Upon its launch, the network primarily offered adventure and science-themed programs aimed towards a childrens audience between ages 6 and 11. From 1996 until 2000, Discovery Kids was carried by only a few cable television providers. By late 2001, the channel was carried in at least 15 million homes, in September 2001, a Canadian version of Discovery Kids was launched in partnership with Corus Entertainment. In December 2001, Discovery Kids announced a partnership with NBC, in which it would produce a new Saturday morning block for the known as Discovery Kids on NBC. The block, which replaced a block consisting only of sitcoms. With the launch of the new block, Discovery Kids branched out into animated programming with the premieres of Kenny the Shark and Tutenstein. In March 2006, Discovery declined to renew its contract with NBC for its Saturday morning block, since the launch of the NBC block, Discovery Kids had grown its cable carriage to over 43 million homes. NBC would replace the Discovery Kids block with Qubo in September 2006, under the arrangement, Discovery would be in charge of handling advertising sales and distribution for the new channel, while Hasbro would be involved in acquiring and producing programming.
While the network planned to maintain educational series, plans called for new programs based off Hasbro-owned franchises such as G. I. Joe, My Little Pony and game shows adapted from its board game brands. In January 2010, Discovery and Hasbro announced that the new network would be known as The Hub, the network planned to continue targeting Discovery Kids main demographic of children aged 2 through 14, but planned to feature a primetime block with family-oriented programming. The networks original imaging was developed by Troika Design Group, the final logo design was the result of a number of drafts by Troika designers, some of which had incorporated typography similar to Hasbros logo. The Hub was launched on October 10,2010 at 10,00 a. m, ET, its first program was an episode of The Twisted Whiskers Show. The management of The Hub subsequently underwent a fair value analysis of the channel, in March 2013, The Hub picked up its first work from POW. Entertainment, Stan Lees Mighty 7, a pilot movie to be aired in early 2014.
The network began to phase in an amended branding as the Hub Network, in late 2013, Hub Network introduced an updated logo and a new imaging campaign, Making Family Fun, which was developed by the Los Angeles-based agency Oishii Creative. On June 12,2014, it was reported that Margaret Loesch would step down from her role as Hub Network president, Discovery staff was unable to display a full commitment to Hub Networks operation, due to factors such as the troubled launch of the Oprah Winfrey Network. Believing that they had overvalued its stake in the venture, Hasbro decided to cede the operation of the network to Discovery so it could focus more on content and its core toy business
Letterboxing is the practice of transferring film shot in a widescreen aspect ratio to standard-width video formats while preserving the films original aspect ratio. The resulting videographic image has mattes above and below it, these mattes are part of the image, LBX or LTBX are the identifying abbreviations for films and images so formatted. The term refers to the shape of a box, a slot in a wall or door through which mail is delivered, being rectangular. Letterboxing is used as an alternative to a full-screen, pan-and-scan transfer of a film image to videotape or videodisc. This was often done for letterbox widescreen anime on VHS, though the practice of hiding subtitles within the lower matte is done with symmetrical mattes, albeit with less space available. The placing of soft subtitles within the picture or matte varies according to the DVD player being used, the first use of letterbox in consumer video appeared with the RCA Capacitance Electronic Disc videodisc format. Initially, letterboxing was limited to several key sequences of a such as opening and closing credits.
The first fully letterboxed CED release was Amarcord in 1984, and several others followed including The Long Goodbye, Monty Python, each disc contains a label noting the use of RCAs innovative wide-screen mastering technique. In some continents such as North America, almost all VHS titles were released in pan-and-scan versions. However, most Laserdiscs and some VHS releases were released in their original widescreen versions, some DVD releases of films are in full screen only, due to whatever existing master is available or basing on what format demographics prefer to see on a certain title. In other territories, such as Europe and Asia, widescreen versions of films on VHS and Laserdisc were much more common in those territories and this is more apparent in pan-and-scanned movies that remain entirely on the center area of the film image. The term SmileBox is a trademark used to describe a type of letterboxing for Cinerama films. The image is produced with 3D mapping technology to approximate a curved screen, some titles that were previously released in full screen only on VHS and DVD are now being issued in their original widescreen ratio on recent DVDs and Blu-rays.
