The horse is one of two extant subspecies of Equus ferus. It is an odd-toed ungulate mammal belonging to the taxonomic family Equidae; the horse has evolved over the past 45 to 55 million years from a small multi-toed creature, into the large, single-toed animal of today. Humans began domesticating horses around 4000 BC, their domestication is believed to have been widespread by 3000 BC. Horses in the subspecies caballus are domesticated, although some domesticated populations live in the wild as feral horses; these feral populations are not true wild horses, as this term is used to describe horses that have never been domesticated, such as the endangered Przewalski's horse, a separate subspecies, the only remaining true wild horse. There is an extensive, specialized vocabulary used to describe equine-related concepts, covering everything from anatomy to life stages, colors, breeds and behavior. Horses' anatomy enables them to make use of speed to escape predators and they have a well-developed sense of balance and a strong fight-or-flight response.
Related to this need to flee from predators in the wild is an unusual trait: horses are able to sleep both standing up and lying down, with younger horses tending to sleep more than adults. Female horses, called mares, carry their young for 11 months, a young horse, called a foal, can stand and run shortly following birth. Most domesticated horses begin training in harness between the ages of two and four, they reach full adult development by age five, have an average lifespan of between 25 and 30 years. Horse breeds are loosely divided into three categories based on general temperament: spirited "hot bloods" with speed and endurance. There are more than 300 breeds of horse in the world today, developed for many different uses. Horses and humans interact in a wide variety of sport competitions and non-competitive recreational pursuits, as well as in working activities such as police work, agriculture and therapy. Horses were used in warfare, from which a wide variety of riding and driving techniques developed, using many different styles of equipment and methods of control.
Many products are derived from horses, including meat, hide, hair and pharmaceuticals extracted from the urine of pregnant mares. Humans provide domesticated horses with food and shelter, as well as attention from specialists such as veterinarians and farriers. Specific terms and specialized language are used to describe equine anatomy, different life stages and breeds. Depending on breed and environment, the modern domestic horse has a life expectancy of 25 to 30 years. Uncommonly, a few animals live into their 40s and beyond; the oldest verifiable record was "Old Billy", a 19th-century horse that lived to the age of 62. In modern times, Sugar Puff, listed in Guinness World Records as the world's oldest living pony, died in 2007 at age 56. Regardless of a horse or pony's actual birth date, for most competition purposes a year is added to its age each January 1 of each year in the Northern Hemisphere and each August 1 in the Southern Hemisphere; the exception is in endurance riding, where the minimum age to compete is based on the animal's actual calendar age.
The following terminology is used to describe horses of various ages: Foal: A foal of either sex less than one year old. A nursing foal is sometimes called a suckling and a foal, weaned is called a weanling. Most domesticated foals are weaned at five to seven months of age, although foals can be weaned at four months with no adverse physical effects. Yearling: A horse of either sex, between one and two years old. Colt: A male horse under the age of four. A common terminology error is to call any young horse a "colt", when the term only refers to young male horses. Filly: A female horse under the age of four. Mare: A female horse four years old and older. Stallion: A non-castrated male horse four years old and older; the term "horse" is sometimes used colloquially to refer to a stallion. Gelding: A castrated male horse of any age. In horse racing, these definitions may differ: For example, in the British Isles, Thoroughbred horse racing defines colts and fillies as less than five years old. However, Australian Thoroughbred racing defines fillies as less than four years old.
The height of horses is measured at the highest point of the withers. This point is used because it is a stable point of the anatomy, unlike the head or neck, which move up and down in relation to the body of the horse. In English-speaking countries, the height of horses is stated in units of hands and inches: one hand is equal to 4 inches; the height is expressed as the number of full hands, followed by a point the number of additional inches, ending with the abbreviation "h" or "hh". Thus, a horse described; the size of horses varies by breed, but is influenced by nutrition. Light riding horses range in height from 14 to 16 hands and can weigh from 380 to 550 kilograms. Larger riding horses start at about 15.2 hands and are as tall as 17 hands, weighing from 500 to 600 kilograms. Heavy or draft horses are at least 16 hands (64 inches, 16
Equestrianism, more known as horse riding or horseback riding, refers to the skill and sport of riding, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses. This broad description includes the use of horses for practical working purposes, recreational activities, artistic or cultural exercises, competitive sport. Horses are trained and ridden for practical working purposes, such as in police work or for controlling herd animals on a ranch, they are used in competitive sports including, but not limited to, endurance riding, reining, show jumping, tent pegging, polo, horse racing and rodeo. Some popular forms of competition are grouped together at horse shows where horses perform in a wide variety of disciplines. Horses are used for non-competitive recreational riding such as fox hunting, trail riding, or hacking. There is public access to horse trails in every part of the world. Horses are used for therapeutic purposes both in specialized para-equestrian competition as well as non-competitive riding to improve human health and emotional development.
