1981 Ontario general election
The Ontario general election of 1981 was held on March 19, 1981, to elect members of the 32nd Legislative Assembly of the Province of Ontario, Canada. The governing Ontario Progressive Conservative Party, led by William Davis, was re-elected for a twelfth consecutive term in office; the PCs won a majority government after winning only minorities in the 1975 and 1977 elections. The Liberal Party, led by Stuart Smith, was able to maintain its standing in the Legislature, while the New Democratic Party, led by Michael Cassidy, lost a significant number of seats, allowing the Tories to win a majority. 1 Includes T. Patrick Reid, a Liberal MPP, re-elected in 1977 as a Liberal-Labour candidate. In 1981 he was re-elected as a straight Liberal. A number of unregistered parties fielded candidates in this election. There were a number of Rhinoceros Party candidates in the Toronto area, the party may have fielded candidates elsewhere in the province; the Workers Communist Party a single candidate, Judy Darcy.
Ronald G. Rodgers, founder of the Détente Party of Canada, contested a Toronto constituency. Social Credit leader Reg Gervais announced prior to the election that he planned to run in Nickel Belt, but could not follow through and resigned at a meeting of nominated candidates where John Turmel was appointed interim leader of the Ontario Social Credit Party during the campaign, though there has never been independent confirmation of this. Algoma: Bud Wildman 7096 Vyrn Peterson 4770 Dan Koob 1567Algoma—Manitoulin: John Lane 7160 Ernest Massicotte 2986 Peter Boychuk 2336Armourdale: Bruce McCaffrey 15938 Tim Rutledge 8997 Bob Hebdon 4240Beaches—Woodbine: Marion Bryden 9590 Paul Christie 9266 Wayne Cook 3140 Rhino Flosznik 252Bellwoods: Ross McClellan 5111 Walter Bardyn 4746 Tina Gabriel 2186 Sylvie Baillargeon 246 Ronald G. Rodgers 180Brampton: Bill Davis 24973 Bob Callahan 9391 David Moulton 6034 Jim Bridgewood 390Brantford: Phil Gillies 12847 Mac Makarchuk 9588 Herb German 5896Brant—Oxford—Haldimand: Robert Nixon 13067 Ian Birnie 6034 W.
E. Jefferies 2899Brock: Bob Welch 10547 Bill Andres 6882 Heather Lee Kilty 4204Burlington South: George Kerr 19037 Pearl Cameron 8953 Michael C. Wright 4942Cambridge: Bill Barlow 12597 Monty Davidson 11748 John Giles 4527 George Molson Barrett 549Carleton: Bob Mitchell 17846 Hans Daigeler 8621 Judy Wasylycia-Leis 5446 Andrew Dana Dynowski 383Carleton East: Bob MacQuarrie 15714 Bernard Grandmaitre 14028 Evelyn Gigantes 11579Carleton-Grenville: Norm Sterling 15202 Paul Raina 5764 Alan White 2391Chatham—Kent: Andy Watson 9471 Ron Franko 6508 Darcy Want 6466Cochrane North: René Piché 5910 Jean-Paul Bourgeault 5722 Emil Touchette 4426 Richard Coatsworth 274Cochrane South: Alan Pope 12540 John Sullivan 6975 Cliff Simpson 2777Cornwall: George Samis 9484 Jim Kirkey 7817 Brian Lynch 5333Don Mills: Dennis Timbrell 17516 Murad Velshi 5368 Michael Lee 4487Dovercourt: Tony Lupusella 5491 Gil Gillespie 5197 John Burigana 3416 Vince Corriero 258 Mel Doig 162Downsview: Odoardo Di Santo 8644 Joseph Volpe 7991 Ross Charles 5475Dufferin—Simcoe: George McCague 18101 Larry MacKenzie 6702 Ed Robinson 4007Durham East: Sam Cureatz 14900 Bruce McArthur 8648 Jim Potticary 7226 Jeff Hubbell 253Durham West: George Ashe 17029 Norman Wei 7446 Hugh Peacock 6578 Bill Leslie 1215Durham—York: Ross Stevenson 14404 Gary Adamson 6330 Margaret Wilbur 4314Eglinton: Roy McMurtry 17386 Keith Polson 5606 Eileen Elmy 3324 Angelo R. Cosentini 466Elgin: Ron McNeil 13119 Maurice Dillon 7306 Gord Campbell 3250Erie: Ray Haggerty 8796 Cam McKnight 5271 Barrie MacLeod 3586Essex North: Dick Ruston 9187 Marcel Lefebvre 5911 Ron Arkell 4812Essex South: Remo Mancini 10454 Wayne Patterson 5008 Blake Sanford 4349Etobicoke: Ed Philip 10373 Aileen Anderson 8024 Laureano Leone 7132Fort William: Mickey Hennessy 13038 Paul Lannon 7585 Mike Burns 3381Frontenac—Addington: J. Earl McEwen 10558 Murray Gorham 10218 Vincent Maloney 2374 Ross Baker 409 Sally Hayes 322Grey: Bob McKessock 