitat for the Atlantic salmon.
The Kandalaksha Nature Reserve, established to protect the population of common eider, is located in the Kandalaksha Gulf. The peninsula is located in the far northwest of Russia completely inside the Arctic Circle and is washed by the Barents Sea in the north and the White Sea in the east and southeast. Geologically, the peninsula occupies the northeastern edge of the Baltic Shield; the western border of the peninsula stretches along the meridian from the Kola Bay through the valley of the Kola River, Lake Imandra, the Niva River to the Kandalaksha Gulf, although some sources push it all the way west to Russia's border with Finland. Under a more restrictive definition, the peninsula covers an area of about 100,000 square kilometers; the northern coast is high, while the southern coast is flat. The western part of the peninsula is covered by two mountain ranges: the Khibiny Mountains and the Lovozero Massif; the Keyvy drainage divide lies in the central part. The mountainous reliefs of the Murman and Kandalaksha Coasts stretch from southeast to northwest, mirroring the peninsula's main orographic features.
Administratively, the territory of the peninsula consists of Lovozersky and Tersky Districts, parts of Kandalakshsky and Kolsky Districts, as well as the territories subordinated to the cities and towns of Murmansk, Severomorsk and parts of the territories subordinated to Apatity and Polyarnye Zori. Because the last ice age removed the top sediment layer of the soil, the Kola Peninsula is on the surface rich in various ores and minerals, including apatites and nephelines. Deposits of construction materials such as granite and limestone are abundant. Diatomaceous earth deposits are used to produce insulation. Proximity of
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
In geology, a massif is a section of a planet's crust, demarcated by faults or flexures. In the movement of the crust, a massif tends to retain its internal structure while being displaced as a whole; the term refers to a group of mountains formed by such a structure. In mountaineering and climbing literature, a massif is used to denote the main mass of an individual mountain; the massif is a smaller structural unit of the crust than a tectonic plate and is considered the fourth largest driving force in geomorphology. The word is taken from French, where it is used to refer to a large mountain mass or compact group of connected mountains forming an independent portion of a range. One of the most notable European examples of a massif is the Massif Central of the Auvergne region of France; the Face on Mars is an example of an extraterrestrial massif. Massifs may form underwater, as with the Atlantis Massif. Adrar des Ifoghas – Mali Aïr Massif – Niger Bongo Massif – Central African Republic Marojejy Massif – Madagascar Mulanje Massif – Malawi Waterberg Biosphere – South Africa Virunga Massif – border shared by Uganda, Rwanda and DR Congo Kilimanjaro Massif – border of Kenya and Tanzania Oban Massif – Nigeria Borg Massif Craddock Massif Cumpston Massif Vinson Massif Otway Massif Annapurna – Nepal Chu Pong Massif – Vietnam Dhaulagiri – Nepal Gasherbrum – Pakistan Hazaran – Iran Kholeno – Iran Kangchenjunga – Nepal Knuckles Massif – Sri Lanka Kondyor Massif – Russia Kugitangtau Ridge – Turkmenistan Logar ultrabasite massif – Logar Province, Afghanistan Mount Ararat – Turkey Mount Everest massif – border of Nepal and Tibet Mount Kinabalu – Malaysia Mount Tomuraushi – Japan Nanga Parbat – Pakistan Nun Kun – India Panchchuli – India Shillong – Meghalaya, India Alpilles – France Aravis Range – France Ardennes Massif – France/Belgium/Luxembourg Areskutan – Sweden Armorican Massif – Brittany, France Bauges Massif – France Beaufortain Massif – France Ben Nevis massif – Scotland, United Kingdom Bohemian Massif – Czech Republic Bornes Massif – France Calanques Massif Ceahlău Massif – Romania Cerces Massif Chablais Massif – France Chartreuse Massif – France Cornubian Massif – United Kingdom Dévoluy Massif – France Massif des Écrins – France Gotthard Massif – Switzerland Jungfrau Massif – Switzerland Jura Mountains – France Lauzière massif L'Esterel Massif Long Mynd – England, United Kingdom Lubéron – France Massif Central – France Massiccio del Matese - Italy Mangerton Mountain – Ireland Mercantour – France Montgris – Spain Montserrat – Spain Mont Blanc massif – Italy/France/Switzerland Massiccio del Pollino - Italy Rila - Rhodope Massif – Bulgaria/Greece Sila Massif – Italy Snowdon Massif – Wales, United Kingdom Taillefer Massif – France Troodos – Cyprus Untersberg – Germany/Austria Queyras Massif – France Vanoise Massif – France Vercors Plateau – France Vitosha Massif – Bulgaria Vosges Mountains – France Adirondack Massif – New York, USA Mount Cayley massif – British Columbia, Canada Laurentian Massif – Quebec, Canada Le Massif – Canada Denali – Alaska, USA Level Mountain – Canada Mount Edziza – Canada Mount Juneau – Alaska, USA Mount Le Conte – Tennessee, USA Mount Logan – Yukon, Canada Mount Meager massif – Canada Mount Septimus – Canada Mount Shuksan – Washington, USA Teton Range – Wyoming, USA Big Ben – Heard Island Ahipara Gumfields – New Zealand Massif de la Hotte – Haiti Valle Nuevo Massif – Dominican Republic Brasilia Massif – Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay.