Horses are driven in harness racing, at horse shows, in other types of exhibition such as historical reenactment or ceremony pulling carriages. In some parts of the world, they are still used for practical purposes such as farming. Horses continue to be used in public service: in traditional ceremonies and volunteer mounted patrols and for mounted search and rescue. Riding halls enable the training of horse and rider in all weathers as well as indoor competition riding. Though there is controversy over the exact date horses were domesticated and when they were first ridden, the best estimate is that horses first were ridden 3500 BC. Indirect evidence suggests. There is some evidence that about 3,000 BC, near the Dnieper River and the Don River, people were using bits on horses, as a stallion, buried there shows teeth wear consistent with using a bit. However, the most unequivocal early archaeological evidence of equines put to working use was of horses being driven. Chariot burials about 2500 BC present the most direct hard evidence of horses used as working animals.
In ancient times chariot warfare was followed by the use of war horses as heavy cavalry. The horse played an important role throughout human history all over the world, both in warfare and in peaceful pursuits such as transportation and agriculture. Horses died out at the end of the Ice Age. Horses were brought back to North America by European explorers, beginning with the second voyage of Columbus in 1493. Equestrianism was introduced in the 1900 Summer Olympics as an Olympic sport with jumping events. Humans appear to have long expressed a desire to know which horse or horses were the fastest, horse racing has ancient roots. Gambling on horse races appears to go hand-in hand with racing and has a long history as well. Thoroughbreds have the pre-eminent reputation as a racing breed, but other breeds race. Under saddle Thoroughbred horse racing is the most popular form worldwide. In the UK, it is governed by the Jockey Club in the United Kingdom. In the USA, horse racing is governed by The Jockey Club.
Steeplechasing involves racing on a track where the horses jump over obstacles. It is most common in the UK, where it is called National Hunt racing. American Quarter Horse racing—races over distances of a quarter-mile. Seen in the United States, sanctioned by the American Quarter Horse Association. Arabian horses, Akhal-Teke, American Paint Horses and other light breeds are raced worldwide. Endurance riding, a sport in which the Arabian horse dominates at the top levels, has become popular in the United States and in Europe; the Federation Equestre International governs international races, the American Endurance Ride Conference organizes the sport in North America. Endurance races take place over a given, measured distance and the horses have an start. Races are 50 to 100 miles, over mountainous or other natural terrain, with scheduled stops to take the horses' vital signs, check soundness and verify that the horse is fit to continue; the first horse to finish and be confirmed by the veterinarian as fit to continue is the winner.
Additional awards are given to the best-conditioned horses who finish in the top 10. Limited distance rides of about 25–20 miles are offered to newcomers. Ride and Tie. Ride and Tie involves three equal partners: one horse; the humans alternately ride. Show jumping: Show jumping is when a horse carries a rider over an obstacle commonly known as a jump. There are multiple jumps in a show, if the horse hits or refuses a jump, points will be deducted from the rider score; this is a timed event, the rider is expected to complete the course in a certain amount of time, without error. There are the hunter divisions. In the hunters, riders have to make their horses look good; the judges look at the quality of the course, if there are two or more riders who had put down amazing courses the judge or judges looks at how the horse looks and acts with the rider. In harness: Both light and heavy breeds as well as ponies are raced in harness with a sulk
Palomino is a genetic color in horses, consisting of a gold coat and white mane and tail, the degree of whiteness can vary from bright white to yellow. Genetically, the palomino color is created by a single allele of a dilution gene called the cream gene working on a "red" base coat. Palomino is created by a genetic mechanism of incomplete dominance, hence it is not considered true-breeding. However, most color breed registries that record palomino horses were founded before equine coat color genetics were understood as well as they are today, therefore the standard definition of a palomino is based on the visible coat color, not heritability nor the underlying presence of the dilution gene. Due to their distinct color, palominos stand out in a show ring, are much sought after as parade horses, they were popular in movies and television during the 1940s and 1950s. One of the most famous palomino horses was Trigger, known as "the smartest horse in movies", the faithful mount of the Hollywood cowboy star Roy Rogers.