13334 John Young 8793 Joan Stone 1629 Eric Biggins 284Grey—Bruce: Eddie Sargent 14006 Bob Rutherford 7767 Frank Butler 1455Haldimand—Norfolk: Gordon Miller 16254 Clarence Abbott 8775 Lois Berry 3744Halton—Burlington: Julian Reed 13395 Fran Baines 12877 Chris Cutler 3500Hamilton Centre: Sheila Copps 9734 Mike Davison 6930 Brenda Riis 4039Hamilton East: Robert W. Mackenzie 12773 Mike Riley 8365 Gabe Macaluso 6351Hamilton Mountain: Brian Charlton 11008 Duncan Beattie 10811 Vince Agro 8956Hamilton West: Stuart Smith 12106 Alec Murray 9788 Joy Warner 4255 Elizabeth Rowley 260Hastings—Peterborough: Jim Pollock 11528 Dave Hobson 8741 Elmer Buchanan 2968High Park—Swansea: Yuri Shymko 1147
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
Legislative Assembly of Ontario
The Legislative Assembly of Ontario is one of two components of the Legislature of Ontario, the other being the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario. The Legislative Assembly is the second largest Canadian provincial deliberative assembly by number of members after the National Assembly of Quebec; the Assembly meets at the Ontario Legislative Building at Queen's Park in the provincial capital of Toronto. As at the federal level in Canada, Ontario uses a Westminster-style parliamentary government, in which members are elected to the Legislative Assembly through general elections, from which the Premier of Ontario and Executive Council of Ontario are appointed based on majority support; the premier is Ontario's head of government, while the Lieutenant Governor, as representative of the Queen, acts as head of state. The largest party not forming the government is known as the Official Opposition, its leader being recognized as Leader of the Opposition by the Speaker; the Ontario Legislature is sometimes referred to as the "Ontario Provincial Parliament".
Members of the assembly refer to themselves as "Members of the Provincial Parliament" as opposed to "Members of the Legislative Assembly" as in many other provinces. Ontario is the only province to do so, in accordance with a resolution passed in the Assembly on April 7, 1938. However, the Legislative Assembly Act refers only to "members of the Assembly"; the current assembly was elected on June 2018, as part of the 42nd Parliament of Ontario. Owing to the location of the Legislative Building on the grounds of Queen's Park, the metonym "Queen's Park" is used to refer to both the Government of Ontario and the Legislative Assembly. In accordance with the traditions of the Westminster system, most laws originate with the cabinet, are passed by the legislature after stages of debate and decision-making. Ordinary Members of the Legislature may introduce play an integral role in scrutinizing bills in debate and committee and amending bills presented to the legislature by cabinet. Members are expected to be loyal to both their parliamentary party and to the interests of their constituents.
In the event of conflict, duty to the parliamentary party takes precedence. Party loyalty is enforced by the chief government whip. In the Ontario legislature this confrontation provides much of the material for Oral Questions and Members' Statements. Legislative scrutiny of the executive is at the heart of much of the work carried out by the Legislature's Standing Committees, which are made up of ordinary backbenchers. A Member's day will be divided among participating in the business of the House, attending caucus and committee meetings, speaking in various debates, or returning to his or her constituency to address the concerns and grievances of constituents. Depending on personal inclination and political circumstances, some Members concentrate most of their attention on House matters while others focus on constituency problems, taking on something of an ombudsman's role in the process, it is the task of the legislature to provide the personnel of the executive. As noted, under responsible government, ministers of the Crown are expected to be Members of the Assembly.
