A city manager is an official appointed as the administrative manager of a city, in a council–manager form of city government. Local officials serving in this position are sometimes referred to as the chief executive officer or chief administrative officer in some municipalities. Dayton, Ohio suffered a great flood in 1913, responded with the innovation of a paid, non-political city manager, hired by the commissioners to run the bureaucracy. Other small or middle sized American cities in the West, adopted the idea. In Europe, smaller cities in the Netherlands were specially attracted by the plan. By 1940 there were small cities with city managers that grew enormously by the end of the century: Austin, Texas. In a technical sense, the term "city manager," as opposed to CAO, implies more discretion and independent authority, set forth in a charter or some other body of codified law, as opposed to duties being assigned on a varying basis by a single superior such as a mayor. Most sources trace the first city manager to Staunton, Virginia in 1908.
Some of the other cities that were among the first to employ a manager were Sumter, South Carolina and Dayton, Ohio. The first "City Manager's Association" meeting of eight city managers was in December 1914; the city manager, operating under the council-manager government form, was created in part to remove city government from the power of the political parties, place management of the city into the hands of an outside expert, a business manager or engineer, with the expectation that the city manager would remain neutral to city politics. By 1930 200 American cities used a city manager form of government; as the top appointed official in the city, the city manager is responsible for most if not all of the day-to-day administrative operations of the municipality, in addition to other expectations. Some of the basic roles and powers of a city manager include: Supervision of day-to-day operations of all city departments and staff through department heads. In addition, many states, such as the states of New Hampshire and Missouri, have codified in law the minimum functions a local "manager" must perform.
The City Manager position focuses on efficiency and providing a certain level of service for the lowest possible cost. The competence of a city manager can be assessed using composite indicators. Manager members of the ICMA are bound by a rather rigid and enforced code of ethics, established in 1924. Since that time the code had been up-dated/revised on seven occasions, the latest taking place in 1998; the updates have taken into account the evolving duties and expectations of the profession. In the early years of the profession, most managers came from the ranks of the engineering professions. Today the typical and preferred background and education for the beginning municipal manager is a master's degree in Public Administration and at least several years’ experience as a department head in local government or as an assistant city manager; as of 2005 more than 60% of those in the profession had a MPA, MBA, or other related higher-level degree. The average tenure of a manager is now 7–8 years and has risen over the years.
Tenures tend to be less in smaller communities and higher in larger ones, they tend to vary as well depending on the region of the country. Educational Level of Local Government Managers: Local government Local government in the United States council-manager government Clerk Kemp, Roger L. Managing America's Cities: A Handbook for Local Government Productivity, McFarland and Co. Jefferson, NC, USA, London, Eng. UK 1998. _______, Model Government Charters: A City, Regional and Federal Handbook, McFarland and Co. Jefferson, NC, USA, London, Eng. UK, 2003 _______, Forms of Local Government: A Handbook on City and Regional Options, McFarland and Co. Jefferson, NC, USA, London, Eng. UK, 2007. Stillman, Richard Joseph; the rise of the city manager: A public professional in local government. Weinste
Van Alstyne, Texas
Van Alstyne is a city in Grayson and Collin Counties in the U. S. state of Texas. The population was 3,046 at the 2010 census, up from 2,502 at the 2000 census; the Grayson County portion of Van Alstyne is part of the Sherman–Denison Metropolitan Statistical Area. Van Alstyne was built in 1872, for settlers to be near the railroad stop of the Houston and Texas Central Railway; the town was named for either William A. Van Alstyne, a civil engineer with the railroad, or for Marie Van Alstyne, a shareholder in the railroad company; the town was incorporated in 1890. Van Alstyne is located in southeastern Grayson County at 33°25′26″N 96°34′43″W; the city limits extend south into Collin County. The U. S. Route 75 freeway runs through the western side of the city, with access from Exits 50 and 51. US 75 leads south 50 miles to the center of Dallas. Van Alstyne's immediate neighbors are Anna to Howe to the north. According to the United States Census, Van Alstyne has a total area of 4.1 square miles, all of it land.
