Bell MTS Inc. is a subsidiary of BCE Inc. that operates telecommunications services in the Canadian province of Manitoba. The company's head office is located in MTS Place on Main Street, in Downtown Winnipeg, Manitoba. MTS is the descendant company of Manitoba Government Telephones, which went into operation in January 1908 after the government of Manitoba bought Bell Canada's Manitoba operations; the Crown corporation became Manitoba Telephone System in 1921, absorbed all private telephone operations in the province. In 1996, the Provincial government of Premier Gary Filmon decided to sell the Manitoba Telephone System to private shareholders; the decision to privatize was seen as controversial, as it marked a significant departure from the Progressive Conservatives' earlier position that MTS should remain provincially owned. On March 17, 2017, Bell re-gained control of MTS after closing its $3.9 billion acquisition of the provider. For regulatory reasons, Bell will divest a third of MTS's wireless business to Telus, a smaller portion to the new entrant Xplornet.
Under Bell ownership, Bell MTS will serve as the headquarters of Bell's telecom businesses in Western Canada. Bell MTS is the naming rights holder of two venues in Winnipeg. At midnight on June 21, 1959, Winnipeg was the first urban area in North America to implement the 9-9-9 emergency telephone number. In the late 1950s, MTS located one of its administrative offices on Empress St. near the newly opened Polo Park Shopping Centre complex. In 2001 these employees were moved to 333 Main St. known as MTS Place, where 1200 employees now work. This formed part of the Province's Downtown First strategy. In the late 1970s, similar to policy changes implemented by AT&T in the U. S. MTS allowed its customers to purchase their own telephone equipment and with this, provided free installation of RJ11 telephone jacks. In the Spring of 1979, MTS announced that it would be a pioneer in Telidon-based two-way electronic information services; the trial was called "Project IDA" and ran from 1980 to 1981. MTS was a pioneer in offering videotex at the commercial level.
In 1981, it partnered with Infomart to create the Grassroots service, providing information relevant to farmers on the Canadian prairies. Customers paid $47.50 per month to subscribe to Grassroots, plus connection fees to DATAPAC. Terminal equipment was manufactured by Norpak, they opened MTS Phone Centre stores in shopping malls to sell residential and business phones and services, in 1984 opened two MTS Business Centre locations to provide sales of business-level equipment. In the mid-1980s, MTS started a subsidiary known as MTX, which had invested in telecommunications in Saudi Arabia; however MTX was forced to shut down after controversy about the company back in Manitoba after MTX lost $27 million on the venture. In the late 1980s MTS launched MTS Mobility providing cellular and paging services in Manitoba. In 1996 and in a controversial decision, the Provincial government decided to sell the Manitoba Telephone System to private shareholders; the vote to privatize MTS was held in early December 1996.
In January 1999, MTS partnered with Bell Canada to form Intrigna, a Competitive Local Exchange Carrier, created to expand telecommunications options for the business market in Alberta and British Columbia. As part of the deal, Bell Canada gained 20% ownership of MTS, they set up a jointly operated office in Calgary. By the summer of 1999, fibre optic cable had been laid in Edmonton and Calgary, extended to Vancouver, British Columbia. In August 1999, MTS completed work on a new trunked radio system known as FleetNet 800, technology licensed from neighbouring SaskTel. In the Fall of 1999, MTS began to offer DSL high-speed Internet service in Winnipeg and Brandon, which expanded to other areas of the province; the CRTC met with the various telecommunications providers in Canada and required of them to implement a Service Improvement Plan. This meant that MTS had to improve service to northern remote areas that by the 21st century had poor quality phone service. Customers in northern Manitoba complained that the microwave system could not handle data communications well.