When a political party comes to power it will place its more experienced parliamentarians into the key cabinet positions, where their parliamentary experience may be the best preparation for the rough and tumble of political life in government. The Legislative Assembly of Ontario is the first and the only legislature in Canada to have a Coat of Arms separate from the provincial coat of arms. Green and gold are the principal colours in the shield of arms of the province; the Mace is the traditional symbol of the authority of the Speaker. Shown on the left is the current Mace. On the right is the original Mace from the time of the first parliament in 1792; the crossed Maces are joined by the shield of arms of Ontario. The crown on the wreath represents provincial loyalties; the griffin, an ancient symbol of justice and equity, holds a calumet, which symbolizes the meeting of spirit and discussion that Ontario's First Nations believe accompanies the use of the pipe. The deer represent the natural riches of the province.
The Loyalist coronets at their necks honour the original British settlers in Ontario who brought with them the British parliamentary form of government. The Royal Crowns, left 1992, right 1792, recognize the parliamentary bicentennial and represent Ontario's heritage as a constitutional monarchy, they were granted as a special honour by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II on the recommendation of the Governor General. In the base, the maple leaves are for Canada, the trilliums for Ontario and the roses for York, the provincial capital. Proceedings of the Legislative Assembly are broadcast to Ontario cable television subscribers by the Ontario Parliament Network. A late-night rebroadcast of Question Period is aired on the provincial public broadcaster TVOntario; the 1st Parliament of Ontario was in session from September 3, 1867, until February 25, 1871, just prior to the 1871 general election. This was the first session of the Legislature after Confederation succeeding the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada.
The 1867 general election produced a tie between the Conservative Party led by John Sandfield Macdonald and the Liberal Party led by Archibald McKellar. Macdonald led a coalition government with the support of moderate Liberals; the Legislative Assembly was established by the British North Am
Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario
The Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario shortened to Ontario PC Party, PC, or Conservatives, is a centre-right political party in Ontario, Canada. The party has been led by Premier Doug Ford since March 10, 2018, it has governed the province for 80 of the 151 years since Confederation, including an uninterrupted run from 1943 to 1985. It holds a majority government in the 42nd Parliament of Ontario; the first Conservative Party in Upper Canada was made up of United Empire Loyalists and supporters of the wealthy Family Compact that ruled the colony. Once responsible government was granted in response to the 1837 Rebellions, the Tories emerged as moderate reformers who opposed the radical policies of the Reformers and the Clear Grits; the modern Conservative Party originated in the Liberal-Conservative coalition founded by Sir John A. Macdonald and George-Étienne Cartier in 1854, it is a variant of this coalition that formed the first government in Ontario with John Sandfield Macdonald as Premier.
Until becoming the Progressive Conservatives in 1942, the party was known as the Liberal-Conservative Association of Ontario, reflecting its Liberal-Conservative origins, but became known as the Conservative Party. John Sandfield Macdonald was a Liberal and sat concurrently as a Liberal Party of Canada MP in the House of Commons of Canada but he was an ally of John A. Macdonald, his government was a true coalition of Liberals and Conservatives under his leadership but soon the more radical Reformers bolted to the opposition and Sandfield Macdonald was left leading what was a Conservative coalition that included some Liberals under the Liberal-Conservative banner. After losing power in 1871, this Conservative coalition began to dissolve. What was a party that included Catholics and Protestants became an exclusively English and Protestant party and more dependent on the Protestant Orange Order for support, for its leadership; the party became opposed to funding for separate schools, opposed to language rights for French-Canadians, distrustful of immigrants.
