National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Steven John Wilson is an English musician, singer and record producer, most associated with the progressive rock genre. A solo artist, he became known as the founder, lead guitarist, lead vocalist and songwriter of the band Porcupine Tree, as well as being a member of several other bands. Wilson is a self-taught composer, audio engineer and keyboard player, plays other instruments as needed, including bass guitar, hammered dulcimer and flute. Despite being associated with progressive rock, his influences and work have encompassed a diverse range of genres including psychedelia, extreme metal and jazz, among others, shifting his musical direction through his albums, his concerts incorporate quadraphonic elaborate visuals. He has worked with artists such as Opeth, King Crimson, Jethro Tull, Andy Partridge, Marillion, Tears for Fears, Roxy Music and Anathema. In a career spanning more than 30 years, Wilson has made music prolifically and earned critical acclaim, his honours include four nominations for the Grammy Awards, twice with Porcupine Tree, with his collaborative band Storm Corrosion and as a soloist on one occasion.
In 2015, he received three awards at the Progressive Music Awards in London for his services to the genre, where he was crowned "the king of prog rock". His work has stayed away from mainstream music, he has been described by publications such as The Daily Telegraph as "the most successful British artist you've never heard of". Born in Kingston upon Thames, Wilson was raised from age six in Hemel Hempstead, where he discovered his interest in music around the age of eight. According to Wilson, his life was changed one Christmas when his parents bought presents for each other in the form of LPs, his father and mother received Pink Floyd's The Dark Side of the Moon and Donna Summer's Love to Love You Baby, respectively. It was Wilson's affinity for these albums that helped craft his songwriting abilities. Both LPs influenced his future song writing, he says "in retrospect I can see how they are entirely responsible for the direction that my music has taken since". His interest in Pink Floyd led him towards experimental/psychedelic conceptual progressive rock, Donna Summer's trance-inflected grooves inspired the initial musical approach of No-Man, although the band would develop a more meditative and experimental Talk Talk-esque approach.
As a child, Steven was forced to learn the guitar. However, when he was eleven, he found a nylon string classical guitar from his attic and started to experiment with it. A year his father, an electronic engineer, built him his first multi-track tape machine and a vocoder so he could begin experimenting with the possibilities of studio recording. One of Wilson's earliest musical projects was the psychedelic duo Altamont, their one and only cassette album, Prayer for the Soul, featured lyrics by English psychedelic scenester Alan Duffy, whose work Wilson would use for two Porcupine Tree songs: "This Long Silence" and "It Will Rain for a Million Years". Around the same time that Wilson was part of Altamont, he was in a progressive rock band called Karma, which played live around Hertfordshire and recorded two cassette albums, The Joke's On You and The Last Man To Laugh; these contained early versions of "Small Fish", "Nine Cats" and "The Joke's On You", which were subsequently resurrected as Porcupine Tree songs.
Wilson went on to join the New Wave/AOR band Pride of Passion as keyboard player, replacing former Marillion keyboard player Brian Jelliman. Pride of Passion would change their name to Blazing Apostles and alter their lineup and approach coming to an end in 1987. Up to this point Wilson's diverse musical experiments had contained avant-garde and industrial recordings and progressive rock, he was, however becoming more interested in songwriting and pop music, something that would manifest itself in his next developments. In 1986, Wilson launched the two projects; the first of these was called "No Man Is An Island", although it would be renamed "No-Man." This began life as a solo Wilson instrumental project blending progressive rock with synth pop, subsequently moving towards art-pop when singer/lyricist Tim Bowness joined the project the following year. The second project was "Porcupine Tree", intended to be a full-on pastiche of psychedelic rock carried out for the mutual entertainment of Wilson and his childhood friend Malcolm Stocks.
Over the next three years, the projects would evolve in parallel. Of his two efforts, No Man Is An Island was the first to release a commercial single, while Porcupine Tree built an increasing underground reputation via the release of a series of cassette-only releases via The Freak Emporium. By 1990, No Man Is An Island (Except
Virgin Records Ltd. is a British record label founded by entrepreneurs Richard Branson, Simon Draper, Nik Powell, musician Tom Newman in 1972. It grew to be a worldwide phenomenon over time, with the success of platinum performers such as George Michael, Paula Abdul, Janet Jackson, Roy Orbison, Tangerine Dream, Keith Richards, the Human League, Culture Club, Simple Minds, Lenny Kravitz, dc Talk, the Smashing Pumpkins, Mike Oldfield and Spice Girls, among others. After its acquisition by Universal Music Group through its purchase of EMI in 2012, UMG absorbed Virgin's British operations to create Virgin EMI Records in March 2013. Today, the operations of Virgin Records America, Inc. the company's North American operations founded in 1986, are still active and headquartered in Hollywood and have operated under the Capitol Music Group imprint owned by UMG, since 2007. The US operations have taken on the name Virgin Records. A minor number of artists remain on Virgin Records America's roster, mostly occupied with European artists such as Bastille, Circa Waves, Corinne Bailey Rae, Ella Eyre, Walking on Cars, Seinabo Sey, Prides.
