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Ludwig Reichenbach

Heinrich Gottlieb Ludwig Reichenbach was a German botanist and ornithologist. It was he who first requested Leopold Blaschka to make a set of glass marine invertebrate models for scientific education and museum showcasing, the successful commission giving rise to the creation of the Blaschkas' Glass sea creatures and and indirectly, the more famous Glass Flowers. Born in Leipzig and the son of Johann Friedrich Jakob Reichenbach Reichenbach studied medicine and natural science at the University of Leipzig in 1810 and, eight years in 1818, he the now Professor became an instructor before, in 1820, he was appointed the director of the Dresden natural history museum and a professor at the Surgical-Medical Academy in Dresden, where he remained for many years. Director of the natural history museum in Dresden, Professor Reichenbach was faced with an annoying yet unsolvable problem of showing invertebrate marine life. Land-based flora and fauna was not an issue, for it was a simple matter to exhibit mounted and stuffed creatures such as gorillas and elephants, their lifelike poses attracting and exciting the museums' visitors.

Invertebrates, however, by their nature, posed a problem. In the 19th century the only method practised for showcasing them was to take a live specimen and place it in a sealed jar of alcohol; this killed it but, more time and a lack of hard parts rendered the specimen little more than a colorless floating blob of jelly, making it neither pretty nor an effective teaching tool. Prof. Reichenbach wanted something more 3D colored models of marine invertebrates that were both lifelike and able to stand the test of time. And,in 1863, he "saw an exhibition of detailed, realistic glass flowers created by a Bohemian Lampworker, Leopold Blaschka, at an exhibition hosted by Prince Camille de Rohan. Enchanted by the botanical models and positive that Leopold held the key to ending his own showcasing issue, in 1863 Reichenbach convinced and commissioned Leopold to produce twelve model sea anemones; these marine models, hailed as "an artistic marvel in the field of science and a scientific marvel in the field of art," were what Prof. Reichenbach needed and, at last, provided an outlet for the wonder Leopold had felt all those years ago when observing the phosphorescent ocean life.

The key fact, was that these glass marine models were, as would soon be acknowledged, "perfectly true to nature," and as such represented an extraordinary opportunity both for the scientific community and the Blaschkas themselves. Knowing this and thrilled with his newly acquired set of glass sea creatures, Reichenbach advised Leopold to drop his current and generations long family business of glass fancy goods and the like in favor of selling glass marine invertebrates to museums, aquaria and private collectors. Advice which would prove wise and fateful both economically and scientifically, for Leopold did as the Dresden natural history museum director suggested. A decision which swiftly sparked the Blaschkas' lucrative mail-order business of selling Glass sea creatures to interested parties across the globe. Poetically, though Reichenbach did not know it, many years his showcasing problem and manner of finding the Blaschkas would be repeated by Harvard Professor George Lincoln Goodale - Goodale getting the idea for the creation of the Glass Flowers from Harvard's own collection of Glass sea creatures.

Sadly, the original six glass sea anemones purchased by Ludwig Reichenbach in 1863 as well as the rest of that first collection was destroyed in the Bombing of Dresden in World War II. He was the founder of the Dresden botanical gardens and joint founder of Dresden Zoo; the museum's zoological collection was completely destroyed by the fire in the Zwinger palace during the constitutional crisis of 1849, but Reichenbach was able to replace it within only a few years. This collection is the basis of that seen in the museum today. Reichenbach was able botanical artist, his works included Iconographia Botanica seu Plantae criticae and Handbuch der speciellen Ornithologie. He was honored by having several plants and animals named after him: Viola reichenbachiana Jord. Ex Bor.. Dr. Reichenbach oversaw a world-famous botanical garden in Dresden with a great collection of cacti, Echinocactus reichenbachii a beautiful cactus of the south-central U. S. and northern Mexico was named in his honor. Reichenbach's sunbird is named after him.

This botanist is denoted by the author abbreviation Rchb. When citing a botanical name, he was the father of Heinrich Gustav Reichenbach a botanist and an eminent orchid specialist. Reichenbach was interred in the Trinity Cemetery in Dresden Johannstadt; the tomb, was cleared after abandoning the right to use. However, the cemetery administration had not awarded the grave site, so that at the initiative of the Senckenberg Natural History Collections in Dresden, a stele was erected, unveiled on September 11, 2011. Lepidoptera Jenaische Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung Reichenbach, Heinrich Gottlieb Ludwig. Conspectus regni vegetabilis per gradus naturales evoluti. Leipzig: Carolum Cnobloch. Flora germanica excursoria Flora exotica Flora germanica exsiccata Übersicht des Gewächsreichs und seiner natürlichen Entwickelungsstufen Handbuch des natürlichen Pflanzens

Corporate governance in the United Kingdom

UK corporate governance has influenced corporate governance regulation in the European Union and United States. A detailed analysis of several UK corporate governance reports, in particular the Cadbury Report on “Financial Aspects of Corporate Governance”, Rutteman Guidance, Greenbury Report, Hampel Report on “Corporate Governance”, Turnbull Report on “Internal Control: Guidance for Directors on the Combined Code” and Higgs Report on the “Review of the role and effectiveness of non-executive directors” revealed that the UK has been able to influence US corporate governance regulation. In return, through SOA the US is influencing and accelerating the development of an EU wide governance regulation. “The Commission has expressed serious concerns over the measures put forward, in particular the unnecessary outreach effects of the SOA for EU companies and EU auditors.”. EU based corporations, which have US parent companies or subsidiaries that are listed at the US stock exchange need to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act 2002.