This, as well as the collapse of a microwave relay tower linking Churchill in early January 2000, lead MTS to initiate upgrades to the Radisson-Churchill corridor with fibre optics and the Lynn Lake-Thompson corridor with a digital microwave system to replace the outdated equipment. Cellular telephone service is available to 98% of population in the province. In 2003, MTS purchased the naming rights for the True North Centre in downtown Winnipeg, renaming it the MTS Centre; the 10-year deal between True North Sports & Entertainment and MTS, MTS's single largest advertising expenditure, was extended when the arena became a National Hockey League venue in 2011. In February 2004, MTS sold its 40% stake in Intrigna to Bell Canada for $230 million. In April 2004, MTS acquired Allstream, the successor to the transcontinental railways' telegraph businesses, it renamed the main subsidiary to MTS Allstream Inc. until 2012, when it was split as MTS Inc. and Allstream Inc. On December 7, 2005, former BCE executive Pierre Blouin was named Chief Executive Officer of Manitoba Telecom Services and of MTS Allstream, replacing longtime CEO Bill Fraser.
On March 31, 2011 MTS launched a HSPA+ wireless network along with the availability Apple's iPhone series of smartphones starting with the iPhone 4. The wireless network had claims it would provide data speeds up
CKY-DT, VHF channel 7, is a CTV owned-and-operated television station located in Winnipeg, Canada. The station is owned by Bell Media. CKY's studios are located on Graham Avenue in Downtown Winnipeg, its transmitter is located near Lord Selkirk Highway/Highway 75 in Ritchot. On cable, the station can be seen on Shaw Cable and MTS TV channel 5, it is available on Bell TV on HD channel 1091. On Shaw Direct, the channel is available on 316 or 033, in high definition on channel 029 or 529. There is a high definition feed offered on Shaw Cable digital channel 210 and MTS TV channel 453 and 1005. Several pay-TV providers in the Grand Forks, North Dakota and Fargo–Moorhead markets to the south in the United States carry CKY-DT on their systems, in addition to carriage of the CBC's CBWT-DT. CKY was the call sign of two Winnipeg radio stations. CKY was founded in 1923 by Manitoba Government Telephones. In 1948, the station was purchased by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation which changed its call letters to CBW.
In 1949, the CKY call letters were reassigned to a new AM station in Winnipeg, owned by Moffat Broadcasting Ltd. which founded CJAY-TV in 1960 and CKY-FM in 1962. Beginning in 1954, Winnipeg had one television station, government-owned CBWT Channel 4. In January 1960, the Canadian Board of Broadcast Governors held public hearings in Winnipeg in response to three applications, submitted to operate a commercial television station on channel 7; these applications were presented by R. S. Misener and Associates, a group associated with radio stations CKY Winnipeg, CFAM Altona and CKSB St. Boniface; the Misener application was subsequently approved by the BBG, the TV station was founded as independent station CJAY on November 12, 1960. It joined the CTV Television Network when it launched on October 1, 1961. On June 1, 1973, after Moffat bought controlling interest in the station, its call sign was changed to CKY-TV to match Moffat's AM and FM stations, making it one of the only two Canadian television stations, the other being the now-defunct CKX-TV, with a three-letter call sign.
The CJAY call letters are now used on a Calgary rock station now owned by CTV's owner Bell Media. In 1992, Moffat sold CKY-AM and CKY-FM to Rogers Communications while maintaining ownership of the television station. In August 1992, general manager Vaughn Tozer hired Jim Wicks, a Canadian-American broadcaster, to be the main news anchor and managing editor. Tozer and Wicks reorganized the on-air team to help accomplish their goal. Within three ratings periods, the newscast had climbed from third place to first place, replacing CBWT's 24 Hours as the highest-rated newscast in Winnipeg. At one point, the newscast was advertised on billboards throughout the city as "Wicks at 6." The on-air chemistry between Wicks and sports director Steve Vogelsang added to the popularity of the program. Although the personalities have since changed on several occasions, the station's newscast has remained Manitoba's #1 newscast, increasing its lead in recent years due in part to the demise of CHMI's newscasts and budget cuts at CBWT.