Branson and Powell had run a small record shop called Virgin Records and Tapes on Notting Hill Gate, specializing in "krautrock" imports, offering bean bags and free vegetarian food for the benefit of customers listening to the music on offer. The first real store was above a shoe shop at the Tottenham Court Road end of Oxford Street. After making the shop into a success, they turned their business into a fledged record label; the name Virgin, according to Branson, arose from Tessa Watts, a colleague of his, when they were brainstorming business ideas. She suggested Virgin – as they were all new to business – like "virgins"; the original Virgin logo was designed by English artist and illustrator Roger Dean: a young naked woman in mirror image with a large long-tailed serpent and the word "Virgin" in Dean's familiar script. A variation on the logo was used for the spin-off Caroline Records label; the first release on the label was the progressive rock album Tubular Bells by multi-instrumentalist Mike Oldfield, discovered by Tom Newman and brought to Simon Draper – who persuaded Richard and Nik to present it as their first release in 1973, produced by Tom Newman, for which the fledgling label garnered unprecedented acclaim.
This was soon followed by some notable krautrock releases, including electronic breakthrough album Phaedra by Tangerine Dream, The Faust Tapes and Faust IV by Faust. The Faust Tapes album retailed for 49p and as a result allowed this unknown band to reach number 12 in the album charts. Other early albums include Gong's Flying Teapot, which Daevid Allen has been quoted as having never been paid for; the first single release for the label was Kevin Coyne's "Marlene", taken from his album Marjory Razorblade and released in August 1973. Coyne was the second artist signed to the label after Oldfield. Although Virgin was one of the key labels of English and European progressive rock, the 1977 signing of the Sex Pistols reinvented the label as a new-wave outpost, a move that plunged the record company into the mainstream of the punk rock era. Under the guidance of Tessa Watts, Virgin's Head of Publicity, the Pistols rocketed the label to success. Shortly afterwards, the Nottingham record shop was raided by police for having a window display of the Sex Pistols' album Never Mind the Bollocks, Here's the Sex Pistols in the window.
Afterwards they signed other new wave groups: Public Image Ltd, Culture Club, Gillan and the Italians, Human League, Skids, the Motors, the Ruts, Shooting Star, Simple Minds, XTC. After modified versions of the twins label came the red and blue design introduced in 1975, which coincided with the height of punk and new wave; the current Virgin logo was created in 1978, commissioned by Simon Draper managing director of Virgin Records Limited. Brian Cooke of Cooke Key Associates commissioned a graphic designer to produce a stylised signature; the logo was first used on Mike Oldfield's Incantations album in 1978 and by the Virgin Records label until other parts of the Virgin Group adopted it, including Virgin Atlantic, Virgin Mobile and Virgin Money. In 1983 Virgin purchased Charisma Records, renaming it Charisma/Virgin later Virgin/Charisma, before folding the label in 1986 and transferring its remaining artists to Virgin. In the process they acquired comedy group Monty Python; the Charisma label was reactivated in the US in 1990 and enjoyed success with signings such as Maxi Priest, Right Said Fred, 38 Special and Enigma.
When this Charisma label was retired in 1992, all of its artists were, as before, transferred to Virgin. In 1987, Venture Records was created for new age and modern classical artists including Klaus Schulze, associated with Virgin since the early 1970s. 10 Records Immortal Records Delabel Caroline Records was a budget label used from 1973 to 1977. The name and
Satyricon is a Norwegian black metal band, formed in 1991 in Oslo. Satyr and Frost have been the band's core members since 1993; the band's first three albums typify the Norwegian black metal style. Since its fourth album in 1999, the band has strayed from this style and included elements of traditional heavy metal in their sound. Satyricon was the first Norwegian black metal band; the band were formed in 1990 as Eczema by the bassist drummer Exhurtum. In 1991, they decided to change the band name to Satyricon. Satyr joined the band. After the first demo All Evil, Exhurtum was kicked out of the band because he "preferred hanging out with my girl at the time rather than kicking down gravestones together with the band", while Wargod left the music scene and became a UN soldier afterwards. Remaining members Satyr and Lemarchand hired the drummer Frost as a session musician and recorded their second and last demo, The Forest Is My Throne. Shortly after this, Lemarchand left the band, but before leaving the band he recorded guitars for the first full-length album, Dark Medieval Times.
