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Anime News Network

Anime News Network is an anime industry news website that reports on the status of anime, video games, Japanese popular music and other related cultures within North America, Southeast Asia and Japan. The website offers reviews and other editorial content, forums where readers can discuss current issues and events, an encyclopedia that contains many anime and manga with information on Japanese and English staff, theme music, plot summaries, user ratings. Founded in July 1998 by Justin Sevakis, the website claims to be the leading English-language source for news and information about anime and manga on the Internet; the site operated, until the magazine Protoculture Addicts. The website has separate versions of its news content aimed towards audiences in four separate regions: the United States and Canada and New Zealand, Southeast Asia, an international version; the website was founded by Justin Sevakis in July 1998. In May 2000, current CEO Christopher Macdonald joined the website editorial staff, replacing former editor-in-chief Isaac Alexander.

In July 2002, Anime News Network launched its Encyclopedia, a collaborative database of anime and manga titles including information about the staff and companies involved in the production or localization of those titles. In January 2007, ANN launched a separate version for Australian audiences. On July 4, 2008, ANN launched its video platform with a library of anime trailers as well as its own news show ANNtv. In the fall of 2004, the editorial staff at ANN became formally involved with the anime magazine Protoculture Addicts. On September 7, 2004, the Sci Fi Channel online newsletter Sci Fi Weekly named the site the Web Site of the Week. Anime News Network stories related to manga that are researched by the ANN staff. Other contributors, under staff discretion contribute news articles; the website maintains a listing of anime and manga titles, as well as people and companies involved in the production of those titles, which it dubs an "encyclopedia". The site has hosted several regular columns, including a question-and-answer column "Hey Answerman", a review column entitled "Shelf Life", a column on old and forgotten media called "Buried Treasure" written by Sevakis, a listing of claimed differences between edited and original versions of anime series titled "The Edit List".

Staff members of ANN publish their own blogs hosted on the site. ANN hosts forums, includes threads to accompany each news item for purposes of discussion. Anime News Network hosts an IRC channel on #animenewsnetwork. On August 7, 2017, a hacker took control of Anime News Network's domain, compromised some of the site's Twitter accounts, including the personal accounts of ANN's CEO Christopher Macdonald and Executive Editor Zac Bertschy; the site was temporarily live at until the staff regained control of the original domain. In an article a few days after the loss of the domain, Macdonald published the full story on how the domain was stolen. Official website Anime News Network at Anime News Network's encyclopedia

Publication history of Dick Grayson

This article is about the publication history of the DC Comics fictional character Dick Grayson, portrayed in comic books as Robin and Batman. He was first introduced in Detective Comics # 38 by Bob Kane and Jerry Robinson. Robin's debut was an effort to make Batman a more sympathetic character. DC Comics thought a teenaged superhero would appeal to young readers, being an effective audience surrogate; the name "Robin, The Boy Wonder" and the medieval look of the original costume are inspired by the legendary hero Robin Hood, as well as the red-breasted American robin, which parallels the "winged" motif of Batman. Dick Grayson was born on the first day of spring, son of John and Mary Grayson, a young couple of aerialists. In his first appearance, Dick is an 8 year-old circus acrobat, with his parents make up the "Flying Graysons". While preparing for a performance, Dick overhears two gangsters attempting to extort protection money from the circus owner; the owner refuses, so the gangsters sabotage the trapeze wires with acid.

During the next performance, the trapeze from which Dick's parents are swinging snaps, sending them to their deaths. Before he can go to the police, Batman appears to him and warns him that the two gangsters work for Tony Zucco, a powerful crime boss, that revealing his knowledge could lead to his death; when Batman recounts the murder of his own parents, Dick asks to become his aide. After extensive training, Dick becomes Robin, they start by disrupting Zucco's extortion rackets. They successfully bait the riled Zucco into visiting a construction site, where they capture him. Robin's origin has a thematic connection to Batman's in that both see their parents killed by criminals, creating an urge to battle the criminal element. Bruce sees a chance to direct the anger and rage that Dick feels in a way that he himself can not, thus creating a father/son bond and understanding between the two. Throughout the 1940s and 1950s, DC Comics portrayed Batman and Robin as a team, deeming them the "Dynamic Duo" publishing a Batman story without his sidekick.