Digital broadcasting allows 1.78,1 widescreen format transmissions without losing resolution, most television programming in the United States and France is in standard-definition 16,9 and is transmitted in anamorphic format on digital platforms. When using a 4,3 television, it is possible to display such programming in either a letterbox format or in a 4,3 centre-cut format. A letterboxed 14,9 compromise ratio was often broadcast in analogue transmissions in European countries making the transition from 4,3 to 16,9. Current high-definition television systems use video displays with an aspect ratio than older television sets. In addition to films produced for the cinema, some programming is produced in high definition
Founder Ed Sabol was a World War II veteran who worked selling topcoats after returning to the United States. In his spare time, he used a motion picture camera, received as a wedding gift. Inspired by his own work, Sabol founded a film company called Blair Motion Pictures. Sabol won the bidding for the rights to film the 1962 NFL championship game for $5,000, the film of that game impressed NFL Commissioner Pete Rozelle, who asked the owners of the NFL to agree to buy out Sabols company. Although the owners rejected Rozelles proposal in 1964, they agreed a year and he received $20,000 in seed money from each of the leagues 14 owners, and in return would shoot all NFL games and produce a highlight film for each team. Ed Sabol died on Monday, February 9,2015, at his home in Arizona, on August 6,2011, Ed Sabol was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame as a major contributor to the National Football League. Much has been made of the Films style, salon. com television critic Matt Zoller Seitz has called NFL Films the greatest in-house P. R. machine in pro sports history.
An outfit that could make even a tedius stalemate seem as momentous as the battle for the Alamo, NFL Films productions follow certain patterns. J. K. Simmons was tapped to narrate the companys one-hour recap of the 16-0 regular season of the 2007 New England Patriots, team-specific films such as year-in-review films have occasionally been narrated by broadcasters or personalities involved with the team in question. Examples include the 2000 and 2001 Oakland Raiders season reviews being narrated by actor, the style has been called tight on the spiral, a reference to the frequently-used slow-motion shot of the spinning football as it travels from the quarterbacks hand to the receiver. NFL Films dubs sound bites of local radio broadcasts over key plays, in addition, NFL Films often uses multiple camera angles. The company makes use of footage of players and coaches in the locker room after the game. With these techniques NFL Films turns football games into events that mimic ballet, among the companys most famous creations is the poem and accompanying music cue The Autumn Wind, which have become official themes for the Oakland Raiders.
One of NFL Films most popular series is Hard Knocks, Hard Knocks won consecutive Outstanding Edited Sports Series Emmys in 2009 &2010. They appear on either ESPN or the NFL Network, NFL Films produces the NFL Game of the Week, which showcases a previous-weeks game of the current season. ION Television has purchased the rights to air Game of the Week, Saturdays at 6PM ET beginning September 15, ESPN Classic has been known to air classic episodes of Game of the Week. Among other television programs NFL Films is credited for producing include NFL Total Access and much of the NFL Networks programming output. NFL Films game highlights were a staple of HBOs Inside the NFL for its entire run, NFL Films is famous for producing an annual highlight film for each team every season
Federal Communications Commission
The FCC works towards six goals in the areas of broadband, the spectrum, the media, public safety and homeland security, and modernizing itself. The FCC was formed by the Communications Act of 1934 to replace the radio regulation functions of the Federal Radio Commission, the FCC took over wire communication regulation from the Interstate Commerce Commission. The FCCs mandated jurisdiction covers the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the FCC provides varied degrees of cooperation and leadership for similar communications bodies in other countries of North America. The FCC is funded entirely by regulatory fees and it has an estimated fiscal-2016 budget of US$388 million. Consistent with the objectives of the Act as well as the 1993 Government Performance and Results Act and these are, Broadband All Americans should have affordable access to robust and reliable broadband products and services. Competition Competition in the provision of services, both domestically and overseas, supports the Nations economy.
The competitive framework for communications services should foster innovation and offer consumers reliable, Media The Nations media regulations must promote competition and diversity and facilitate the transition to digital modes of delivery. Public Safety and Homeland Security Communications during emergencies and crisis must be available for public safety, defense, the Nations critical communications infrastructure must be reliable, interoperable and rapidly restorable. The FCC is directed by five appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate for five-year terms. The U. S. President designates one of the commissioners to serve as chairman, only three commissioners may be members of the same political party. None of them may have a financial interest in any FCC-related business, commissioners may continue serving until the appointment of their replacements, but may not serve beyond the end of the next session of Congress following term expiration.