In the meantime, Frost was being "promoted" as a permanent member and had recorded drums for the aforementioned album. Satyricon have—with two exceptions—been a two-man band since: from 1993–1996, Tomas Thormodsæter'Samoth' Haugen from Emperor was the bassist and guitarist of Satyricon, participated in the recording of their second album, The Shadowthrone. Rebel Extravaganza, Satyricon's fourth album, was released in 1999. During this period Satyr drastically changed his look by shaving off his hair, as seen in the photoshoot for the album as well as their live performances around this time. In April and May 2000, Satyricon toured as a supporting band for Pantera. Phil Anselmo has spoken of his love for black metal numerous times, has participated in Eibon with Satyricon frontman Satyr, they used to be signed with Daron Malakian's music label EatUrMusic. Their fifth studio album Volcano was released in 2002 and won four awards: the Norwegian Grammy for Best Metal Album, an Alarm award for the track "Fuel for Hatred" in the category Song of the Year, the Alarm Award for Metal Album of the Year and The Oslo award for Best Overall Album.
Satyricon participated in the Darkthrone tribute Darkthrone Holy Darkthrone, released by Moonfog Productions in 1998, covering the song "Kathaarian Life Code". In the same year, Satyricon participated in the Bathory tribute In Conspiracy with Satan, released by Hellspawn/No Fashion Records, featuring the song "Born for Burning" released on Crusade from the North in 1996. In 2006, Satyricon released Now. In March 2008, the band headlined the Inferno Metal Festival in Oslo for the first time; the EP My Skin Is Cold was released before their seventh album, The Age of Nero, released on 3 November 2008. Satyricon released their self-titled eighth full-length album on 9 September 2013; the band released their first Full Length live CD/DVD set titled Live at the Opera which took place in September 2013, alongside the Norwegian National Opera, on 4 May 2015. A remastered 20th anniversary edition of 1996's Nemesis Divina was released on 20 May 2016. According to recent updates on Satyricon's official Facebook page, they entered the studio in March 2017 to record their ninth full-length studio album titled Deep Calleth Upon Deep, completed in Summer 2017 and was released on 22 September.
Frost has stated in recent interviews that once the new album is released, they will complete work on their first covers album. The covers album will be titled'Formative Oddities' and the band are aiming to complete and release it in 2018; the band's first album, 1994's Dark Medieval Times, showed off the fascination Satyricon had with the Middle Ages and featured raw black metal blast beats produced by Frost, mixed with acoustic guitar and flute. On their next album, The Shadowthrone, this medieval spirit was continued. Rock Hard journalist Wolf-Rüdiger Mühlmann wrote that Satyricon reached their "very early zenith" with that album and Nemesis Divina. Describing their fifth studio album, 2002's Volcano, frontman Satyr stated in a press release and biography on their homepage that "the music is rock based but more extreme. Reinventing ourselves based on a foundation of rock-oriented black metal is our philosophy." Mühlmann wrote that Satyricon's path after their zenith reached with their second and third album has only a limited connection to black metal, whereas Metal Hammer journalist Robert Müller described Satyr as a "latently arrogant guy who, along the way, makes great music that tests the borders of the genre".