Another famous palomino was Mister Ed. A palomino was chosen again as a featured horse on a tv show, in the show Xena: Warrior Princess Xena’s horse Argo was portrayed by a palomino mare. Argo was performed by Tilly. Palomino horses have a gold coat, with a white or light cream mane and tail; the shades of the body coat color range from cream to a dark gold. Unless affected by other, unrelated genes, palominos have dark skin and brown eyes, though some may be born with pinkish skin that darkens with age; some have lighter brown or amber eyes. A heterozygous cream dilute such as the palomino must not be confused with a horse carrying champagne dilution. Champagne dilutes are born with pumpkin-pink skin and blue eyes, which darken within days to amber, green or light brown, their skin acquires a darker mottled complexion around the eyes and genitalia as the animal matures. A horse with rosy-pink skin and blue eyes in adulthood is most a cremello or a perlino, a horse carrying two cream dilution genes.
The presence of the sooty gene may result in a palomino having darker hairs in the mane and coat. The summer coat of a palomino is a darker shade than the winter coat. Many non-palominos may have a gold or tan coat and a light mane and tail. Chestnut with flaxen mane and tail: Lighter chestnuts with a light cream mane and tail carry a flaxen gene, but not a cream dilution. For example, the Haflinger breed has many light chestnuts with flaxen that may superficially resemble dark palomino, but there is no cream gene in the breed. Cremellos carry two copies of the cream gene and have a light mane and tail but a cream-colored hair coat, rosy pink skin and blue eyes; the champagne gene is the most similar palomino mimic, as it creates a golden-colored coat on some horses, but golden champagnes have light skin with mottling, blue eyes at birth, amber or hazel eyes in adulthood. Horses with a dark brown coat but a flaxen mane and tail are sometimes called "chocolate palomino," and some palomino color registries accept horses of such color.
However, this coloring is not genetically palomino. There are two primary ways; the best-known is a liver chestnut with a flaxen tail. The genetics that create light flaxen manes and tails on otherwise chestnut horses are not yet understood, but they are not the same as the cream dilution; the other genetic mechanism is derived from the silver dapple gene, which lightens a black coat to dark brown, affects the mane and tail more diluting to cream or near-white. Buckskins have a golden body coat but a black tail. Buckskin is created by the action of a single cream gene, but on a bay coat. Dun horses have a tan body with a darker mane and tail plus primitive markings such as a dorsal stripe down the spine and horizontal striping on the upper back of the forearm; the pearl gene in a homozygous state creates a somewhat apricot-colored coat with pale skin. When crossed with a single cream gene, the resulting horse called a "pseudo-double-dilute", appears visually to be a cremello. In the United States, some palomino horses are classified as a color breed.
However, unlike the Appaloosa or the Friesian, which are distinct breeds that happen to have a unique color preference, Palomino color breed registries accept a wide range of breed or type if the animals are properly golden-colored. The Palomino cannot be a true horse breed, because palomino color is an incomplete dominant gene and does not breed "true". A palomino crossed with a palomino may result in a palomino about 50% of the time, but could produce a chestnut or a cremello. Thus, palomino is a expressed color allele and not a set of characteristics that make up a "breed." Because registration as a palomino with a color breed registry is based on coat color, horses from many breeds or combination of breeds may qualify. Some breeds that have palomino representatives are the American Saddlebred, Tennessee Walking Horse and Quarter Horse; the color is rare in the Thoroughbred, but does in fact occur and is recognized by The Jockey Club. Some breeds, such as the Haflinger and Arabian, may appear to be palomino, but are genetically chestnuts with flaxen manes and tails, as neither breed carries the cream dilution gene.