As of the census of 2010, there were 3,046 people, 1114 households, 832 families residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 88.7% White, 4.50% African American.8% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 3.7% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.4% of the population. There were 1114 households out of which 37.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 25.3% were non-families. 22.4% of all households were made up of householders living alone and 2.0% had a male living alone, 65 years of age or older, 8.9% had a female living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.5. In the city, the population was spread out with 30.5% under the age of 19, 4.9% from 19 to 24, 24.5% from 25 to 44, 25% from 45 to 64, 14.0% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $51,450, the median income for a family was $69,773. About 9.5% of families and 10.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.6% of those under age 18 and 13.0% of those age 65 or over. Source: U. S. Census Bureau, 2007-2011 American Community Survey Students are served by the Van Alstyne Independent School District. Schools in the district include Partin Elementary School, Sanford Elementary School, Van Alstyne Middle School and Van Alstyne High School. Grayson County College operates a branch campus in Van Alstyne. City of Van Alstyne official website Van Alstyne Independent School District Van Alstyne Chamber of Commerce Van Alstyne Community Development Corporation Van Alstyne Economic Development Corporation Van Alstyne Police Department Van Alstyne Public Library City of Van Alstyne Demographics Texas State Historical Association
Melissa is a city in Collin County, United States. The population was 4,695 at the 2010 census, up from 1,350 at the 2000 census. Melissa is located in north-central Collin County at 33°17′01″N 96°34′19″W. State Highway 5 passes through the center of the city, State Highway 121 passes through the eastern part, the U. S. Route 75 freeway passes through the western side. US 75 and Highway 121 converge in the southwest part of Melissa head 6 miles southwest to McKinney, the Collin County seat; the center of Dallas is 40 miles southwest of Melissa, Denison is 37 miles to the north via US 75. According to the United States Census Bureau, Melissa has a total area of 10.2 square miles, of which 10.1 square miles is land and 0.08 square miles, or 0.66%, is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 4,695 residents; as of 2000, there were 1,350 people, 472 households, 365 families residing in the city. The population density was 294.4 people per square mile. There were 501 housing units at an average density of 109.3/sq mi.
The racial makeup of the city was 89.63% White, 0.52% African American, 0.44% Native American, 0.52% Asian, 7.63% from other races, 1.26% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13.33% of the population. There were 472 households out of which 38.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 69.5% were married couples living together, 5.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.5% were non-families. 18.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.86 and the average family size was 3.30. In the city, the population was spread out with 30.8% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 28.2% from 25 to 44, 25.6% from 45 to 64, 8.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $60,909, the median income for a family was $66,172.
Males had a median income of $40,417 versus $30,435 for females. The per capita income for the city was $26,193. About 3.0% of families and 5.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.9% of those under age 18 and 0.9% of those age 65 or over. The city is served by the Melissa Independent School District. In 2004, McKinney ISD and Anna ISD refused to educate anymore Melissa ISD high school classes. In 2007, Melissa High School graduated their first class with 46 students. Harry McKillop Elementary School opened its doors as the elementary school in fall 2008, housing pre-k to third grade; the former Melissa Ridge Elementary School campus was converted to Melissa Ridge Intermediate School, serving fourth and fifth grades, Melissa Middle School, serving sixth and eighth grades. In 2015, Melissa Middle School was awarded "A School to Watch" which gives them a high rank of schools in Texas; some of Melissa's first settlers came from the old Highlands community, two and a half miles north of present-day Melissa.
C. H. Wysong was one of the earliest settlers. A post office was established in 1853; the Houston and Texas Central Railroad was built in Melissa in 1872. The town was laid out at this time; the railroad encouraged many families to come to Melissa. The town is believed to have been named for the daughter of a railroad executive, George A. Quinlan of the Houston and Texas Central Railroad. There is some disagreement about this, as others argue that the town was named after Melissa Huntington, daughter of C. P. Huntington, another well-known railroad executive. Anna, Texas, is named after Anna Elizabeth Quinlan, the only daughter of George Austin Quinlan and his wife Mary Kate Saunders. Quinlan, Texas, is named after George Austin Quinlan himself; the first school in Melissa was built on land purchased in 1882 by trustees James Graves, John Gibson, George Fitzhugh, who were early settlers of the area. The first teacher was Mary Huckerston; the school began with 38 pupils. Church services were held there for all faiths on Sundays.