The band's more recent albums from the mid 2000s to the present day have further abandoned the band's earlier black metal style. The tempo of the music is slower compared to the earlier extensive blast beat usage, it features similar song structures influenced by post-rock music, old school rock, heavy metal, with some mild elements of their early black metal style sometimes still heard in the music, but with an overall more accessible sound. It has been described as a more "black'n' roll" direction. A music video was made for "To Your Brethren In The Dark", directed by Laban Pheidias; the video, features American actresses Tonya Cornelisse, Jesse Hotchkiss, Diana Wyenn and Shawn Kathryn Kane. Offi
Comicopera is an album by Robert Wyatt released on 8 October 2007, available on both CD and double vinyl formats. The vinyl's fourth side has a poem etched into its surface, it is Wyatt's first release on the Domino Records label. It features many other musicians, including Brian Eno, Paul Weller, Gilad Atzmon and Phil Manzanera, was recorded in Wyatt's house and Manzanera's recording studio; the song Del Mondo is a cover from Ko de mondo, the second album of Italian post-punk band Consorzio Suonatori Indipendenti. The Wire named Comicopera the record of the year in its annual critics' poll. Act One: Lost in Noise "Stay Tuned" – 3:49 "Just as You Are" – 4:21 "You You" – 4:22 "A. W. O. L." – 2:56 "Anachronist" – 3:28Act Two: The Here and the Now "A Beautiful Peace" – 2:27 "Be Serious" – 2:56 "On the Town Square" – 5:26 "Mob Rule" – 2:16 "A Beautiful War" – 2:40 "Out of the Blue" – 3:41Act Three: Away With the Fairies "Del Mondo" – 3:29 "Cancion de Julieta" – 7:32 "Pastafari" – 4:37 "Fragment" – 1:38 "Hasta Siempre Comandante" – 4:37 Robert Wyatt – voice, percussion, trumpet, pocket trumpet, old metronome, enotron, monicatron Brian Eno – keyboards, effects Seaming To – voice, clarinet Annie Whitehead – trombone, baritone horn Yaron Stavi – bass violin Monica Vasconcelos – voice Paul Weller – guitar Gilad Atzmon – saxophones, tenor saxophone, clarinet Jamie Johnson – bass guitar Dave Sinclair – piano Phil Manzanera – guitar Del Bartle – guitar Orphy Robinson – steelpan, vibraphone Chucho Merchan – bass violin Maurizio Camardi – saxophones Alfonso Santimone – piano, keyboards Alessandro Fedrigo – bass guitar Paolo Vidaich – percussion Gianni Bertoncini – drums Robert Wyatt Conducts Comicopera With Eno, Weller Pitchfork Media Robert Wyatt, "Comicopera" Brainwashed Robert wyatt on Domino Records info
Spellemannprisen referred to as the Norwegian Grammy Awards in English, is a Norwegian music award presented to Norwegian musicians. The award was established by the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry, an organization that represents the interests of the recording industry worldwide. First awarded in 1973, the prize honours musicians from the previous year; the Spellemann committee, composed of members of IFPI Norway and FONO, manages the award and acts as the judge. Twenty-one categories are awarded and the committee may award additional honorary and industry awards; the awards are held in January or February. Separate juries convene for each category. Members are confidential from both the other juries; the juries score each nominee separately convene to deliberate until there is a winner. Three nominees are presented to the jury; the Spellemanns committee nominates three categories: Newcomer of the Year, Fiddler of the Year and Hit Artist. A nomination jury nominates the rest of the videos, which are presented to the juries.
Starting in 2007, the winner of the Newcomer of the Year Award takes home a prize of 200 000 kroner. The scholarship is awarded by a Norwegian music industry funding agency; as of 2014, sixteen artists have won the prize more than five times. Leif Ove Andsnes has the most wins with 10 awards. In 2011, the live award show returned to NRK for the first time since 2001, remained on the same channel afterwards. From 2002 to 2010, the show was broadcast on TV 2. Nominees and winners: Barnemusikk Karoline Krüger og Fru Nitters Rytmeorkester: Labyrinter! Naboen Min: Rockesock Tonje Unstad: Musling med melk Mandarinsaft: På vei te en vennBluesUlf Myrvold: Old Memories Geir Bertheussen Blues Express: Southside JT Lauritsen & The Buckshot Hunters: Blue Eyed Soul Volume 1 Jørgen Sandvik: Permanent Vacation CountryHege Øversveen: Goodbye Yellow Roses Country Heroes: Honky Tonk Tears