1964s The Brave and the Bold #54 introduces a junior version of the Justice League of America. This team is led by the modern-day Robin, residing on Earth-One, was joined by two other teenage sidekicks: Aqualad and Kid Flash, to stop the menace of Mr. Twister; the three sidekicks join forces with Speedy and Wonder Girl in order to free their mentors in the JLA from mind-controlled thrall. They decide to become a real team: the Teen Titans. By virtue of the tactical skills gleaned from Batman, Robin is swiftly recognized as leader before the Titans disband some years later. In 1969, still in the Pre-Crisis continuity, writer Dennis O'Neil and artist Neal Adams return Batman to his darker roots. One part of this effort is writing Robin out of the series by sending Dick Grayson to the Hudson University and into a separate strip in the back of Detective Comics; the by-now Teen Wonder appears only sporadically in Batman stories of the 1970s. In 1980, Grayson once again takes up the role of leader of the Teen Titans, now featured in the monthly series The New Teen Titans, which became one of DC Comics' most beloved series of the era.

Dick continues his adventures with Batman, begins studying law at Hudson University. However, Robin loses interest in his studies and starts to take on solo missions, finds himself to be a capable crime-fighter. Shortly afterward, the mysterious Raven summons Dick Grayson and several other young heroes to form a new group of Titans. Robin assumes leadership, moves out of the shadow of his mentor. Dick, now 19, realizes at that point that he has grown up: he no longer relies on Batman, he and the Dark Knight disagree on crime-fighting methodology. Robin's newfound independence and Titans' duties in New York leave less time for his former commitments in Gotham, he drops out of Hudson after only one semester. Dick rediscovers his self-worth among the Titans. Batman, however, is less than pleased, he informs Grayson that if he no longer wants to be his partner Dick would have to retire as Robin. Furious, hurt and confused, Dick Grayson left Wayne Manor—but not for the last time. Helping him through this difficult time are his fellow Titans, including Starfire, a beautiful alien with whom Dick falls in love.

He hands over leadership of the Titans to Wonder Girl, takes a leave of absence from the team. In pre-Crisis on Infinite Earths continuity, the maturing Dick Grayson grows weary of his role as Batman's young sidekick, he renames himself Nightwing, recalling his adventure in the Kryptonian city of Kandor, where he and Batman meet the local hero of the same name. Nightwing: Secret Files & Origins #1 and Nightwing: Year One tell the full post-Zero Hour version of how Dick Grayson gives up his identity as Robin. Uncertain what to do with his new-found independence, Dick considers giving up fighting crime to study law, but he could not imagine his life in any other way. Turning to someone that he knows would understand, Dick asks Superman what he shou

Jyotir Math

Jyotir Math or Jyotir Pitha is a monastery located in the city of Jyotirmath, India. Sometimes called uttarāmnāya matha or northern monastery, it is one of the four cardinal institutions established by Adi Shankara in the 8th century CE and its appointees bear the title of Shankaracharya. Jyotir Math holds authority over Atharvaveda, their Vedantic mantra or their Mahavakya is "Ayamatma Brahma". It is the head quarters of Parbat & Sagar sects of the Dasnami monistic order. After its occupation by Svāmī Rāmakṛṣṇa Tīrtha in the 18th century it was leaderless for 165 years until the appointment of Swami Brahmananda Saraswati in 1941. Since Brahmananda's maha samadhi in 1953 there have been several disciples and gurus who have been appointed, occupied or claimed to be the rightful occupant and leader of the monastery. Deities worshipped in Jyotir Math are Lord Shakti-Purnagiri. Jyotir Math is the uttaramnaya matha or northern monastery, one of four cardinal institutions established by Adi Shankara, the reviver of Vedic Sanatana Dharma.

Shankara's four principal disciples, Padma-Pada, Hasta-Malaka and Totakacharya were assigned to these four learning centers in the north, south and west of India. The subsequent leaders of each of these four monasteries have come to be known as Shankaracharyas in honor of the math's founder, Adi Shankara; as such they are the leaders of the Dasanami Saṃnyasins who are considered to have custody of Advaita Vedānta These four principle seats of learning are located in Purī, Shringeri and Dwarka with the northern monastery being located in the city of Jyotirmaṭh. Jyotir Math was occupied by Swami Ramakrishna Tīrtha in the 18th century but the monastery was inactive for 165 years following his mahasamadhi. During that time a number of gurus made claim to the Shankaracharya title and lawsuits representing the claimants and their representatives date back to the 1900s. For a time the head priest, Raval, of the Badrinath temple was thought by some to hold the Shankaracharya title there. However, the formal occupation of the matha only began when the leaders of the other three mathas convinced Brahmananda Saraswati to accept the position.