Paradoxically, an element of the party gained a reputation for being pro-labour as a result of links between the Orange Order and the labour movement. After 33 years in Opposition, the Tories returned to power under James P. Whitney, who led a progressive administration in its development of the province; the Whitney government initiated massive public works projects such as the creation of Ontario Hydro. It enacted reactionary legislation against the French-Canadian population in Ontario; the Tories were in power for all but five years from 1905 to 1934. After the death of Whitney in 1914, they lacked vision and became complacent; the Tories lost power to the United Farmers of Ontario in the 1919 election but were able to regain office in 1923 election due to the UFO's disintegration and divisions in the Ontario Liberal Party. They were defeated by Mitch Hepburn's Liberals in 1934 due to their inability to cope with the Great Depression. Late in the 1930s and early in the 1940s, the Conservatives developed new policies.
Rather than continue to oppose government spending and intervention, a policy which hurt the party politically in the time of the Great Depression, the Conservatives changed their policies to support government action where it would lead to economic growth. The party changed its name to the "Progressive Conservative" party after its federal counterpart changed its name to the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 1942 on the insistence of its new leader, John Bracken, whose roots were in the populist Progressive Party; the Conservatives took advantage of Liberal infighting to win a minority government in the 1943 provincial election, reducing the Liberals to third-party status. Drew called another election in 1945, only two years into his mandate; the Tories played up Cold War tensions to win a landslide majority, though it emerged several years that the Tory government had set up a secret department of the Ontario Provincial Police to spy on the opposition and the media. The party would dominate Ontario politics for the next four decades.
Under Drew and his successor, Leslie Frost, the Party was a strong champion of rural issues but invested in the development of civil works throughout the province, including the construction of the 400 series of highways, beginning with the 401 across Toronto. In 1961, John Robarts became the 17th premier of Ontario, he was one of the most popular premiers in years. Under Robarts' lead, the party epitomized power, he was an advocate of individual freedoms and promoted the rights of the provinces against what he saw as the centralizing initiatives of the federal government, while promoting national unity against Quebec separatism. He hosted the 1967 "Confederation of Tomorrow" conference in Toronto in an unsuccessful attempt to achieve an agreement for a new Constitution of Canada. Robarts opposed Canadian medicare when it was proposed, but endorsed it and the party implemented the public health care system that continues to this day, he led the party towards a civil libertarian movement. As a strong believer in the promotion of both official languages, he opened the door to French education in Ontario schools.
In 1971, Bill Davis became the 18th premier. Anti-Catholicism became an issue again in the 1971 election, when the Tories campaigned strenuously against a Liberal proposal to extend funding for Catholic separate schools until Grade 13. Davis reversed himself in 1985, enacted the funding extension as one of his last acts before l
Hamilton is a port city in the Canadian province of Ontario. An industrialized city in the Golden Horseshoe at the west end of Lake Ontario, Hamilton has a population of 536,917, a metropolitan population of 747,545; the city is located about 60 km southwest of Toronto, with which the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area is formed. On January 1, 2001, the current boundaries of Hamilton was created through the amalgamation of the original city with other municipalities of the Regional Municipality of Hamilton-Wentworth. Residents of the city are known as Hamiltonians. Since 1981, the metropolitan area has been listed as the ninth largest in Canada and the third largest in Ontario. Hamilton is home to the Royal Botanical Gardens, the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum, the Bruce Trail, McMaster University, Redeemer University College and Mohawk College. McMaster University is ranked 4th in Canada and 77th in the world by Times Higher Education Rankings 2018–19 and has a well-known medical school. In pre-colonial times, the Neutral First Nation used much of the land but were driven out by the Five Nations who were allied with the British against the Huron and their French allies.
A member of the Iroquois Confederacy provided the route and name for Mohawk Road, which included King Street in the lower city. Following the United States gaining independence after their American Revolutionary War, in 1784, about 10,000 United Empire Loyalists settled in Upper Canada, chiefly in Niagara, around the Bay of Quinte, along the St. Lawrence River between Lake Ontario and Montreal; the Crown granted them land in these areas in order to develop Upper Canada and to compensate them for losses in the United States. With former First Nations lands available for purchase, these new settlers were soon followed by many more Americans, attracted by the availability of inexpensive, arable land. At the same time, large numbers of Iroquois, allied with Britain arrived from the United States and were settled on reserves west of Lake Ontario as compensation for lands they lost in what was now the United States. During the War of 1812, British regulars and Canadian militia defeated invading American troops at the Battle of Stoney Creek, fought in what is now a park in eastern Hamilton.