Malin Pettersen: References Pt. 1 The Northern Belle: Blinding Blue NeonElektronika Fakethias: Attune Sex Judas feat. Ricky: Go Down Judas Bjørn Torske: Byen Smerz: Have FunFolkemusikk/tradisjonsmusikk Aslak Brimi Kvartett: Vev Johanne Flottorp: Johanne Flottorp Sudan Dudan: Heimen der ute Marja Mortensson: Mojhtestasse – Cultural Heirlooms Indie/alternativ Okay Kaya: Both Thea Hjelmeland: Kulla Boy Pablo: Soy Pablo Fay Wildhagen: BordersJazzGurls: Run boy, run Moskus: Mirakler Atomic: Pet Variations Hanna Paulsberg Concept + Magnus Broo: Daughter Of The SunKlassisk Frida Fredrikke Waaler Wærvågen & Ingrid Andsnes: Metamorfose Tora Augestad & Oslo Philharmonic Orchestra: Portraying Passion Christian Ihle Hadland: Christian Ihle Hadland plays Domenico Scarlatti Stavanger Symfoniorkester: Symphonic DancesMetalAura Noir: Aura Noire Obliteration: Cenotaph Obscure Beaten To Death: Agronomicon Sylvaine: Atoms Aligned, Coming UndonePopartist Sigrid: Raw EP Sondre Justad: Ingenting i paradis Amanda Delara: Running Deep + Soldiers Emilie Nicolas: Tranquille Emile Popgruppe Band of Gold: Where’s The Magic Razika: Sånn kjennes verden ut Lemaitre: Lemaitre 2018 Seeb: Nice To Meet YouRockOslo Ess: Frie radikaler The Good The Bad and The Zugly: Misanthropical House Årabrot: Who Do You Love Turbonegro: Rock’n’roll MachineSamtid Kjell Tore Innervik: UTOPIAS — Radical Interpretations of Iconic Musical Works for Percussion Telemark kammerorkester, dirigent Lars-Erik ter Jung: Chasing Strings Oslo Philharmonic Orchestra: Ørjan Matre: Konsert for orkester Cikada strykekvartett / Knut Olaf Sunde: Vertigo RoomUrbanMARS: MARS EMIR: Mer av deg Lil Halima: Lil Halima 2018 Unge Beirut: Hevnen er søt, men jeg tilgir degViser Ingeborg Oktober: Skjømmingsboka Ellen Sofie Hovland: Og solen renner over Erik Lukashaugen: Vi eier skogene Masåva: MasåvaÅpen klasse Anja Garbarek: The Road Is Just A Surface Geir Sundstøl: Brødløs Harpreet Bansal: Samaya Amgala Temple: Invisible AirshipsTonos komponistpris Anja Garbarek: The Road Is Just A Surface Geir Holmsen: Et stille sted Oslo Philharmonic Orchestra – Ørjan Matre: Konsert for orkester Arve Henriksen/Eivind Aarset/Jan Bang/Jez riley French: The Height Of The ReedsÅrets låtskriver Stig Joar Haugen: Midt Imellom Magisk Og Manisk Dagny Norvoll Sandvik: Dagny Låtskriver 2018 Ina Wroldsen: Hex Thea Hjelmeland: KullaÅrets musikkvideo Aurora / director: Kinga Burza: "Queendom" Hkeem / director: Thor Brenne: "Ghettoparasitt" Sigrid / director: AB/CD/CD: "Sucker Punch" Sondre Justad / director: Trond Kvig Andreassen: "Ikke som de andre"Årets produsent Aksel Carlson: For example MARS, Emilie Nicolas, Arif & Unge Ferrari Fay Wildhagen: Borders Kai Gundelach: Baltus Kåre Christoffer Vestrheim: For example Anja Garbarek, Emilie Nicolas, Håkon Kornstad, BatagrafÅrets tekstforfatter Eduardo Andersen: La oss ta en idealist Lars Saabye Christensen: Et stille sted Ina Wroldsen: Hex Odd Nordstoga: KløyvdÅrets album Emilie Nicolas: Tranquille Emilie Rotlaus: På vei Sondre Justad: Ingenting i paradis Unge Ferrari: Midt Imellom Magisk Og ManiskÅrets gjennombrudd & Gramo-stipend Boy Pablo Lise Davidsen Kamelen Rotlaus RubenÅrets låt Alan Walker feat.
Tomine Harket, Au/Ra: "Darkside" Astrid S: "Emotion" Ina Wroldsen: "Strongest" K-391 feat. Alan Walker, Julie Bergan, Seungri: "Ignite" Kygo, Miguel: "Remind Me to Forget" Mads Hansen: "Sommerkroppe
Trip hop is a musical genre that originated in the early 1990s in the United Kingdom Bristol. It has been described as "a fusion of hip hop and electronica until neither genre is recognizable", may incorporate a variety of styles, including funk, soul, psychedelia, R&B, house, as well as other forms of electronic music. Trip hop can be experimental. Deriving from idioms of acid house, the term was first used by the British music media to describe the more experimental variant of breakbeat emerging from the Bristol Sound scene in the early 1990s, which contained influences of soul and jazz, it was pioneered by acts like Massive Attack and Portishead. Trip hop achieved commercial success in the 1990s, has been described as "Europe's alternative choice in the second half of the'90s." Common musical aesthetics include a bass-heavy drumbeat emulating the slowed down breakbeat samples typical of hip hop in the 1990s, giving the genre a more psychedelic feel. Vocals in trip hop are female and feature characteristics of various singing styles including R&B, jazz and rock.