Neblina massif – Venezuela–Brazil border Colombian Massif – Colombia North Patagonian Massif – Argentina Deseado Massif – Argentina Atlantis Massif – part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the North Atlantic Ocean Tamu Massif — the largest volcano on Earth
A mountain is a large landform that rises above the surrounding land in a limited area in the form of a peak. A mountain is steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism; these forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode through the action of rivers, weather conditions, glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits. High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level; these colder climates affect the ecosystems of mountains: different elevations have different plants and animals. Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, such as mountain climbing; the highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the Himalayas of Asia, whose summit is 8,850 m above mean sea level. The highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on Mars at 21,171 m. There is no universally accepted definition of a mountain.
Elevation, relief, steepness and continuity have been used as criteria for defining a mountain. In the Oxford English Dictionary a mountain is defined as "a natural elevation of the earth surface rising more or less abruptly from the surrounding level and attaining an altitude which to the adjacent elevation, is impressive or notable."Whether a landform is called a mountain may depend on local usage. Mount Scott outside Lawton, Oklahoma, USA, is only 251 m from its base to its highest point. Whittow's Dictionary of Physical Geography states "Some authorities regard eminences above 600 metres as mountains, those below being referred to as hills." In the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, a mountain is defined as any summit at least 2,000 feet high, whilst the official UK government's definition of a mountain, for the purposes of access, is a summit of 600 metres or higher. In addition, some definitions include a topographical prominence requirement 100 or 500 feet. At one time the U.
S. Board on Geographic Names defined a mountain as being 1,000 feet or taller, but has abandoned the definition since the 1970s. Any similar landform lower. However, the United States Geological Survey concludes that these terms do not have technical definitions in the US; the UN Environmental Programme's definition of "mountainous environment" includes any of the following: Elevation of at least 2,500 m. Using these definitions, mountains cover 33% of Eurasia, 19% of South America, 24% of North America, 14% of Africa; as a whole, 24% of the Earth's land mass is mountainous. There are three main types of mountains: volcanic and block. All three types are formed from plate tectonics: when portions of the Earth's crust move and dive. Compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upward, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features; the height of the feature makes it either a hill or, if steeper, a mountain. Major mountains tend to occur in long linear arcs, indicating tectonic plate boundaries and activity.
Volcanoes are formed when a plate is pushed at a mid-ocean ridge or hotspot. At a depth of around 100 km, melting occurs in rock above the slab, forms magma that reaches the surface; when the magma reaches the surface, it builds a volcanic mountain, such as a shield volcano or a stratovolcano. Examples of volcanoes include Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines; the magma does not have to reach the surface in order to create a mountain: magma that solidifies below ground can still form dome mountains, such as Navajo Mountain in the US. Fold mountains occur when two plates collide: shortening occurs along thrust faults and the crust is overthickened. Since the less dense continental crust "floats" on the denser mantle rocks beneath, the weight of any crustal material forced upward to form hills, plateaus or mountains must be balanced by the buoyancy force of a much greater volume forced downward into the mantle, thus the continental crust is much thicker under mountains, compared to lower lying areas.
Rock can fold either asymmetrically. The upfolds are anticlines and the downfolds are synclines: in asymmetric folding there may be recumbent and overturned folds; the Balkan Mountains and the Jura Mountains are examples of fold mountains. Block mountains are caused by faults in the crust: a plane; when rocks on one side of a fault rise relative to the other, it can form a mountain. The uplifted blocks are block horsts; the intervening dropped blocks are termed graben: these can be small or form extensive rift valley systems. This form of landscape can be seen in East Africa, the Vosges, the Basin and Range Province of Western North America and the Rhine valley; these areas occur when the regional stress is extensional and the crust is thinned. During and following uplift, mountains are subjected to the agents of erosion which wear the uplifted area down. Erosion causes the surface of mountains to be younger than the rocks that form the mountains themselves. Glacial processes produce characteristic landforms, such as pyramidal peaks, knife-edge arêtes, bowl-shaped cirques that can contai
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly