Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum
The Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum is a comprehensive collection of ancient Latin inscriptions. It forms an authoritative source for documenting the surviving epigraphy of classical antiquity. Public and personal inscriptions throw light on all aspects of Roman history; the Corpus continues to be updated in new supplements. CIL refers to the organization within the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities responsible for collecting data on and publishing the Latin inscriptions, it was founded in 1853 by Theodor Mommsen and is the first and major organization aiming at a comprehensive survey. The CIL collects all Latin inscriptions from the whole territory of the Roman Empire, ordering them geographically and systematically; the earlier volumes collected and published authoritative versions of all inscriptions known at the time—most of these had been published in a wide range of publications. The descriptions include images of the original inscription if available, drawings showing the letters in their original size and position, an interpretation reconstructing abbreviations and missing words, along with discussion of issues and problems.
The language of the CIL is Latin. In 1847 a committee was created in Berlin with the aim of publishing an organized collection of Latin inscriptions, described piecemeal by hundreds of scholars over the preceding centuries; the leading figure of this committee was Theodor Mommsen. Much of the work involved personal inspections of sites and monuments in an attempt to replicate the original as much as possible. In those cases where a cited inscription could no longer be found, the authors tried to get an accurate reading by comparing the versions of the published inscription in the works of previous authors who had seen the original; the first volume appeared in 1853. The CIL presently consists of 17 volumes in about 70 parts, recording 180,000 inscriptions. Thirteen supplementary volumes have special indices; the first volume, in two sections, covered the oldest inscriptions, to the end of the Roman Republic. The other volumes cover other topics. Volume XVII, for instance, is devoted to milestones.
A volume XVIII is planned. A two-volume "Index of Numbers", correlating inscription numbers with volume numbers, was published in 2003; the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften continues to update and reprint the CIL. Epigraphy Inscriptiones Graecae Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae Corpus Inscriptionum et Monumentorum Religionis Mithriacae Prosopographia Imperii Romani "Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum". Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities. Retrieved 13 November 2009. "CIL volumes". Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities. Retrieved 19 December 2009. "English translations of selected inscriptions from CIL". Attalus.org. Retrieved 8 October 2012
Christians are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. The words Christ and Christian derive from the Koine Greek title Christós, a translation of the Biblical Hebrew term mashiach. While there are diverse interpretations of Christianity which sometimes conflict, they are united in believing that Jesus has a unique significance; the term "Christian" is used as an adjective to describe anything associated with Christianity, or in a proverbial sense "all, noble, good, Christ-like."According to a 2011 Pew Research Center survey, there were 2.2 billion Christians around the world in 2010, up from about 600 million in 1910. By 2050, the Christian population is expected to exceed 3 billion. According to a 2012 Pew Research Center survey Christianity will remain the world's largest religion in 2050, if current trends continue. Today, about 37% of all Christians live in the Americas, about 26% live in Europe, 24% live in sub-Saharan Africa, about 13% live in Asia and the Pacific, 1% live in the Middle East and North Africa.
About half of all Christians worldwide are Catholic. Orthodox communions comprise 12% of the world's Christians. Other Christian groups make up the remainder. Christians make up the majority of the population in territories. 280 million Christians live as a minority. Christians have made noted contributions to a range of fields, including the sciences, politics and business. According to 100 Years of Nobel Prizes, a review of Nobel prizes awarded between 1901 and 2000 reveals that of Nobel Prizes laureates identified Christianity in its various forms as their religious preference; the Greek word Χριστιανός, meaning "follower of Christ", comes from Χριστός, meaning "anointed one", with an adjectival ending borrowed from Latin to denote adhering to, or belonging to, as in slave ownership. In the Greek Septuagint, christos was used to translate the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, meaning " anointed." In other European languages, equivalent words to Christian are derived from the Greek, such as Chrétien in French and Cristiano in Spanish.
The abbreviations Xian and Xtian have been used since at least the 17th century: Oxford English Dictionary shows a 1634 use of Xtianity and Xian is seen in a 1634-38 diary. The word Xmas uses a similar contraction; the first recorded use of the term is in the New Testament, in Acts 11:26, after Barnabas brought Saul to Antioch where they taught the disciples for about a year, the text says: " the disciples were called Christians first in Antioch." The second mention of the term follows in Acts 26:28, where Herod Agrippa II replied to Paul the Apostle, "Then Agrippa said unto Paul, Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian." The third and final New Testament reference to the term is in 1 Peter 4:16, which exhorts believers: "Yet if as a Christian, let him not be ashamed. The city of Antioch, where someone gave them the name Christians, had a reputation for coming up with such nicknames; however Peter's apparent endorsement of the term led to its being preferred over "Nazarenes" and the term Christianoi from 1 Peter becomes the standard term in the Early Church Fathers from Ignatius and Polycarp onwards.
The earliest occurrences of the term in non-Christian literature include Josephus, referring to "the tribe of Christians, so named from him. In the Annals he relates that "by vulgar appellation called Christians" and identifies Christians as Nero's scapegoats for the Great Fire of Rome. Another term for Christians which appears in the New Testament is "Nazarenes". Jesus is named as a Nazarene in Math 2:23, while Saul-Paul is said to be Nazarene in Acts 24:5; the latter verse makes it clear that Nazarene referred to the name of a sect or heresy, as well as the town called Nazareth. The term Nazarene was used by the Jewish lawyer Tertullus which records that "the Jews call us Nazarenes." While around 331 AD Eusebius records that Christ was called a Nazoraean from the name Nazareth, that in earlier centuries "Christians" were once called "Nazarenes". The Hebrew equivalent of "Nazarenes", occurs in the Babylonian Talmud, is still the modern Israeli Hebrew term for Christian. A wide range of beliefs and practices are found across the world among those who call themselves Christian.
Denominations and sects disagree on a common definition of "Christianity". For example, Timothy Beal notes the disparity of beliefs among those who identify as Christians in the United States as follows: Although all of them have their historical roots in Christian theology and tradition, although most would identify themselves as Christian, many would not identify others within the larger category as Christian. Most Baptists and fundamentalists, for example, would not acknowledge Mormonism or Christian Science as Christian. In fact, the nearly 77 percent of Americans who self-identify as Christian are a diverse pluribus of Christianities that are far from any collective unity. Linda Woodhead attempts to provide a common belief thread for Christians by noting that "Whatever else they might disagree about, Christians are at least united
Western Roman Empire
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court. The terms Western Roman Empire and Eastern Roman Empire are modern descriptions that describe political entities that were de facto independent; the Western Roman Empire collapsed in 476, the Western imperial court was formally dissolved in 480. The Eastern imperial court survived until 1453. Though the Empire had seen periods with more than one Emperor ruling jointly before, the view that it was impossible for a single emperor to govern the entire Empire was institutionalised to reforms to Roman law by emperor Diocletian following the disastrous civil wars and disintegrations of the Crisis of the Third Century, he introduced the system of the tetrarchy in 286, with two separate senior emperors titled Augustus, one in the East and one in the West, each with an appointed Caesar. Though the tetrarchic system would collapse in a matter of years, the East–West administrative division would endure in one form or another over the coming centuries.
As such, the Western Roman Empire would exist intermittently in several periods between the 3rd and 5th centuries. Some emperors, such as Constantine I and Theodosius I, governed as the sole Augustus across the Roman Empire. On the death of Theodosius I in 395, he divided the empire between his two sons, with Honorius as his successor in the West, governing from Mediolanum, Arcadius as his successor in the East, governing from Constantinople. In 476, after the Battle of Ravenna, the Roman Army in the West suffered defeat at the hands of Odoacer and his Germanic foederati. Odoacer became the first King of Italy. In 480, following the assassination of the previous Western emperor Julius Nepos, the Eastern emperor Zeno dissolved the Western court and proclaimed himself the sole emperor of the Roman Empire; the date of 476 was popularized by the 18th century British historian Edward Gibbon as a demarcating event for the end of the Western Empire and is sometimes used to mark the transition from Antiquity to the Middle Ages.
Odoacer's Italy, other barbarian kingdoms, would maintain a pretence of Roman continuity through the continued use of the old Roman administrative systems and nominal subservience to the Eastern Roman court. In the 6th century, emperor Justinian I re-imposed direct Imperial rule on large parts of the former Western Roman Empire, including the prosperous regions of North Africa, the ancient Roman heartland of Italy and parts of Hispania. Political instability in the Eastern heartlands, combined with foreign invasions and religious differences, made efforts to retain control of these territories difficult and they were lost for good. Though the Eastern Empire retained territories in the south of Italy until the eleventh century, the influence that the Empire had over Western Europe had diminished significantly; the papal coronation of the Frankish King Charlemagne as Roman Emperor in 800 marked a new imperial line that would evolve into the Holy Roman Empire, which presented a revival of the Imperial title in Western Europe but was in no meaningful sense an extension of Roman traditions or institutions.
The Great Schism of 1054 between the churches of Rome and Constantinople further diminished any authority the Emperor in Constantinople could hope to exert in the west. As the Roman Republic expanded, it reached a point where the central government in Rome could not rule the distant provinces. Communications and transportation were problematic given the vast extent of the Empire. News of invasion, natural disasters, or epidemic outbreak was carried by ship or mounted postal service requiring much time to reach Rome and for Rome's orders to be returned and acted upon. Therefore, provincial governors had de facto autonomy in the name of the Roman Republic. Governors had several duties, including the command of armies, handling the taxes of the province and serving as the province's chief judges. Prior to the establishment of the Empire, the territories of the Roman Republic had been divided in 43 BC among the members of the Second Triumvirate: Mark Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Antony received the provinces in the East: Achaea and Epirus, Bithynia and Asia, Syria and Cyrenaica.
These lands had been conquered by Alexander the Great. The whole region the major cities, had been assimilated into Greek culture, Greek serving as the lingua franca. Octavian obtained the Roman provinces of the West: Italia, Gallia Belgica, Hispania; these lands included Greek and Carthaginian colonies in the coastal areas, though Celtic tribes such as Gauls and Celtiberians were culturally dominant. Lepidus received the minor province of Africa. Octavian soon took Africa while adding Sicilia to his holdings. Upon the defeat of Mark Antony, a victorious Octavian controlled a united Roman Em
Anthemius (praetorian prefect)
Flavius Anthemius was a high-ranking official of the late Roman Empire. He is notable as a praetorian prefect of the East and effective regent of the Eastern Roman Empire during the reign of Arcadius and the first years of Theodosius II, during which time he supervised the construction of the first set of the famous Theodosian Walls. Anthemius was the grandson of Flavius Philippus, praetorian prefect of the East in 346, he rose to prominence during the reign of Arcadius, when he was appointed comes sacrarum largitionum around or in 400 and magister officiorum in 404. He occupied the latter position during the disturbances which followed John Chrysostom's final deposition from the patriarchate. John's enemies demanded troops from him with. At first he refused, but yielded, declaring that they were responsible for the consequences. In 405 he was appointed Consul for the Eastern Roman Empire and after the death of the Augusta Eudoxia he succeeded Eutychianus in the same year as praetorian prefect of the East, becoming thus the second most powerful man in the Eastern Empire after the Emperor himself.
On April 28, 406, he was elevated to the rank of patricius. The esteem in which he was held can be seen from Chrysostom's letter of congratulations to him on his appointment to the praetorian prefecture, saying that "the office was more honoured by his tenure than he by the office". During the remaining years of Arcadius' reign he ran the affairs of the Empire, continuing his predecessor's consistent anti-German policy and trying to maintain the autonomy and integrity of the Eastern Empire; this brought him into conflict with the all-powerful Stilicho, who desired to take back the prefecture of Illyricum and subordinate the Eastern Empire to the West. At the same time, Anthemius had to deal with the presence of Alaric I and his people in the Illyricum, the continued insurgency of the Isaurians, who were devastating the southern provinces of Asia Minor. Furthermore, Anthemius passed a number of new laws against paganism and heresy; when Arcadius died in 408, his son and successor Theodosius II was a child of seven years.
Anthemius assumed the regency, showed remarkable talent. He initiated a new peace treaty with Sassanid Persia, thanks to Stilicho's death, was able to restore harmony in the relations of the Imperial courts of Constantinople and Ravenna, he strengthened the fleet of the Danube, which protected the provinces of Moesia and Scythia, after the successful repulsion of an invasion in 409 by the Hunnic king Uldin. He furthermore regulated the grain supply of Constantinople, which came chiefly from Egypt and was under the authority of the urban prefect. In the past, shortages had occurred due to the lack of available ships, resulting in famines, the most recent one being in 408. In 409 therefore, Anthemius reorganized the grain transport and granted tax remits to the transporters, took measures to procure grain from elsewhere, created an emergency fund for the procurement and distribution of corn to the citizens, he took measures to ensure the regular collection of taxes, but in 414, he gave a tax remit of all arrears for the years 368-407.