CKY-TV is the market's only station with a weekday noon newscast. As of today, CKY-TV is the oldest private television station in Manitoba since CKX-TV's demise. In 2001, Moffat Broadcasting was purchased by Shaw Cablesystems, not interested in CKY-TV or its co-owned cable channel, WTN. CKY-TV was purchased by Bell Globemedia, while WTN was purchased by Corus Entertainment, moving to Toronto, becoming the W Network. Now a CTV owned-and-operated station, promos on CKY-TV became similar to the other CTV Owned-and-operated stations. However, Shaw returned to the television station business five years acquiring CJBN-TV, a Global Television Network affiliate, in nearby Kenora, Ontario. On May 15, 2006, the station's studios moved to a new facility near Winnipeg's MTS Centre; this move was prompted by economic development in the area, including the Polo Park Shopping Centre, the likelihood that CKY-TV's studios would be bought off by developers to use the property for additional retail space. The demolition of Winnipeg Arena and the possible development of a new football stadium to replace Canad Inns Stadium would have placed the broadcasting facility in a position of being surrounded by retail developments.
CKY-TV's new studios use state-of-the-art technology, little was moved from the old studios to the new facility. The existing news set was moved to CFQC, the CTV affiliate in Saskatoon, some technical equipment was sent to CTV's Quebec City bureau. In addition, the master control of the station was moved to 9 Channel Nine Court, home of flagship CTV station CFTO-TV in Toronto. Another reason for the move is that CKY-TV had more space than it needed. With WTN, CITI-FM and CKY-FM moving to new studios in recent years, plus the reduction of local, in-studio programming on CKY-TV since 1991, a new, although smaller, facility suited CKY-TV's needs. In recent years, CKY-TV has allowed studio space to be rented for third-party productions, including the locally produced film Blue State. CKY-TV marked its 50th anniversary in 2010. At midnight on September 1, 2011, the day after Canadian television stations in CRTC-designated mandatory markets transitioned from analog to digital broadcasts, CKY-TV flash cut its digital signal into operation
Bell TV, is the division of BCE Inc. that provides satellite television service across Canada. It launched on September 10, 1997 and as of 2004 it has been providing "Bell TV for Condos", a VDSL service provided to select multidwelling units in Montreal and Toronto. Bell TV provides over 500 digital video and 100 HD and audio channels to, as of May 2010, over 1.8 million subscribers. Its major competitors include satellite service Shaw Direct, as well as various cable and communications companies across Canada, such as Rogers Cable, EastLink, Shaw Communications, Vidéotron and Cogeco. Bell TV services are repackaged and resold by Telus as Telus Satellite TV, in areas where the latter company's Optik IPTV services are unavailable. ExpressVu was conceived in 1994, at the time of American DSS systems launch, as a consortium of Ontario-based Tee-Comm Electronics, Canadian Satellite Communications, Vancouver-based Western International Communications and Bell Canada Enterprises, with a projected startup date of late 1995.
High technology development costs and delays placed Tee-Comm in a severe financial position, prompting the remaining partners to pull out in 1996. Instead, U. S. satellite-TV provider Echostar Dish Network was chosen to provide the receivers and uplink equipment. The Hughes DirecTV system had been optioned to Power Broadcasting, in Canada. Tee-Comm on its own managed to launch the first DBS service in Canada, AlphaStar, in early 1997. ExpressVu launched service in September 1997 as "Dish Network Canada", followed by "ExpressVu Dish Network", in both cases using the Echostar logo. Bell took over full ownership of ExpressVu by 2000; the ExpressVu name was retired in August 2008 along with the Today Just Got Better advertising campaign. Bell's television services as a whole are now called Bell TV; when disambiguation is required, the satellite service is called Bell Satellite TV. Plans have been shelved for any additional ExpressVu satellite expenditures assuming pending CRTC and Industry Canada approval for Dish Network to use all 32 transponders on Nimiq 5.