In practice, as of 2016 this means that commissioners may serve up to 1 1/2 years beyond the term expiration dates listed above if no replacement is appointed. The Consumer & Governmental Affairs Bureau develops and implements the FCCs consumer policies, CGB serves as the public face of the FCC through outreach and education, as well as through their Consumer Center, which is responsible for responding to consumer inquiries and complaints. CGB maintains partnerships with state and tribal governments in such areas as emergency preparedness. The Enforcement Bureau is responsible for enforcement of provisions of the Communications Act 1934, FCC rules, FCC orders, major areas of enforcement that are handled by the Enforcement Bureau are consumer protection, local competition, public safety, and homeland security. S. The International Bureau oversees FCC compliance with the international Radio Regulations, the Media Bureau handles post-licensing matters regarding direct broadcast satellite service.
The Wireless Telecommunications Bureau regulates domestic wireless telecommunications programs and policies, the Wireline Competition Bureau develops policy concerning wire line telecommunications. The Wireline Competition Bureaus main objective is to promote growth and economical investments in technology infrastructure, markets
Whale Wars is a weekly American documentary-style reality television series that premiered on November 7,2008 on the Animal Planet cable channel. The program follows Paul Watson, founder of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, as he, on November 6,2014 Animal Planet announced a special three-part presentation that aired on December 28,2014 as part of its Month-Long Freeview. The Japanese claim that their whaling is legally research, which Sea Shepherd, the show came at a time when Animal Planet was being re-branded to attract broader audiences and compete with non-animal-centric programming. Notes The 2007–08 Antarctic campaign was named Operation Migaloo, after the only known albino humpback in the world and this campaign was the focus of the first season of Whale Wars, which premiered on November 7,2008. 2 from an inflatable boat. The pair were delivering a letter advising the Japanese that they were whaling illegally with the hope of creating an international incident, the Japanese responded by saying that the men would be held until Sea Shepherd stopped what they called dangerous and illegal activities.
The crew of the Yushin Maru No and he was quoted as saying, Its all giant street theater. On March 3, Sea Shepherd members threw bottles of butyric acid, Watson said, They are so full of crap. We filmed and photographed the entire thing, not a single thing landed anywhere near their crew. It is their way of trying to get sympathy, the Australian Government called for all parties to exercise restraint and responsible behaviour in the Southern Ocean. On March 17,2008 Paul Watson claimed that he was shot by the Japanese crew or coast guard personnel during the campaign. The incident is documented during the show in the final episode. The footage in Whale Wars shows Watson standing on the deck of the Steve Irwin while Sea Shepherd crew throws glass bottles filled with acid at the Nisshin Maru whaling vessel. The Japanese respond by throwing flashbang devices, Watson is shown reaching inside his jacket and bullet-proof vest and remarking Ive been hit. Back inside the bridge of the Steve Irwin, a fragment is found inside the vest.
The Institute of Cetacean Research has dismissed Sea Shepherds statements as lies, the Institute and Coast Guard said that they used seven flashbang devices designed to flash and make noise in the air without causing harm. Neither of the two conflicting accounts have been independently verified, the Australian Foreign Affairs Department had condemned actions by crew members of any vessel that cause injury. Two media releases were made on the day from the office
Video on demand
IPTV technology is often used to bring video on demand to televisions and personal computers. Internet television, using the Internet, is a popular form of video on demand. VOD can be accessed via desktop client applications such as the Apple iTunes online content store, some airlines offer VOD as in-flight entertainment to passengers through individually controlled video screens embedded in seatbacks or armrests or offered via portable media players. Some video on demand services such as Netflix use a model that requires users to pay a monthly fee to access a bundled set of content. Other services use a model, where access is free for Internet users. Downloading and streaming video on demand systems provide the user all of the features of Portable media players. Some VOD systems that store and stream programs from hard drives use a memory buffer to allow the user to fast forward. It is possible to put video servers on local area networks, streaming video servers can serve a wider community via a WAN, in which case the responsiveness may be reduced.
Download VOD services are practical to homes equipped with cable modems or DSL connections, servers for traditional cable and telco VOD services are usually placed at the cable head-end serving a particular market as well as cable hubs in larger markets. In the telco world, they are placed in either the central office, the first Video on Demand systems used tapes as the realtime source of video streams. GTE started as a trial in 1990 with AT&T providing all components, by 1992 VOD servers were supplying previously encoded digital video from disks and DRAM. In the US the 1982 anti-trust break-up of AT&T resulted in a number of telephone companies called Baby Bells. Following this the Cable Communications Policy Act of 1984 prohibited telephone companies from providing services within their operating regions. All of these companies and others began holding trials to setup systems for supplying Video on Demand over telephone, in November 1992 Bell Atlantic announced a VOD trial. The IBM was developing video server code-named Tiger Shark, concurrently Digital Equipment was developing a scalable video server.