The one work of Anthemius', still standing today is the main wall of the Theodosian Walls. In the early 5th century, Constantinople had begun to outgrow the bounds set by Constantine the Great, so Anthemius initiated the construction of a new wall, about 1,500 m to the west of the old, which stretched for 6.5 kilometers between the Sea of Marmara and the suburb of Blachernae near the Golden Horn. The wall was finished in 413 and doubled the size of the city, a feat for which Bury called him "in a sense, the second founder of Constantinople". In 414, Anthemius disappeared from the scene, the regency was assumed by the Augusta Pulcheria, while the prefecture was assumed by Monaxius, his fate is unknown, but through his daughter's marriage to magister militum Procopius, he became grandfather to the Western Emperor Anthemius. He was the father of Anthemius Isidorus, Consul in 436. John Bagnell Bury, History of the Later Roman Empire Vol. I, Macmillan & Co. Ltd. 1923 Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Anthemius".
Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company
Honorius was Western Roman Emperor from 395 to 423. He was the younger son of emperor Theodosius I and his first wife Aelia Flaccilla, brother of Arcadius, the Eastern Emperor from 395 until his death in 408. During his reign, Rome was sacked for the first time in 800 years. By the standards of the declining Western Empire, Honorius's reign was precarious and chaotic, his reign was supported by his principal general, successively Honorius's guardian and his father-in-law. Stilicho's generalship helped preserve some level of stability, but with his execution in 408, the Western Roman Empire moved closer to collapse. After holding the consulate at the age of two, Honorius was declared Augustus by his father Theodosius I, thus co-ruler, on 23 January 393 after the death of Valentinian II and the usurpation of Eugenius; when Theodosius died, in January 395, Honorius and Arcadius divided the Empire, so that Honorius became Western Roman Emperor at the age of ten. During the first part of his reign Honorius depended on the military leadership of the general Stilicho, appointed by Theodosius and was of mixed Vandal and Roman ancestry.
To strengthen his bonds with the young emperor, Stilicho married his daughter Maria to him. The epithalamion written for the occasion by Stilicho's court poet Claudian survives. Honorius was greatly influenced by the Popes of Rome, who sought to extend their influence through his youth and weak character. So it was that Pope Innocent I contrived to have Honorius write to his brother, condemning the deposition of John Chrysostom in 407. At first Honorius based his capital in Milan, but when the Visigoths under King Alaric I entered Italy in 401 he moved his capital to the coastal city of Ravenna, protected by a ring of marshes and strong fortifications. While the new capital was easier to defend, it was poorly situated to allow Roman forces to protect Central Italy from the regular threat of barbarian incursions, it was significant that the Emperor's residence remained in Ravenna until the overthrow of the last western Roman Emperor in 476. That was the reason why Ravenna was chosen not only as the capital of the Ostrogothic Kingdom in Italy, but for the seat of the Byzantine exarchs as well.
Honorius' reign was plagued by constant barbarian incursions into Gaul and Hispania. At the same time, a host of usurpers rose up due to the apparent inability of the Emperor to see to the Empire's defences; the first crisis faced by Honorius was a revolt led by Gildo, the Comes Africae and Magister utriusque militiae per Africam, in Northern Africa, which lasted for two years. It was subdued by Stilicho, under the local command of Mascezel, the brother of Gildo; the next crisis was the Visigoth invasion of Italy in 402 under the formidable command of their king, Alaric. Stilicho was absent in Raetia in the latter months of 401, when Alaric, the Eastern Empire's magister militum in Illyricum marched with a large army to the Julian Alps and entered Italy. Stilicho hurried back to protect Honorius and the legions of Gaul and Britain were summoned to defend Italy. Honorius, slumbering at Milan, was caught unaware and fled to Asti, only to be pursued by Alaric, who marched into Liguria. Stilicho defeated Alaric on the river Tanarus on Easter Day.
Alaric retreated to Verona. The Visigoths, were allowed to retreat back to Illyricum. In 405 Stilicho met, they brought devastation to the heart of the Empire, until Stilicho defeated them in 406 and recruited most of them into his forces. In 405/6, an enormous barbarian horde, composed of Ostrogoths, Alans and Quadi, crossed the frozen Rhine and invaded Gaul; the situation in Britain was more difficult. The British provinces were isolated, lacking support from the Empire, the soldiers supported the revolts of Marcus and Constantine III. Constantine invaded Gaul in 407, occupying Arles, while Constantine was in Gaul, his son Constans ruled over Britain. By 410, Britain was told to look after its own affairs and expect no aid from Rome. There was good reason for this as the western empire was overstretched due to the massive invasion of Alans and Vandals who, although they had been repulsed from Italy in 406, moved into Gaul on 31 December 406, arrived in Hispania in 409. In early 408, Stilicho attempted to strengthen his position at court by marrying his second daughter, Thermantia, to Honorius after the death of the Empress Maria in 407 making Honorius the last Western Roman Emperor to have multiple wives.