The appointment of Brahmananda in 1941 was made by a group of monks and pandits based in the city of Varanasi with the endorsement of Swami Bharati Krishna Tīitha, the Shankaracharya of Puri and Swami Chandrasekhara Bharati the Shankaracharya of Shringeri. Respected supporters of religious institutions, such as the rulers of the cities of Garhwal and Darbhanga endorsed Brahmananda and their recognition helped overcome opposition from previous claimants to the title. Brahmandanda was perceived by his supporters as the embodiment of the qualifications mentioned in Vedic texts and this assisted in his unhindered ascension to the position at the age of 70. Brahmananda was charged with reconstructing the institution at Jyotir Math. Through the assistance of the local Deputy Commissioner and parties responsible for his nomination, Brahmananda reclaimed the surrounding land, encroached upon by local farmers. Under his leadership a two-story, 30-room building was constructed to serve as the Peeth Bhawan of Jyotir Math.

He supervised the final construction of the Shrine of Purnagiri Devi about 100 yards in front of the new monastery which "the Darbhanga ruler" had begun, but not completed, just prior to his death. Brahmanda's leadership was instrumental in re-establishing the Jyotir Math as "an important center of traditional advaita teaching in northern India" and the monastery was visited by the president of India, Rajendra Prasad in December 1952. After the death of Brahmananda in 1953, Swami Hariharananda Saraswati, a now deceased disciple of Brahmananda, was offered the title but refused to accept it, it was revealed that five months before his death, Brahamananda had made a will and registered it with the District Registrar in Allahabad. The will named his disciple, Swami Shantanand Saraswati as his successor and Swami Dvarakesananda Saraswati, Swami Vishnudevananda Saraswati and Swami Paramatmananda Saraswati as alternate choices; as a result, Swami Shantanand Saraswati assumed the Shankarcharya-ship but his authority was disputed by several of Brahmananda's disciples and followers who did not feel that Shantanand met the requirements described in the Mahanusasana texts.

Meanwhile, others claimed that Brahmananda's death was due to poisoning, that his will was not authentic, causing civil lawsuits to be filed by concerned parties. Relevant organizations involved in reviving Jyotir Math, including a committee of pundits from Varanasi, proposed Swami Krishnabodha Asrama as the Shankaracharya despite Shantanand's claim and occupation of Jyotir Math. Asrama died in 1973 and nominated his disciple Swaroopananda Saraswati, a disciple of Brahmananda who had taken Swami Krishnabodha Ashrama as his guru after Brahmananda's death, as his successor. However, because Shantananda still occupied the Jyotir Math ashram built by Brahmananda, Swaroopananda took residence in a nearby building or ashram, said to be located near the former cave of Adi Shankara disciple, Trotakacharya. During his tenure, Shantanand was "supportive" of another Brahamananda disciple Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and "often appeared with him in public". However, in 1980, Shantananda vacated the Shankarcharya position in favor of Swami Vishnudevananda Saraswati, an additional

History of American journalism

Journalism in America began as a "humble" affair and became a political force in the campaign for American independence. Following independence, the first amendment to the U. S. Constitution guaranteed freedom of the press and speech and the American press grew following the American Revolution; the press became a key support element to the country's political parties but organized religious institutions. During the 19th century, newspapers began to expand and appear outside eastern U. S. cities. From the 1830s onward the penny press began to play a major role in American journalism and technological advancements such as the telegraph and faster printing presses in the 1840s helped expand the press of the nation as it experienced rapid economic and demographic growth. By 1900 major newspapers had become profitable powerhouses of advocacy and sensationalism, along with serious, objective news-gathering. In the early 20th century, before television, the average American read several newspapers per day.

Starting in the 1920s changes in technology again morphed the nature of American journalism as radio and television, began to play important roles. In the late 20th century, much of American journalism merged into big media conglomerates. With the coming of digital journalism in the 21st Century, newspapers faced a business crisis as readers turned to the internet for news and advertisers followed them; the history of American journalism began in 1690, when Benjamin Harris published the first edition of "Publick Occurrences, Both Foreign and Domestic" in Boston. Harris had strong trans-Atlantic connections and intended to publish a regular weekly newspaper along the lines of those in London, but he did not get prior approval and his paper was suppressed after a single edition; the first successful newspaper, The Boston News-Letter, was launched in 1704. This time, the founder was John Campbell, the local postmaster, his paper proclaimed that it was "published by authority." As the colonies grew in the 18th century, newspapers appeared in port cities along the East Coast started by master printers seeking a sideline.