However, in spite of their lack of cream DNA, some palomino color registries have registered such horses if their coat color falls within the acceptable range of shades. While the color standard used by palomino organizations describes the ideal body color as that of a "newly min
National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame
The National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame is located in Fort Worth, Texas, US. Established in 1975, it is dedicated to honoring women of the American West who have displayed extraordinary courage and pioneering fortitude; the museum is an educational resource with exhibits, a research library, rare photography collection. It annually adds Honorees to its Hall of Fame; the National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame honors and documents the lives of women of the American West. The museum was started in 1975 in the basement of the Deaf Smith County Library in Hereford, it was removed to Fort Worth in 1994. The museum moved into its 33,000 square feet permanent location in the Cultural District of Fort Worth on June 9, 2002; as of 2013, there are over 200 Cowgirl Hall of Fame honorees, with additional women being added annually. Honorees include women from a variety of fields, including pioneers, businesswomen, educators and rodeo cowgirls. Women in the hall of fame include Georgia O'Keeffe, Annie Oakley, Dale Evans, Enid Justin, Temple Grandin and Sandra Day O’Connor.
Groundbreaking took place on February 22, 2001. The 33,000 square foot building was designed by architech David M. Schwarz/Architectural Services, Inc. Linbeck Construction Company built the structure and Sundance Projects Group, provided project management. Additional members of the construction/design team included: Gideon/Toal Architects, architect of record. There was a threefold goal in its design: to relate the building to the historic context of the site, to create a vibrant new space as the home for the National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame, to provide expansion possibilities for the Museum as its collections grow; the building’s location was part of the Western Heritage Plaza to be formed by the National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame, the Cattle Raisers Museum and the Fort Worth Museum of Science and History. The style of the building is compatible with the nearby Will Rogers Memorial Center; the exterior is constructed with brick and cast stone with terra cotta finials formed in a ‘wild rose’ motif and glazed in vibrant colors.
A large painted mural by Richard Haas, bas-relief sculpture panels, a series of hand-carved cast relief panels show scenes related to the Cowgirl’s story and depict thematic messages such as ‘East Meets West’ and ‘Saddle Your Own Horse’ that represent the story told inside the Museum. The Museum’s interior is designed to provide a clear circulation path for visitors and creates central spaces for after-hours functions. In addition to administrative offices, the building includes three gallery areas, a multipurpose theater, hands-on children’s areas, a flexible exhibit space, research library, catering area, a retail store. A 45–foot-high domed rotunda serves as an orienting point and houses the Hall of Fame honoree exhibits. Two grand staircases providing overlooks into the rotunda are made of different metal finishes and colors with art deco inspired ornamental railings; the floors are a honed Corton Bressandes French limestone on the ground floor. Doors of stained walnut mark the entrance to the theater.
Western themes are found throughout including native flowers, horse heads and the wild rose motif. The areas of the museum include the Spirit of the Cowgirl Theater, the Lifetiles murals, the children's Discovery Corral, the retail Cowgirl Shop and a large Rotating Exhibit Gallery. Permanent galleries include: The Hall of Fame Honoree Gallery features one honoree from each of the Hall of Fame categories: Champions and Competitive Performers, Entertainers and Writers, Trailblazers and Pioneers "Into the Arena," which covers women in the fields of rodeo and trick riding, as well as modern horsewomen of note such as Belmont Stakes winning jockey Julie Krone, it has interactive computer displays, rodeo memorabilia and other rodeo artifacts. The area displays saddles such as Sheila Welch’s cutting horse saddle, Julie Krone's racing saddle. Rodeo fashions are displayed in “Arena Style,” where a rotating rack moves in direct response to a flat-panel, touch-screen display placed in front of the case featuring details and additional information about various outfits, threading together a rodeo star’s story with her corresponding clothing.
In this gallery is an interactive bronc riding experience, where visitors can ride a fake horse, modified from training bulls used by rodeo riders. Visitor’s "rides" can be videoed, sped up, transformed into footage from an old-style rodeo for purchase. "Kinship with the Land," which includes exhibits related to ranching, including historic gear including saddles, women's clothing such as split skirts, pistols, a Victorian riding habit and a sidesaddle. It has plasma screen displays. An interactive exhibit allows children to saddle a model Shetland pony, other displays for children, show children's chaps, 4-H ribbons and a selection of toys. "Claiming the Spotlight" shows the cowgirl as represented in media, the varying roles the archetypical cowgirl has played in film, television and music. The gallery includes a collection of dime novels, displays on entertainers who have portrayed cowgirls such as Barbara Stanwyck, Dale Evans, Patsy Montana; the gallery includes an old-time theater with a looping film narrated by Katharine Ross about portrayals of cowgirls in mass media, a television area featuring clips from 1950s era series, jukeboxes playing music by country and western women performers.