The town of Hamilton was conceived by George Hamilton, when he purchased farm holdings of James Durand, the local Member of the British Legislative Assembly, shortly after the War of 1812. Nathaniel Hughson, a property owner to the north, cooperated with George Hamilton to prepare a proposal for a courthouse and jail on Hamilton's property. Hamilton offered the land to the crown for the future site. Durand was empowered by Hughson and Hamilton to sell property holdings which became the site of the town; as he had been instructed, Durand circulated the offers at York during a session of the Legislative Assembly, which established a new Gore District, of which the Hamilton townsite was a member. This town was not the most important centre of the Gore District. An early indication of Hamilton's sudden prosperity was marked by the fact that in 1816 it was chosen over Ancaster, Ontario that year to be the administrative center for the new Gore District. Another dramatic economic turnabout for Hamilton occurred in 1832 when a canal was cut through the outer sand bar that enabled Hamilton to become a major port.
A permanent jail was not constructed until 1832, when a cut-stone design was completed on Prince's Square, one of the two squares created in 1816. Subsequently, the first police board and the town limits were defined by statute on February 13, 1833. Official city status was achieved on June 9, 1846, by an act of Parliament, 9 Victoria Chapter 73. By 1845, the population was 6,475. In 1846, there were useful roads to many communities as well as stage coaches and steamboats to Toronto and Niagara. Eleven cargo schooners were owned in Hamilton. Eleven churches were in operation. A reading room provided access to newspapers from other cities and from England and the U. S. In addition to stores of all types, four banks, tradesmen of various types, sixty-five taverns, industry in the community included three breweries, ten importers of dry goods and groceries, five importers of hardware, two tanneries, three coachmakers, a marble and a stone works; as the city grew, several prominent buildings were constructed in the late 19th century, including the Grand Lodge of Canada in 1855, West Flamboro Methodist Church in 1879, a public library in 1890, the Right House department store in 1893.
The first commercial telephone service in Canada, the first telephone exchange in the British Empire, the second telephone exchange in all of North America were each established in the city between 1877–78. The city had several interurban electric street railways and two inclines, all powered by the Cataract Power Co. Though suffering through the Hamilton Street Railway strike of 1906, with industrial businesses expanding, Hamilton's population doubled between 1900 and 1914. Two steel manufacturing companies and Dofasco, were formed in 1910 and 1912, respectively. Procter & Gamble and the Beech-Nut Packing Company opened manufacturing plants in 1914 and 1922 their first outside the US. Population and economic growth continued until the 1960s. In 1929 the city's first high-rise building, the Pigott Building, was constructed.
Stratford is a city on the Avon River within Perth County in southwestern Ontario, with a population of 31,465 in 2016 in a land area of 28.28 square kilometres. Stratford is the seat of Perth County, settled by English, Irish and German immigrants, in equal numbers, starting in the 1820s but in the 1830s and 1840s. Most became farmers, today, the area around Stratford is known for mixed farming and hog production; when the area, now Stratford was first settled in 1832, the townsite and the river were named after Stratford-upon-Avon, England. Stratford was incorporated as a town in 1859 and as a city in 1886; the first mayor was John Corry Wilson Daly and the current mayor is Dan Mathieson. The swan has become a symbol of the city; each year twenty-four white swans are released into the Avon River. The town is well known for being the home of the Stratford Festival known as the Stratford Shakespeare Festival. Stratford is among the best places to retire in Ontario, according to Comfort Life, a publication for seniors.
According to this source, MoneySense makes this recommendation. The latter publication rated Stratford. In 1832, the development of an area called "Little Thames" as the market centre for the eastern Huron Tract began. By 1834 a tavern and grist mill had opened, by 1835 a post office, called Stratford, was operating; the Smith's Canadian Gazetteer of 1846 describes Stratford as follows: "Stratford contains about 200 inhabitants. Post Office, post three times a-week. Professions and Trades.—Two physicians and surgeons, one grist and saw mill, one tannery, three stores, one brewery, one distillery, one ashery, two taverns, two blacksmiths, one saddler, two wheelwrights, three shoemakers, two tailors. Settlement was slow until the early 1850s. Furniture manufacturing and railway locomotive repairs were the most important parts of the local economy by the twentieth century. In 1933 a general strike, started by the furniture workers and led by the Communist Workers' Unity League, marked the last time the army was deployed to break a strike in Canada.