Therefore, the Commission has reconsidered EU priorities on initiatives on the enhancement of corporate governance, initiated by the Commission’s 1996 Green Paper on “The Role and Liability of Statutory Auditor in the EU” and laid down in Council Directive 84/253/EC ‘the 8th Directive’. Following recent financial reporting scandals, the requirement to implement standards for the EU capital market to enhance public trust in the audit function in the EU and the need to respond to SOA, the Commission prepared with the Winter report. In September 2003 the Commission published the Communication on “Reinforcing the statutory audit in the EU” and in parallel an Action Plan on “Modernising Company Law and Enhancing Corporate Governance in the European Union”; the Directive on “statutory audit of annual accounts and consolidated accounts, amending Council Directive 78/660/EEC and 83/349/EEC and repealing Council Directive 84/253/EEC” was adopted by the European Parliament on the 28.9.2005. The new modern regulatory audit framework will be applicable to non-EU audit firms performing audit work in relation to companies listed on the EU capital markets.

To achieve recognition of the EU regulatory approaches to the protection of investors and other stakeholders, the Commission has had regulatory discussions in particular with the SEC but with decision makers in US Congress and EU Finance Ministers. Text published by Guido Reinke "The European Information Society: Governance and the Decision-Making Process for ICT Policy and Standards", Royal Holloway College, University of London. There are two main corporate governance codes in the UK: The Financial Reporting Council's UK Corporate Governance Code The Quoted Companies Alliance's QCA Corporate Governance CodeCompanies on London Stock Exchange's Main Market are obliged to apply the UK Corporate Governance Code. Companies on London Stock Exchange's AIM market are able to choose which code they apply: 89% apply the QCA Corporate Governance Code 6% apply the UK Corporate Governance Code 5% apply a range of other codes, such as those of non-UK territories


Skarnsund or Skarnsundet is a strait in the Trondheimsfjord in Trøndelag county, Norway. The strait connects the Beitstadfjorden with the outer section of the Trondheimsfjorden; the 5-kilometre long and 0.5-kilometre wide Skarnsund is located in the municipality of Inderøy. On the northeastern side of the strait is the village of Vangshylla and on the southwestern side is the villages of Venneshamn and Kjerringvik; the strait has a strong tidal current with a maelstrom. The Skarnsund strait was crossed by the Vangshylla–Kjerringvik Ferry, operated by Innherredsferja, prior to 19 December 1991. On that date the new 1,010-metre long Skarnsund Bridge was opened; the bridge is part of Norwegian County Road 755. Skarnsund is a noted site for both sports fishing and underwater diving

Lelång Lake

Lelång Lake is Swedish lake in Bengtsfors municipality in the province of Dalsland and Årjäng municipality in the province of Värmland. The lake is of an elongated shape and stretches from Lennartsfors in the north to Bengtsfors in the south, a stretch of 40 km; the lake can be reached by three sets of locks. The one located at Lennartsfors connects it to Lake Foxen, the one at Gustavsfors to Lake Västra Silen and the one at Bengtsfors to Lake Bengtsbrohöljen. In addition to this the lake stands in open connection to Lake Ärtingen 5 km North of Bengtsfors. Lake Lelång forms part of Dalsland Canal; the lake contains numerous species of fish, such as perch, Salvelinuschar, salmon trout, atlantic salmon, bream and minnow. A canoeing competition named Dalsland Kanotmaraton + is staged every year on Lake Lelång and other lakes in the vicinity; this article is based on the Swedish Lelång article

St. John the Baptist Church, Samarkand

The St. John the Baptist Church It is the only Catholic church in the city of Samarkand, in the Asian country of Uzbekistan, where 95% are Muslims, it depends on the Apostolic Administration of Uzbekistan based in Tashkent. In the times of the Russian Empire in the nineteenth century a small Catholic minority in Samarkand formed by merchants and employees of Polish or German origin settled in the place, they were denied. In 1915 a number of Polish prisoners of war were added, so it was possible that the Catholic community could build his church, they bought the land in the present street Makhmud Kochgari. Neo-Gothic church was built by architect Nelle - and was completed in 1916, it was closed by the authorities of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic in 1930. In 1995, at the initiative of Father Ivan Rolloff the Catholic community of the city obtained permission to register and recover the building in 1997. After restoration work, the church is dedicated on March 27, 1999. Today the community is run by a Polish priest, Father Luciano Szymanski assisted by two brothers of a Polish Franciscan monastery.

Roman Catholicism in Uzbekistan St. John the Baptist Church