Interactive exhibits allow Visitors to pose for a movie poster and purchase the ensuing image at the gift shop. The Rotating Exhibit Ga
Physical education known as Phys Ed. PE, gym, or gym class, known in many Commonwealth countries as physical training or PT, is an educational course related of maintaining the human body through physical exercises, it is taken during primary and secondary education and encourages psychomotor learning in a play or movement exploration setting to promote health. Whether the class produces positive effects on students' health and academic performance depends upon the kind of program, taught. Physical education trends have developed to incorporate a greater variety of activities besides the skills necessary to play typical team sports such as football or basketball. Introducing students to activities like bowling, walking/hiking, or frisbee at an early age can help them develop good activity habits that will continue into adulthood; some teachers have begun to incorporate stress-reduction techniques such as yoga, deep breathing and tai chi. Tai chi, an ancient martial arts form focused on slow meditative movements, is a relaxation activity with many benefits.
Studies have shown that it enhances muscular strength and endurance, as well as cardiovascular endurance. It provides psychological benefits such as improving general mental health, concentration and positive mood, it can be taught to any age student with little or no equipment, making it ideal for mixed ability and age classes. Tai chi can be incorporated into a holistic learning body and mind unit. Teaching non-traditional sports may provide motivation for students to increase their activity, can help them learn about different cultures. For example, while learning about lacrosse in the Southwestern United States, students might learn about the Native American cultures of the Northeastern United States and Eastern Canada, where the sport originated. Teaching non-traditional sports provides an opportunity to integrate academic concepts from other subjects as well, which may now be required of many PE teachers. PE is important to students' health and overall well-being; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stated that over the past three years obesity in children and adolescents has doubled because of diet and lack of activity.
Since the 1970s the number of children who are obese has tripled. SHAPE America's National Standards & Grade-Level Outcomes for K-12 Physical Education define what a student should know and be able to do as result of an effective physical education program. Another trend is the incorporation of nutrition into the physical education curriculum; the Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004 required that all school districts with a federally-funded school meal program develop wellness policies that address nutrition and physical activity. While teaching students sports and movement skills, PE teachers are now incorporating short health and nutrition lessons into the curriculum; this is more prevalent at the elementary school level, where students do not have a specific Health class. Most elementary schools have specific health classes for students as well as physical education class. Due to the recent outbreaks of diseases such as swine flu, school districts are making it mandatory for students to learn about practicing good hygiene along with other health topics.
Today, many states require Physical Education teachers to be certified to teach Health courses. Many colleges and universities offer both Physical Health as one certification; this push towards health education is beginning at the intermediate level, including lessons on bullying, self-esteem and stress and anger management. Research has shown that there is a positive correlation between exercising. Incorporating local indigenous knowledge into physical education can lead to many meaningful experiences and a way of learning about other cultures. For example, by incorporating traditional knowledge from varying indigenous groups from across Canada, students can be exposed to many concepts such as holistic learning and the medicine wheel. A unit could be focused on connecting to a place or feeling while outdoors, participating in traditional games, or outdoor environmental education; these types of lesson can be integrated into other parts of the curriculum and give Aboriginal students a chance to incorporate their culture in the local school community.
Studies have been done in. In a 2007 article, researchers found a profound gain in English Arts standardized testing test scores among students who had 56 hours of physical education in a year, compared to those who had 28 hours of physical education a year. In Brazil, the physical education curriculum is designed to allow school pupils a full range of modern opportunities, including sports. Martial arts classes, like wrestling in the United States, Pencak Silat in France and Malaysia, teach children self-defense and to feel good about themselves; the physical education curriculum is designed to allow students to experience at least a minimum exposure to the following categories of activities: aquatics, conditioning activities, individual/dual sports, team sports and dance. In these areas, a planned sequence of learning experiences is designed to support a progression of student development; this allows kids through 6th grade to be introduced to sports and teamwork in order to be better prepared for the middle and high school age.