Bell Atlantic selected IBM and April 1993 the system became the first VOD over ADSL to be deployed outside the lab, in 1994-5 US West went on to file for VOD at several cities. 330,000 subscribers in Denver,290,000 in Minneapolis, many VOD trials were held with various combinations of server and set-top. Of these the primary players in the US were the companies, using DEC, Oracle, IBM, Hewlett-Packard, USA Video, nCube, SGI
Secaucus, New Jersey
Secaucus is a town in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. Secaucus is a derivation of the Algonquian words for black and snake, or place of snakes, or sekakes, once an island, was part of the territory purchased by Director-General of New Netherland, Peter Stuyvesant in 1658. Settlement had begun by at least 1733 by the Smith family, Secaucus was originally formed as a borough by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 12,1900, from portions of North Bergen. On June 7,1917, Secaucus was incorporated as a town, replacing Secaucus borough, Secaucus was originally an agricultural community specializing in flowers. It became known for its pig farms in the first half of the 20th century, in the early 1900s the town was home to approximately 55 pig farms, which housed nearly 250,000 pigs, which outnumbered humans 16 to 1. These farms served the demands of Newark and New York. Many of them were politicians, most notably pork peddler Henry B. Krajewski, who ran for New Jersey senator, three times for governor and twice for U. S.
President, the towns pig farms, rendering plants, and junk yards gave the town a reputation for being one of the most odorous in the New York metropolitan area. In the 1950s the pig began to dwindle, partially due to construction on the New Jersey Turnpike. In 1963, debris from the demolition of Pennsylvania Station was dumped in the Secaucus Meadowlands, in decades Secaucus became more of a commuter town. In a non-binding referendum in 1969, 90% of voters in Secaucus chose to leave Hudson County and join Bergen County, only the state has the authority to change county lines, so it never came to fruition. Today it remains the most suburban town in Hudson County, New Jersey Monthly magazine ranked Secaucus as its 182nd best place to live in its 2010 rankings of the Best Places To Live in New Jersey, after ranking the borough 11th in its 2008 rankings. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town had an area of 6.599 square miles. At the southern end of Secaucus is Snake Hill, an igneous rock intrusion jutting up some 150 feet from the Meadowlands below.
Being partly surrounded by the Hackensack Meadowlands, Secaucus provides opportunities to observe the recovery of natural marshes in the towns post industrial, the Hackensack River and its tributary Mill Creek create the other borders for the district. The North End is one of the older, traditional residential neighborhoods of Secaucus which itself has been transformed to a town and retail. It is home to Secaucus High School, whose fields are used by the Bergen County Scholastic League. Nearby Schmiddts Wood is one of the last original hardwood forests in urban North Jersey, as part of the New Jersey Meadowlands District, the areas along the river are characterized by wetlands preservation and restoration areas
WWOR-TV, channel 9, is the flagship station of the MyNetworkTV programming service, licensed to Secaucus, New Jersey, United States, and serving the New York City television market. It is owned by the Fox Television Stations division of 21st Century Fox as a station to Foxs flagship station. Its transmitter is located atop the Empire State Building, channel 9 signed on the air on October 11,1949 as WOR-TV. It was owned by the Bamberger Broadcasting Service, which operated WOR radio, exactly ten months earlier, Bamberger launched Washington, D. C. s fourth television station, WOIC, on channel 9. WOR-TV entered the New York market as the last of the citys VHF stations to sign on, on WOR-TVs opening night, a welcome address was read by WOR radios morning host, John B. However, the portion of the speech was not heard because of a technical glitch. The problem was fixed and Gambling repeated the that evening. That first broadcast and other early WOR-TV shows emanated from the New Amsterdam Roof Theatre, for a short time, the stations transmitter operated from WOR TV Tower in North Bergen, New Jersey and was moved to the Empire State Building.
In 1949, the station moved uptown to the newly constructed 9 Television Square facility on West 67th Street, at the start of 1950, Bamberger Broadcasting changed its name to General Teleradio. Later that year, WOIC was sold to a joint venture of the Washington Post and CBS, in 1953, WOR-TV began operating a separate studio for news and special events programming located on the 83rd floor of the Empire State Building. The subsidiaries were brought together under the General Teleradio name. The main impetus for the merger was to give General Tire a controlling share in Mutual Radio Network, the merger raised speculation that Mutual would launch a television network, plans that were discussed since before WOR-TV went on the air but ultimately did not come to fruition. During the early years of RKO General ownership, WOR-TV moved back to Times Square, channel 9s studios were co-located with WOR radio at 1440 Broadway for several years. During the 1950s and early 1960s, all three of New Yorks independents struggled to find competitive and acceptable programming, the field would increase by one in 1956 when former DuMont flagship station WABD became an independent.