Among them was James Franklin, founder of The New England Courant, where he employed his younger brother, Benjamin Franklin, as a printer's apprentice. Like many other colonial newspapers, it was aligned with party interests. Ben Franklin was first published in his brother's newspaper, under the pseudonym Silence Dogood in 1722, his brother did not know his identity at first. Pseudonymous publishing, a common practice of that time, protected writers from retribution from government officials and others they criticized to the point of what today would be considered libel; the content included advertising of newly landed products, locally produced news items based on commercial and political events. Editors exchanged their papers and reprinted news from other cities. Essays and letters to the editor anonymous, provided opinions on current issues. While the religious news was thin, writers interpreted good news in terms of God's favor, bad news as evidence of His wrath; the fate of criminals was cast as cautionary tales warning of the punishment for sin.

Ben Franklin moved to Philadelphia in 1728 and took over the Pennsylvania Gazette the following year. Ben Franklin expanded his business by franchising other printers in other cities, who published their own newspapers. By 1750, 14 weekly newspapers were published in the six largest colonies; the largest and most successful of these could be published up to three times per week. The Stamp Act of 1765 taxed paper, the burden of the tax fell on printers, who led a successful fight to repeal the tax. By the early 1770s, most newspapers supported the Patriot cause. Publishers up and down the colonies reprinted the pamphlets by Thomas Paine "Common Sense", his Crisis essays first appeared in the newspaper press starting in December, 1776, when he warned: These are the times that try men's souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country, but he that stands it now deserves the love and thanks of man and woman; when the war for independence began in 1775, 37 weekly newspapers were in operation.

The British blockade curtailed imports of paper and new equipment. When the war ended in 1782, there were 35 newspapers with a combined circulation of about 40,000 copies per week, an actual readership in the hundreds of thousands; these newspapers played a major role in defining the grievances of the colonists against the British government in the 1765-1775 era, in supporting the American Revolution. Every week the Maryland Gazette of Annapolis promoted the Patriot cause and reflected informed Patriot viewpoints. From the time of the Stamp Act, publisher Jonas Green vigorously protested British actions; when he died in 1767, his widow Anne Catherine Hoof Green became the first woman to hold a top job at an American newspaper. A strong supporter of colonial rights, she published the newspapers as well as many pamphlets with the help of two sons. During the war, contributors debated disestablishment of the Anglican church in several states, use of coercion against neutrals and Loyalists, the meaning of Paine's "Common Sense", the confiscation of Loyalist property.

Much attention was devoted to the details of military campaigns with an upbeat optimistic tone. Patrio

John Atyeo

John Atyeo was an English footballer who played as a striker. He spent the majority of his career at Bristol City, he won six England caps between 1957, scoring five goals. Atyeo scored a record 351 goals for them, he played as an amateur for Portsmouth in 1950/51 as a part-time professional for Bristol City while qualifying as a quantity surveyor until signing full-time ahead of the 1958/59 season. In 1963/64 he reverted to part-time status to prepare the way for his post-football career as a mathematics teacher. Peter John Walter Atyeo was born at Clivey on the outskirts of Wiltshire, he went to Berkley Primary School, near Frome, Somerset after his parents had moved the short distance over the county line to Standerwick when he was about 6 months old. As a schoolboy he played competitive football and cricket, his first competitive games were for Westbury United F. C. Football League champions Portsmouth gave him two first team appearances in the 1950/51 season as an amateur, but he signed as a professional for Bristol City in the following season.

He enjoyed a fifteen-year career with Bristol City despite offers from Chelsea, Liverpool and AC Milan which were worth around £20 million in today's money and could have made him the most expensive player in England, making 645 appearances and became Bristol City's all-time top scorer with 351 goals by the time he retired in May 1966. He captained the team during their promotion winning season in 1965, he played semi-professionally for Bristol City while qualifying as a quantity surveyor until signing full-time ahead of the 1958/59 season. In 1963 he reverted to part-time status to prepare the way for his post-football career as a mathematics teacher. Atyeo won six England caps from 1955 to 1957. Although Bill Slater was a part-timer, there was conjecture that Atyeo's part-time status led to his being dropped by the England selectors despite never having been on a losing side in his six international appearances, scoring five goals and having scored the goal that enabled England to qualify for the 1958 FIFA World Cup in Sweden.