Another invasion by Alaric was prevented in 408 by Stilicho when he forced the Roman Senate to pay 4,000 pounds of gold to persuade the Goths to leave Italy. Honorius, in the meantime, was at Bononia, on his way from Ravenna to Ticinum, when the news reached him of his brother's death in May 408, he at first was planning to go to Constantinople to help set up the court in the wake of the accession of Theodosius II. Summoned from Ravenna for advice, Stilicho advised Honorius not to go, proceeded to go himself. In Stilicho's absence, a minister named, he convinced the emperor that his Arian father-in-law was conspiring with the barbarians to overthrow him. On his return to Ravenna, Honorius ordered the execution of Stilicho. With Stilicho’s fall, Honorius moved against all of his former father-in-law’s allies and torturing key individuals and ordering the confisca
In Late Antiquity, a consular diptych was a type of diptych intended as a de-luxe commemorative object. The diptychs were in ivory, wood or metal and decorated with rich relief sculpture. A consular diptych was commissioned by a consul ordinarius to mark his entry to that post, was distributed as a commemorative reward to those who had supported his candidature or might support him in future. From as early as the first century CE, some formal letters of appointment to office were known as "codicilli", little books, two or more flat pieces of wood, joined by clasps, lined with wax on, written the letter of appointment; the letter might be written on papyrus and presented within the covers. By the late fourth century, specially-commissioned diptychs began to be included among the gifts that appointees to high office distributed to celebrate and publicize the public games that were their principal duties; these diptychs were made of ivory, with relief carvings on the outside chosen by the donor, looking superficially similar to codicils but containing no writing and with no official status.
The routine distribution of such diptychs in the East is marked by a decision by Theodosius I in 384 to limit expenditure on the games of Constantinople by reserving ivory diptychs to consuls alone. In the western empire, they became a usual part of the public displays given by great aristocrats. Quintus Aurelius Symmachus, for example, distributed some to commemorate his son's quaestorian games in 393 and praetorian games in 401 respectively. All depict the games, on three separate occasions Symmachus links the presentation of these diptychs with the completion of the games, their end is marked by the consulship's disappearance under the reign of Justinian in 541. The oldest diptych that can properly be called a consular diptych, held in the cathedral treasury at Aosta, is one commissioned by Anicius Petronius Probus, consul in the Western Empire in 406 – it is unique not only for its extreme antiquity but as the only one to bear the portrait of the Emperor rather than that of the consul. Consular diptychs systematically carried either a more or less elaborate portrait of the consul on the most richly decorated examples or a dedicatory inscription to him within a geometric and vegetal scheme on the simpler examples.
The simpler examples were produced as a series from models prepared in advance, with the more sophisticated diptychs reserved for the inner circle of the Roman aristocracy. The workshops responsible for their production were to be found in the Empire's two capitals at Rome and Constantinople, but the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 was responsible for the disappearance of western production at the end of the 5th century, with all surviving consular diptychs from the 6th century originating from Constantinople; the most common motif on 6th century consular diptychs from Constantinople shows the consul, presiding over the consular games which marked his entry to the consulship. By their nature, consular diptychs are a valuable tool for the prosopography of the late Roman Empire as well as for the study of the art of this period. Large numbers of them have survived to the present day, in many cases due to their re-use as book covers for medieval ecclesiastical manuscripts; some were used in churches as grand bindings for lists of bishops and similar records.
The Barberini Ivory is a much rarer Imperial diptych of Justinian. In chronological order of production: Alexander Kazhdan, The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, 3 vols. Oxford University Press, 1991, s. v. "Diptych", vol. 1, 636–637. Bente Kiilerich, Late Fourth Century Classicism in the plastic Arts: studies in the so-called Theodosian Renaissance, Odense University Classical Studies 18, Odense University Press, 1993. Danièle Gaborit-Chopin, "Les ivoires du Ve au VIIIe siècle" in J. Durant, Byzance, l'art byzantin dans les collections publiques françaises, Paris, 1993, 42–45. Richard Delbrück, Die Consulardiptychen: und verwandte Denkmäler, Berlin, 1929. Weitzmann, Kurt, ed. Age of spirituality: late antique and early Christian art, third to seventh century, nos. 45–51 & 88, 1979, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, ISBN 9780870991790.