The Grand Trunk Railway locomotive repair shops were the major employer for many years, employing 40% of the population. 1828 - Settlement begins. 1832 - Thomas Mercer Jones, an agent of the Canada Company, names the village "Stratford" and renames the portion of the Thames River running through it the "Avon River." The first sawmill and gristmill are opened. 1834: The community has a tavern and grist mill. 1849 - The Perth County News is Stratford's first weekly newspaper. 1853 - Perth County is created, with Stratford as its county seat. 1854 - Stratford is incorporated as a village. 1856 - Stratford becomes a railway town with the arrival of the Grand Trunk and Buffalo-Lake Huron railways. 1859 - Stratford is incorporated as a town. 1864 - The 17-year-old American telegraph operator Thomas Edison lived at 19 Grange Street. 1867 - "Stratford" is an ancient burial place for people who died in the civil war. 1871: A major railway repair yard opens and helps accelerate the population growth. 1885 - Stratford is incorporated as a city with a population of 9000.
1887 - The second and current Perth County Court House opens. 1898 The massive red brick town hall, in the Victorian "Picturesque" style, with a prominent clock tower, is completed. 1903 - The first public library opens, built with $15,000 of financial assistance from American steel magnate Andrew Carnegie. 1908 - The Stratford Normal School opens to train teachers. The school trains nearly 14,000 teachers before closing in 1973. 1909 - The GTR locomotive repair shops building is completed. 1918 - A gift from J. C. Garden, a pair of Mute swans come to live in Stratford; the population would expand over subsequent years. 1920s - Stratford is a major furniture manufacturing centre. 1933 - The army is called in to attempt to end a general strike and try to systematically remove communist leaders, but fails, the last time the military is used to quell a strike in Canada. 1936 - The Shakespearean Gardens are created through the efforts of R, Thomas Orr. 1953 - The Stratford Shakespearean Festival Theatre is opened through the efforts of a Stratford journalist, Tom Patterson.
1957 - The Festival moves into its first permanent structure, the Festival Theatre. 1964 - The CNR shops close, laying off numerous employees. 1976 - The Stratford City Hall is designated a National Historic Site of Canada. 1992 - Stratford Armoury is a recognised Federal Heritage building 1986 on the Register of the Government of Canada Heritage Buildings. 1993 - Stratford's former Canadian National Railways Station is designated a Federal Heritage building. 1997 - Nations in Bloom crowns Stratford the "Prettiest City in the World." 2003 - The Stratford Festival of Canada celebrated its 50th season, welcoming 672 924 patrons to 18 plays. This was a record number of playgoers during the 50 seasons; the Avon Theatre realised a complete renewal and the Studio Theatre, a fourth theatre space seating 250 people, was added. 2009 - Canada 3.0 brings 1500 people to Stratford. The
1985 Ontario general election
The Ontario general election of 1985 was held on May 2, 1985, to elect members of the 33rd Legislative Assembly of the Province of Ontario, Canada. The Progressive Conservatives won the most seats, but not a majority. Shortly after, the Progressive Conservatives' 42 years of governance in Ontario came to an end via a confidence vote defeating Premier Frank Miller's minority government. David Peterson's Liberals formed a minority government with the support of Bob Rae's NDP. Near Thanksgiving of 1984, longstanding Premier Bill Davis announced that he would be stepping down as Premier and leader of the Ontario PCs in early 1985. Davis, in office since 1971, had rung up a string of electoral victories by pursuing a moderate agenda and relying on the skill of the Big Blue Machine team of advisors. Davis, who remained popular throughout his term in office, would unveil a surprise legacy project: Full funding for Ontario's separate Catholic school system, which would become known as Bill 30; this decision was supported by both other parties, but was unpopular amongst the Tory base.