In 1975, the United States House of Representatives voted to require school physical education classes include both genders. Some high school and some middle school PE. New technology in education is playing a big role in classes. One of
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
American Quarter Horse Association
The American Quarter Horse Association, based in Amarillo, Texas, is an international organization dedicated to the preservation and record-keeping of the American Quarter Horse. The association maintains the official registry; the organization houses the American Quarter Horse Hall of Fame and Museum and sponsors educational programs. The organization was founded in 1940 in Fort Worth and now has nearly 350,000 members; the American Quarter Horse Association was born at a meeting on March 1940 in Fort Worth, Texas. The original idea had come from articles published by Robert M. Denhardt during the 1930s about the history and characteristics of the quarter horse. In an article entitled "The Quarter Horse and Now" in a 1939 Western Horseman magazine, Denhardt suggested that those interested in forming a breed registry meet in Fort Worth to discuss the idea and act on the idea. About seventy-five people met in Fort Worth to discuss the proposals, with the eventual decision being to form a non-profit stock holding association in Texas to be the registry.
Thirty-six people bought stock at the initial meeting. A board of directors and officers were selected. For the first five years, AQHA was the only registry for American Quarter Horses, however there were controversies over which horses would be registered, as well as how much non-Quarter horse to allow in. Other disputes included the fact that AQHA only allowed stock owners to vote, some breeders felt that this arrangement kept too much power in too few hands. Another contentious issue was racing, how the association would support the needs of breeders and owners who raced their Quarter Horses. All three of these issues were woven together, for the racing interests were desirous of more Thoroughbred blood being added to the Quarter Horse, some racing breeders felt that the AQHA was too restrictive on what outside blood was allowed in; the racing interests formed the American Quarter Racing Association on February 1, 1945. This group was concerned with the operation of racetracks and their registration efforts were limited to what was needed for identification for racing purposes.
They set the standards for racing, set up a Register of Merit system to help with handicapping racing. They registered horses, as well as Thoroughbreds. "Paint" horses, which at this time had no registry and would not for another two decades, were registered. Painted Joe, a foundation stallion with the American Paint Horse Association, was registered with the AQRA and ran against many of the early Quarter Horse racers. Individuals who believed AQHA was too restrictive in its registration and membership policies formed the National Quarter Horse Breeders Association in December 1945. Registration criteria in the NQHBA were much less stringent than AQHA, but yet were not focused on racing like AQRA. For example, Thoroughbred crosses were registrable in NQHBA, they registered Thoroughbreds. Within AQHA, there was a recognition that three organizations were sapping the strengths of the Quarter Horse breeders and owners, within all three organizations there were efforts to merge. In July 1949, AQHA offered to merge with both AQRA and NQHBA.
The AQRA voted to merge with AQHA in September 1949, the NQHBA did in November 1949. AQHA absorbed both organizations and moved their records to AQHA's established headquarters off Interstate 40 in Amarillo. AQHA now registers the offspring of other American Quarter Horses in its numbered stud book. However, AQHA does not maintain a closed stud book. An "Appendix" American Quarter Horse is a first generation cross between a registered Thoroughbred and an American Quarter Horse or a cross between a "numbered" American Quarter Horse and an "appendix" American Quarter Horse. Horses in the "appendix" registry can "earn" their way into the main stud book by completing an extensive set of performance requirements in either racing or some form of show competition and receiving what the Association refers to as a Register of Merit. Horses produced by means of artificial insemination or embryo transfer may be registered, but cloned horses cannot be registered. Parentage now is verified by means of DNA testing.
In recent years, registration requirements for AQHA have changed. In the past, horses with too much white or with cremello traits were not eligible for registration. One reason was lack of a full understanding of equine coat color genetics and the other was a legitimate a concern about a condition called lethal white syndrome, not understood at the time. There was belief that excess white indicated "impure" breeding with non-Quarter Horses. Today, modern DNA testing has now made verification of parentage possible, permits the detection of certain genetic diseases such as lethal white syndrome, thus AQHA now allows registration of "high white" body markings typical of the sabino gene and other pinto spotting patterns. Many horses registrable only as American Paint Horses with APHA are now cross-registered with both registries; because the genetic mechanism that creates palomino is understood and has been found to have no connection to lethal white and perlino coat colors are allowed. Cross-registration of American Quarter Horses with APHA, the Palomino Horse Breeders of America, the American Buckskin Registry Association, is a benefit to horses who have these distinct colors.
AQHA is in the process of phasing out registration of horses who carry t