There were a Theodosius II of Abkhazia, a Patriarch Theodosius II of Alexandria and a Theodosius II of Constantinople. Additionally, Pope Theodoros I of Alexandria is known as Theodosius II in Coptic history. Theodosius II surnamed Theodosius the Younger, or Theodosius the Calligrapher, was the Eastern Roman Emperor for most of his life, taking the throne as an infant in 402 and ruling as the Eastern Empire's sole emperor after the death of his father Arcadius in 408, he is known for promulgating the Theodosian law code, for the construction of the Theodosian Walls of Constantinople. He presided over the outbreak of two great Christological controversies and Eutychianism. Theodosius was born in 401 as the only son of Emperor Arcadius and his Frankish-born wife Aelia Eudoxia. In January 402 he was proclaimed co-Augustus by his father, thus becoming the youngest person to bear this title in Roman history. In 408, his father died and the seven-year-old boy became Emperor of the Eastern half of the Roman Empire.
According to Procopius, the Sasanian king Yazdegerd I was appointed by Arcadius as the guardian of Theodosius, whom Yazdegerd treated as his own child, sending a tutor to raise him and warning that enmity toward him would be taken as enmity toward Persia. Government was at first by the Praetorian Prefect Anthemius, under whose supervision the Theodosian land walls of Constantinople were constructed. In 414, Theodosius' older sister Pulcheria was assumed the regency. By 416 Theodosius was declared Augustus in his own right and the regency ended, but his sister remained a strong influence on him. In June 421, Theodosius married a woman of Greek origin; the two had a daughter named Licinia Eudoxia. A separation occurred between the imperial couple, with Eudocia's establishment in Jerusalem where she favoured monastic Monophysitism and Pulcheria reassuming an influential role with the support of the eunuch Chrysaphius. Theodosius' increasing interest in Christianity, fuelled by the influence of Pulcheria, led him to go to war against the Sassanids, who were persecuting Christians.
In 423, the Western Emperor Honorius, Theodosius' uncle and the primicerius notariorum Joannes was proclaimed Emperor. Honorius' sister Galla Placidia and her young son Valentinian fled to Constantinople to seek Eastern assistance and after some deliberation in 424 Theodosius opened the war against Joannes. On 23 October 425, Valentinian III was installed as Emperor of the West with the assistance of the magister officiorum Helion, with his mother acting as regent. To strengthen the ties between the two parts of the Empire, Theodosius' daughter Licinia Eudoxia was betrothed to Valentinian. In 425, Theodosius founded the University of Constantinople with 31 chairs. Among the subjects were law, medicine, geometry, astronomy and rhetoric. In 429, Theodosius appointed a commission to collect all of the laws since the reign of Constantine I, create a formalized system of law; this plan was left unfinished, but the work of a second commission that met in Constantinople, assigned to collect all of the general legislations and bring them up to date, was completed.
The law code of Theodosius II, summarizing edicts promulgated since Constantine, formed a basis for the law code of Emperor Justinian I, the Corpus Juris Civilis, in the following century. The war with Persia proved indecisive, a peace was arranged in 422 without changes to the status quo; the wars of Theodosius were less successful. The Eastern Empire was plagued by raids by the Huns. Early in Theodosius II's reign Romans used internal Hun discord to overcome Uldin's invasion of the Balkans; the Romans strengthened their fortifications and in 424 agreed to pay 350 pounds of gold to encourage the Huns to remain at peace with the Romans. In 433 with the rise of Attila and Bleda to unify the Huns, the payment was doubled to 700 pounds; when Roman Africa fell to the Vandals in 439, both Eastern and Western Emperors sent forces to Sicily, intending to launch an attack on the Vandals at Carthage, but this project failed. Seeing the Imperial borders without significant forces, the Huns and Sassanid Persia both attacked and the expeditionary force had to be recalled.
During 443 two Roman armies were destroyed by the Huns. Anatolius negotiated a peace agreement. In 447 the Huns went through the Balkans, destroying among others the city of Serdica and reaching Athyra on the outskirts of Constantinople. During a visit to Syria, Theodosius met the monk Nestorius, a renowned preacher, he appointed Nestorius Archbishop of Constantinople in 428. Nestorius became involved in the disputes of two theological factions, which differed in their Christology. Nestorius tried to find a middle ground between those who, emphasizing the fact that in Christ God had been born as a man, insisted on calling the Virgin Mary Theotokos, those who rejected that title because God, as an eternal being, could not have been born. Nestorius suggested the title Christotokos as a compromise, but it did not find acceptance with either faction, he was accused of separating Christ's divine and human natures, resulting in "two Christs", a heresy called Nestorianism. Though initial