As a result of this, SES has announced that they will not be replacing the ill-fated AMC-14 now that Dish Network has cut this deal with Telesat & BCE for Nimiq 5 usage. In 2009, Telus reached a deal to resell a re-packaged version of the Bell TV service in parts of Alberta and British Columbia known as Telus Satellite TV; the agreement was designed to allow Telus the ability to "instantly" offer a quadruple play of services in markets where it has not yet deployed its IPTV services, while allowing Bell to increase its television market share in Western Canada. The Telus-branded service co-exists with the Bell-branded version of Bell TV, still offered in the markets that Telus Satellite TV is offered. In 2012, Bell changed satellite plans in Ontario, they are now sold in packages called "Good", "Better" and "Best" to its competitor Rogers Cable in that region. Channels in the "Best" tier can still be purchased in theme packages, existing customers with older plans are grandfathered; this does not affect other regions such as Quebec, where there are different types of plans.
Along with these changes, Bell discontinued sales and rentals of its final standard-definition television receiver, the 4100 model. Customers who still have an older SDTV with an AV input can use an HD receiver, but the quality will be limited to 480i due to technical limitations. Bell TV broadcasts from two geostationary satellites: Nimiq 4 and 6. Nimiq 4 was launched on September 19, 2008, Nimiq 6 was launched on May 17, 2012. Both satellites follow an equatorial path. Nimiq is an Inuktitut word for "that which unifies" and was chosen from a nationwide naming contest in 1998; the two satellites are operated by Telesat Canada. Bell's uplink site is located in North York, Ontario. Nimiq 4, located at 82° W serves Bell's high-definition television content. Nimiq 6, located at 91.1° W serves Bell's standard-definition television and radio content. Each satellite has 32 Ku-band transponders. A transponder has enough bandwidth to broadcast 10 channels; because HDTV requires more bandwidth, some transponders broadcast only 4-5 channels.
LyngSat provides a listing of channels on Nimiq 6 broken down by transponder. Nimiq 1 contains 32 Ku-band transponders. At 91° W. Nimiq 2, launched on December 29, 2002 includes 32 K-band transponders. Nimiq 2 provides HDTV, international programming, all newly released channels, it occupies the 82° W slot. Nimiq 3 went online on August 23, 2004. Called DirecTV3, it is an old DirecTV satellite moved to a new orbital slot near Nimiq 1 to offload some of the transmitting work from the original satellite. In February 2006, Nimiq 3 was moved behind Nimiq 2 to support it, while another satellite, Nimiq 4i, took Nimiq 3's spot behind Nimiq 1. Nimiq 4i was replaced with Nimiq 4iR as it was de-orbited. Both Nimiq 3 and Nimiq 4iR feature 16 Ku-band transponders. Nimiq
Shaw Direct is a direct broadcast satellite television distributor in Canada and a subsidiary of the telecommunications company Shaw Communications. As of 2010, Shaw Direct had over 900,000 subscribers, it broadcasts on Ku band from three communications satellites, Anik F1R and Anik G1 at 107.3°W, Anik F2 at 111.1°W. The company was known as Star Choice until April 15, 2009. A full list of channels carried by these three satellites is available from satellite-related sites such as Lyngsat. Anik F1 carries most mainstream English-language programming. A third planned satellite, Anik G1, was launched on April 15, 2013, later reached orbit on May 29, 2013; this new satellite provides Shaw Direct customers with access to over 210 HD channels. Shaw Direct is now based in Calgary, Alberta, its broadcast centre is in Mississauga and has call centres in Victoria, Vancouver and Montreal. August 1996: Awarded broadcasting licence. March 1997: Opened first customer care centre. March 1997: Activated their first customer, Archie Gray, who purchased a receiver for $999 with 100 digital channels when he purchased $400 worth of programming.