Until 1990, the station had a tradition of showing King Kong, Son of Kong and Mighty Joe Young on Thanksgiving, in 1962, nostalgia maven Joe Franklin moved his daily talk program to WOR-TV, after a 12-year run on WABC-TV. The Joe Franklin Show ended on August 6,1993, making it one of the programs in television history. In 1968, the continued to maintain offices at 1440 Broadway. By the early 1970s, WNEW-TV evolved into the station for cartoons and sitcoms
Mermaids: The Body Found
Mermaids is a documentary originally aired as Mermaids, The Body Found on American TV channels Animal Planet and Discovery Channel. It tells a story of a scientific teams investigative efforts to uncover the source behind mysterious underwater recordings of an unidentified marine body, the show presents the generally discredited aquatic ape hypothesis as evidence that mermaids exist, along with a digitally manufactured video. A sequel broadcast called Mermaids, The New Evidence aired May 26,2013, on the contrary, the serious tone of the majority of the presentation implied that it was a factual documentary. The first airings of the two Mermaids programs apparently fooled millions of people and some of Animal Planets largest audiences ever. Mermaids, The Body Found received 1.9 million views during its US telecast premiere on Sunday, May 27,2012 and this is the networks most watched telecast since the Steve Irwin memorial special in September 2006. Mermaids Animal planet has been criticized for giving the impression of being a documentary, when in fact much of the material was made up.
Publicity for the program included a website falsely claiming government seizure of the domain. The Last Dragon, a program airing on Animal Planet that attempted to describe dragons in a scientific manner. Like Mermaids, the show wove a great deal of fiction around the facts that the megalodon did, indeed. The show told of fictitious encounters with the animal, including footage of an attack on a private boat. Discovery Channel Press Release and Info on aquatic ape theory Mermaids, The Body Found at the Internet Movie Database
It differs from documentary television in that the focus tends to be on drama, personal conflict, and entertainment rather than educating viewers. The genre has various standard tropes, including confessionals used by cast members to express their thoughts, an early example of the genre was the 1991 Dutch series Nummer 28, which was the first show to bring together strangers and record their interactions. It exploded as a phenomenon in the late 1990s and early 2000s with the success of the series Survivor, Idols. These shows and a number of others became global franchises, spawning local versions in dozens of countries, Reality television as a whole has become a fixture of television programming. There are grey areas around what is classified as reality television, Reality television has faced significant criticism since its rise in popularity. Much of the criticism has centered on the use of the word reality, Television formats portraying ordinary people in unscripted situations are almost as old as the television medium itself.
Precedents for television that portrayed people in unscripted situations began in the late 1940s, queen for a Day was an early example of reality-based television. The 1946 television game show Cash and Carry sometimes featured contestants performing stunts, debuting in 1948, Allen Funts hidden camera show Candid Camera broadcast unsuspecting ordinary people reacting to pranks. In 1948, talent search shows Ted Macks Original Amateur Hour and Arthur Godfreys Talent Scouts featured amateur competitors, in the 1950s, game shows Beat the Clock and Truth or Consequences involved contestants in wacky competitions and practical jokes. Confession was a show which aired from June 1958 to January 1959. The radio series Nightwatch tape-recorded the daily activities of Culver City, the series You Asked for It incorporated audience involvement by basing episodes around requests sent in by postcard from viewers. First broadcast in the United Kingdom in 1964, the Granada Television documentary Seven Up, broadcast interviews with a dozen ordinary 7-year-olds from a broad cross-section of society and inquired about their reactions to everyday life.
Every seven years, a film documented the life of the same individuals during the period, titled the Up Series, episodes include 7 Plus Seven,21 Up. The program was structured as a series of interviews with no element of plot, however, it did have the then-new effect of turning ordinary people into celebrities. The first reality show in the modern sense may have been the series The American Sportsman, Another precursor may be considered Mutual of Omahas Wild Kingdom which aired from 1963 through 1988. This show featured zoologist Marlin Perkins traveling across the globe and illustrating the variety of animal life on the planet. Though mostly a travelogue, it was popular in syndication and new episodes were produced through the eighties. The 12-part 1973 PBS series An American Family showed a nuclear family going through a divorce, unlike many reality shows, it was more or less documentary in purpose and style