The subsequent leadership race saw. The moderate and urban wing was represented by second-place finisher Larry Grossman; the more conservative rural faction backed eventual victor Frank Miller. After Miller's victory at the convention the party factions failed to reconcile. Despite these problems, the PCs remained far ahead in the polls, when Miller called an election just six weeks after becoming premier, he was some twenty percentage points ahead of the Liberals. Over the campaign the Tory lead began to shrink as the Liberals waged a effective campaign. Part way into the campaign, the separate schools question re-emerged when the Anglican prelate of Toronto, Archbishop Lewis Garnsworthy, held a news conference on the issue where he compared Bill Davis' methods in pushing through the reform to Adolf Hitler: "This is how Hitler changed education in Germany, by the same process, by decree. I won't take that back.". Garnsworthy was much criticized for his remarks, but the issue was revived, alienating the conservative base, some of whom chose to stay home on election day.
The election held May 2, 1985 ended in a stalemate. The PCs emerged with a much-reduced caucus of 52 seats; the Liberals won 48 seats, but won more of the popular vote. The NDP held the balance of power with 25 seats. Despite taking 14 seats from the PCs, the result was something of a disappointment for the Liberals, as they felt they had their first realistic chance of winning government in recent memory; the NDP was disappointed by the election result. It had been nearly tied with the Liberals for popular support for several years, had hoped to surpass them; the PCs intended to remain in power with a minority government, as they had done on two occasions under Davis' leadership. Rae and the NDP had little interest in supporting a continuation of PC rule, began negotiations on May 13 to reach an agreement with the Liberals. Rae and Peterson signed an Accord May 29 that would see a number of NDP priorities put into law in exchange for an NDP motion of non-confidence in Miller's government, the NDP's support of the Liberals.
The NDP agreed to support a Liberal minority government for two years, the Liberals agreed not to call an election during that time. Miller, apprised of negotiations, considered a plan to address the province on television two days before the throne speech, disown funding for Catholic schools, announce he was meeting with the Lieutenant Governor to request an election before a confidence vote could take place. While believing that the Lieutenant Governor would have to call an election if requested before the confidence vote, Miller refused, believing the party's finances to be too fragile for a second campaign, that repudiating a key Davis policy would tear the party apart. On June 18, 1985, the PCs were defeated by the passage of a motion of no confidence introduced by Rae. Lieutenant-Governor John Black Aird asked Peterson to form a government. Miller resigned eight days and Peterson's minority government was sworn in the same day; the Revolutionary Workers League fielded one candidate. Algoma: Bud Wildman 7575 Jim Thibert 3694 Bryan McDougall 2995Algoma—Manitoulin: John Lane 7174 Tom Farquhar 4704 Len Hembruf 3309Armourdale: Bruce McCaffrey 13394 Gino Matrundola 13182 Bob Hebdon 5429 Simon Srdarev 456Beaches—Woodbine: Marion Bryden 12672 Paul Christie 7301 Sally Kelly 5065 Steve Thistle 396Bellwoods: Ross McClellan 8088 Walter Bardyn 6655 Bento de Sao Jose 1964 Ronald Rodgers 324Brampton: Bob Callahan 25656 Jeff Rice 21239 Terry Gorman 8313 Jim Bridgewood 531 Dave Duqette 500Brantford: Phil Gillies 13444 Jack Tubman 12303 Herb German 6533Brant—Oxford—Haldimand: Robert Nixon 15317 Ian Birnie 5817 Irene Heltner 3487Brock: Peter Partington 9741 Bill Andres 9081 Robert Woolston 3867 Brian Dolby 755Burlington South: Cam Jackson 16479 Doug Redfearn 11822 Walter Mukewich 10820Cambridge: Bill Barlow 12888 Alec Dufresne 11985 Bob Jeffrey 7083Carleton: Bob Mitchell 17732 Hans Daigeler 15093 Bea Murray 7165Carleton East: Gilles Morin 23221 Bob MacQuarrie 16188 Joan Gullen 8829Carleton-Grenville: Norm Sterling 15524 Dan Maxwell 8019 Alan White 3468Chatham—Kent: Maurice Bossy 10340 Andy Watson 9206 Ron Franko 5535Cochrane North: René Fontaine 8793 René