September 1997: Added PPV to their lineup. September 1999: Added 60 new channels to their lineup. January 2000: Launched HDTV programming with the broadcast of Super Bowl XXXIV, the first High Definition TV broadcast in Canada. August 2000: Privatized by Shaw Communications Inc. through its acquisition of Cancom. April 2001: Activated both Anik F1 and Anik E2 satellites, becoming the first Canadian provider to broadcast services from two satellites simultaneously. March 2002: Moved its head office from Lincoln, New Brunswick to Calgary, Alberta. May 2002: Sold its one millionth receiver. August 2003: Launched its first integrated High Definition receiver, the Motorola DSR500 HD. September 2003: WTSN was dropped from lineup because of the channel's demise. February 2004: Added 16 additional standard-definition channels to their lineup, including 2 high-definition ones. July 2004: Announced the expansion of new channels as a result of the launch of the Anik F2 satellite. May 2005: Launched the dual tuner High Definition Digital Video Recorder.
November 2005: TCM is introduced to the Canadian market for the first time. September 1, 2006: AMC was debuted in Canada on Star Choice and Shaw Cable. October 2006: A&E HD, Discovery HD and SRC HD launch on October 12, 2006. Super Écran HD launches October 30, 2006, bringing the total amount of free HD channels to 15. December 2006: Showcase HD and National Geographic Channel HD launch on December 19, 2006 bringing the total amount of free HD channels to 17. January 2007: Launched the DSR317 receiver, featuring a faster processor than previous Standard Definition receivers, picture-in-guide. Super station WGN was swapped for the local Chicago feed on January 17, 2007. February 2007: Launched the DSR207 receiver, featuring a faster processor than previous Standard Definition receivers, picture-in-guide. March 2007: Star Choice announces the addition of GOL-TV, WFN, WGN HD and HD Net. March 2007: Star Choice celebrates its 10 Year Anniversary. June 2007: Séries+ HD and Vie HD launch on May 31, 2007.
Much Music and TLN move to essentials and PunchMuch is removed. Casino and Gaming Television was added on June 2007 to the essentials package. July/August 2007: A new interactive program guide was deployed to all DSR505's and DVR530's; the new interactive program guide introduced new features such as instant on capability, support for Open TV and support for 8PSK modulation. September 2007: PPV HD, MMore HD, Movie Central 2 HD, Canal Z and ABC West HD were added to the line-up. October 2007: Added NHL Centre Ice package to the line-up. December 2007: Teletoon Retro English was added to the line-up. Viewer's Choice and Canal Indigo PPV were both dropped from the lineup in favour of Shaw PPV. February 2008: Speed Channel HD, NASCAR Hot Pass and Wild TV were added to the line-up. March 2008: Port Cinema, Port Food, Port Kids, Port Select and Port World are dropped from the lineup because of the demise of the channels. May 2008: Sun TV Toronto, City TV Winnipeg, Global Maritimes, CBC Saskatchewan are dropped from the lineup.
August 2008: TFO was dropped from the line-up. September 2008: TSN2 and TSN2 HD was added to the line-up. October 2008: HBO Canada 1, HBO Canada 1 HD, HBO Canada 2, HBO Canada 2 HD and The FRAME HD were added to the line-up. X-Treme Sports is dropped from the lineup because of the demise of the channel. December 2008: Star Choice launched the DSR209 receiver. Big Ten Network and Big Ten Network HD was added to the line-up. CMT and YTV move to their Essentials package. January 2009: Star Choice celebrates the sale of its 2 millionth receiver; the Accessible Channel launches. February 2009: Star Choice launched the DSR319 receiver. April 15, 2009: Star Choice becomes Shaw Direct. April 30, 2009: Shaw Direct drops the Buffalo, New York TV stations NBC Buffalo, WIVB-TV and WKBW-TV, the Detroit Fox station WJBK-TV. July 2009: TV Land Canada, Court TV Canada and BBC Kids are dropped from the lineup. However, rival Bell TV continues to use these channels. October 2009: The Score HD launched, DIY Network launched to replace Fine Living Canada.