Following his retirement from football, Atyeo became a full-time mathematics teacher at Kingdown School, where he served for over 20 years, rising to head of mathematics, House Master of Arn House and Deputy Headmaster. He was regarded as a dedicated teacher. Atyeo wrote a regular football column for the Plymouth-based Sunday Independent newspaper, he died at home in Warminster of heart failure on 8 June 1993, survived by his wife Ruth and five children: Julie, Alison and Philip. As a teenage amateur, John Atyeo played twice in the top flight for the League Champions Portsmouth. Both were home matches at Fratton Park and finished as draws: vs Charlton Athletic 3-3, 11/11/50 and vs Arsenal 1-1, 26/03/51, it was due to the endeavours of the Bristol City chairman, Harry Dolman, that John Atyeo was signed by Bristol City rather than Portsmouth or other interested clubs. Dolman took the contract for the services of John Atyeo down to Dilton Marsh, Wiltshire on 14 June 1951, he walked along the main railway line to the signal box where Atyeo's father worked and returned with a signed contract.

The contract was unusual in having six specific clauses at the insistence of Atyeo's father. Atyeo should always be on top wages at Bristol City. John Atyeo joined Bristol City, a mid table side in the Third Division South, in the summer of 1951. Atyeo made his Football League debut at centre forward in the opening game of the 1951–52 season in a 3–1 win v Newport County on 18 August 1951. Cyril Williams made his debut for City on his return from West Bromwich Albion in the same match. Both Atyeo and Williams were scorers in the win; the other goalscorer was Arnold Rodgers, the top scorer for Bristol City in the previous season with 20 goals in the no.9 shirt. Rodgers played inside left in 1951 -- 52 role. Atyeo made 44 appearances scoring 12 goals in 1951–52 finishing joint top scorer with Arnold Rodgers who netted his 12 goals from 36 appearances. In the FA Cup Atyeo scored both goals on his FA Cup debut in the 1st round 2–1 win at Brighton & Hove Albion; this was the first time that Atyeo appeared in the list of goalscorers, the second time was when Bristol City took a team to Westbury United on 24 April 1952 and won 2–0.

On that occasion Atyeo was helped by scoring one goal from a penalty. Bristol City started the season poorly, Atyeo failed to score in the opening three matches at centre forward and moved to inside right for the remainder of his league appearances. Arnold Rodgers reverted to centre forward and scored four goals in the next four games and followed this up with three successive doubles late in September. After the first 13 matches Bristol City lay in 10th place in the Third Division South and Atyeo had netted three goals. Atyeo dropped out of the team until returning in the New Year on 3 January 1953 at Brighton & Hove Albion with the team on a 7 match unbeaten run and by this time in 3rd position in the table; the improvement was in part due to the signing by Pat Beasley of centre half Jack White for £5,300 from Aldershot. White was a dominant personality, installed as captain of the side. Atyeo netted his first league double in a 5–1 win v Walsall on 7 March 1953 and playe

Archibald Scott Couper

Archibald Scott Couper was a Scottish chemist who proposed an early theory of chemical structure and bonding. He developed the concepts of tetravalent carbon atoms linking together to form large molecules, that the bonding order of the atoms in a molecule can be determined from chemical evidence. Couper was the only surviving son of a wealthy textile mill owner near Glasgow, he studied at the universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh and intermittently in Germany during the years 1851-54. He began the formal study of chemistry at the University of Berlin in the fall of 1854 in 1856 entered Charles Adolphe Wurtz's private laboratory at the Faculty of Medicine in Paris. Couper published his "New Chemical Theory" in French in a condensed form on 14 June 1858 in detailed papers in French and English in August 1858. Couper's idea that carbon atoms can link to each other following valence regularities was independent of a paper by August Kekulé proposing the same concept. However, through a misunderstanding with Wurtz, Kekulé's paper appeared in print first, in May 1858, so Kekulé captured the priority for the discovery of the self-linking of carbon atoms.

When Couper angrily confronted Wurtz, Wurtz expelled him from the laboratory. In December 1858, Couper received an offer of an assistantship from the University of Edinburgh. However, Couper's health began to decline after his disappointment. In May 1859 he suffered a nervous breakdown, entered an institution as a private patient. Released in July 1859, he immediately suffered a relapse—it was said to have been from sunstroke—and was treated again until November 1862, but his health was now broken, he did no more serious work, spending the last 30 years of his life in the care of his mother. Couper's research differed from Kekulé's in several ways, he was open to the idea of divalent carbon. He provided many more resolved formulas in his paper than Kekulé had, in two cases suggested cyclical formulas, which could have influenced Kekulé in his suggestion of the benzene ring. Couper adopted the atomic weight of oxygen as 8 rather than 16, so there are twice as many oxygen atoms in Couper's formulas as in those of Kekulé.

Couper used dotted lines or dashes between the atoms in his formulas, approximating the appearance of formula styles. In this respect, his work was influential on the early structural theorists Aleksandr Butlerov and Alexander Crum Brown. History of the molecule