The female-dominant vocals of trip hop may be attributable to the influence of genres such as jazz and early R&B, in which female vocalists were more common. However, there are notable exceptions - Massive Attack and Groove Armada collaborates with male & female vocalists, Tricky features vocally in his own productions along with Martina Topley-Bird, Chris Corner provided vocals for albums with Sneaker Pimps. Trip hop is known for its melancholy sound; this may be due to the fact that several acts were inspired by post-punk bands. Tricky opened his second album Nearly God by a version of "Tattoo", a proto-trip-hop song of Siouxsie and the Banshees recorded in 1983. Trip hop tracks incorporate Rhodes pianos, saxophones and flutes, may employ unconventional instruments such as the theremin and Mellotron. Trip hop differs from hip hop in theme and overall tone. Instead of gangsta rap with its hard-hitting lyrics, trip hop offers a more aural atmospherics with instrumental hip hop, turntable scratching, breakbeat rhythms.
Regarded in some ways as a 1990s update of fusion, trip hop may be said to "transcend" the hardcore rap styles and lyrics with atmospheric overtones to create a more mellow tempo. The term "trip-hop" first appeared in print in June 1994. Andy Pemberton, a music journalist writing for Mixmag, used it to describe Mo' Wax Records Artist RPM and DJ Shadow's "In/Flux" single. In Bristol hip hop began to seep into the consciousness of a subculture well-schooled in Jamaican forms of music. DJs, MCs, b-boys and graffiti artists grouped together into informal soundsystems. Like the pioneering Bronx crews of DJs Kool Herc, Afrika Bambataa and Grandmaster Flash, the soundsystems provided party music for public spaces in the economically deprived council estates from which some of their members originated. Bristol's soundsystem DJs, drawing on Jamaican dub music used a laid-back and heavy drum beat. Bristol's Wild Bunch crew became one of the soundsystems to put a local spin on the international phenomenon, helping to birth Bristol's signature sound of trip hop termed "the Bristol Sound".
The Wild Bunch and its associates included at various times in its existence the MC Adrian "Tricky Kid" Thaws, the graffiti artist and lyricist Robert "3D" Del Naja, producer Jonny Dollar and the DJs Nellee Hooper, Andrew "Mushroom" Vowles and Grant "Daddy G" Marshall. As the hip hop scene matured in Bristol and musical trends evolved further toward acid jazz and house in the late 1980s, the golden era of the soundsystem began to end; the Wild Bunch signed a record deal and evolved into Massive Attack, a core collective of 3D, Mushroom and Daddy G, with significant contributions from Tricky Kid and Hooper on production duties, along with a rotating cast of other vocalists. Another influence came from Gary Clail's Tackhead soundsystem. Clail worked with former The Pop Group singer Mark Stewart; the latter experimented with his band Mark Stewart & the Maffia, which consisted of New York session musicians Skip McDonald, Doug Wimbish, Keith LeBlanc, a part of the house band for the Sugarhill Records record label.
Produced by Adrian Sherwood, the music combined hip hop with experimental rock and dub and sounded like a premature version of what became trip hop. In 1993, Kirsty MacColl released "Angel", one of the first examples of the genre crossing over to pop, a hybrid that dominated the charts toward the end of the 1990s. Massive Attack's first album Blue Lines was released in 1991 to huge success in the UK. Blue Lines was seen as the first major manifestation of a uniquely British hip hop movement, but the album's hit single "Unfinished Sympathy" and several other tracks, while their rhythms were sample-based, were not seen as hip hop songs in any conventional sense. Produced by Dollar, Shara Nelson featured on the orchestral "Unfinished", Jamaican dance hall star Horace Andy provided vocals on several other tracks, as he would throughout Massive Attack's career. Massive Attack released their second album entitled Protection in 1994. Although Tricky stayed on in a lesser role, Hooper again produced, the fertile dance music scene of the early 1990s had informed the record, it was seen as an more significant shift away from the Wild Bunch era.
In the June 1994 issue of UK magazine Mixmag, music journalist Andy Pemberton used the term trip hop to describe the hip hop instru