November 2009: Nickelodeon Canada launched to replace Discovery Kids Canada. March 1, 2010: Sex TV and Drive-In Classics will be removed from the Shaw Direct lineup
CIVT-DT, UHF channel 32, is a CTV owned-and-operated television station located in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The station is owned by Bell Media, as part of a twinstick with Victoria-based CTV Two owned-and-operated station CIVI-DT. CIVT maintains studio facilities located at 969 Robson Street at the intersection of Robson Street and Burrard Street in downtown Vancouver, its transmitter is located atop Mount Seymour. On cable, the station is available on Shaw Cable channel 9, Optik TV channel 101 and Rogers Cable channel 112. On satellite, the station is available on Shaw Direct classic lineup channel 321 or advanced lineup channel 004 and Bell TV channel 250. There is a high definition feed on Shaw Cable digital channel 210, Optik TV digital channel 101 and channel 9101, Shaw Direct classic lineup channel 004 and advanced lineup channel 504, Bell TV channel 1151. CIVT is the only full-fledged CTV station in British Columbia, as well as in the Pacific Time Zone. However, the station only maintains one terrestrial transmitter.
Despite transmitting at an effective radiated power of 33 kW, it only reaches Vancouver and neighbouring Whatcom County, Washington. Accordingly, the station relies on cable and satellite distribution to reach the rest of British Columbia, making it something of a weak link in the CTV network. In the Mountain Time Zone portion of the province, CIVT is either carried on a higher channel number or is unavailable altogether. Calgary sister station CFCN is the default CTV station for southeastern British Columbia and has long operated rebroadcasters in this region, while Edmonton sister CFRN serves as the default CTV station for the northeastern part of the province; until 2012, when CBC Television owned-and-operated station CBUT-DT shut down its rebroadcasters due to funding reductions, CIVT was the only Vancouver station out of Canada's three major television networks to be cable- and satellite-exclusive outside of the city. CIVT was the only CTV network station to broadcast its primary signal on UHF prior to the digital transition.
Although Industry Canada technically requires Canadian television stations to identify themselves over-the-air by their call letters, this rule is enforced, most Canadian stations identify themselves by their brand name rather than their callsign. On-air, CIVT identifies itself as "CTV". Where a channel reference is warranted, it uses "Channel 9", its primary cable channel number on most cable systems in southwestern British Columbia; the process that led to the launch of CIVT began when Rogers Communications and Canwest Global Communications filed separate applications with the Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission in August 1995 and January 1996, to launch new television stations in the Vancouver/Victoria market. In line with the commission's usual practice, the CRTC issued a general call for applications in March 1996, with a public hearing that September. In all, five applications were considered: Rogers proposed a multicultural station similar to its CFMT in Toronto, to replace an existing regional specialty channel, Talentvision.
The commission's decision, released on January 31, 1997, approved the Baton/Electrohome application and denied the others. The prospective Rogers station was denied because it would have replaced some of Talentvision's existing ethnic programming with U. S. syndicated fare. Moreover, Talentvision's existing owner indicated there was "no plan to abandon at this time"; as for Canwest, the commission determined that the existence of the CHAN/CHEK twinstick did not justify licensing a new station to a company serving the market. The three proposals for an independent station in Vancouver were all determined to be high-calibre. However, the deciding factor in favour of Baton/Electrohome was a commitment to air new Vancouver-produced programming across all of Baton's and Electrohome's stations, a promise that the smaller CHUM and Craig station groups could not match. CIVT first signed on the air on September 22, 1997, under the brand "Vancouver Television"; the station's newscasts emulated the format of CityPulse on Toronto's CITY-TV, with a morning programme and evening newscasts, in which the anchors stood up and moved throughout the studio.
The Toronto station's founder, Moses Znaimer, went so far as to claim that his former protégé, Baton chief executive Ivan Fecan, had stolen CITY's format
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000