A two-story brick schoolhouse was built on this site in 1910 to accommodate growth brought by the railroad. Melissa was an important shipping point in the early 1900s. Corn, alfalfa hay and livestock were all sent out on the railroad. A deadly tornado struck Melissa on April 13, 1921, injuring many more; the tornado tore the roof off of the brick school building, but the children inside were not injured. However, all churches in the town, three cotton gins, every business house except a bank, the post office, the Houston and Texas Central railway station, were wrecked by the twister; the Waldon Hotel was lifted by the winds, turned halfway around, thrown up against the school building. Eight years on August 8, 1929, a fire burned down many of the buildings, rebuilt after the tornado. Population declined from a high of 500 in 1925 down to 285 in 1949. Dr. William Throckmorton, R. E. Moore, G. W. Taylor, T. M. Scott and William Fitzhugh, Albert Sherley, Lewis Shirley, James M. Graves, Hogan Witt, John Coffman, Thomas Rattan, Josiah Nichols, Jesse Martin, John M. Nicholson, Lindsey Lewis, J.
M. Kincaid, the Orenduffs. Billie L. Wallis, History of Melissa Independent School 1882-1982 McKinney Courier-Gazette, April 13, 1975 Handbook of Texas Online: Melissa, TX Dallas Morning News, June 14, 1997: "Surviving the Wrath" City of Melissa official website
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, snow and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates", thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called "showers."Moisture, lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain occurs. A stationary front is present near the area of freezing rain and serves as the foci for forcing and rising air.
Provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus. The cloud droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops and descend toward the Earth where they will freeze on contact with exposed objects. Where warm water bodies are present, for example due to water evaporation from lakes, lake-effect snowfall becomes a concern downwind of the warm lakes within the cold cyclonic flow around the backside of extratropical cyclones. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy. Thundersnow is possible within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. Most precipitation is caused by convection; the movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes.
Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, but over land it is only 715 millimetres. Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Precipitation may occur on other celestial bodies, e.g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most takes the form of frost, rather than rain or snow. Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year, 398,000 km3 of it over the oceans. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall.
Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Mixtures of different types of precipitation, including types in different categories, can fall simultaneously. Liquid forms of precipitation include drizzle. Rain or drizzle that freezes on contact within a subfreezing air mass is called "freezing rain" or "freezing drizzle". Frozen forms of precipitation include snow, ice needles, ice pellets and graupel; the dew point is the temperature to which a parcel must be cooled in order to become saturated, condenses to water. Water vapor begins to condense on condensation nuclei such as dust and salt in order to form clouds. An elevated portion of a frontal zone forces broad areas of lift, which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus.
Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. It can form due to the lifting of advection fog during breezy conditions. There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiational cooling, evaporative cooling. Adiabatic cooling occurs when air expands; the air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain. Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface by being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to colder land. Radiational cooling occurs due to the emission of infrared radiation, either by the air or by the surface underneath. Evaporative cooling occurs when moisture is added to the air through evaporation, which forces the air temperature to cool to its wet-bulb temperature, or until it reaches saturation; the main ways water vapor is added to the air are: wind convergence into areas of upward motion, precipitation or virga falling from above, daytime heating evaporating water from the surface of oceans, water bodies or wet lan
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Grayson County, Texas
Grayson County is a county in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 120,877; the county seat is Sherman. The county was founded in 1846 and is named after Peter Wagener Grayson, an attorney general of the Republic of Texas. Grayson County is included in the Sherman-Denison, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX Combined Statistical Area, it is part of the Texoma region, with proximity to both Lake Texoma and the Red River. The earliest known inhabitants of what is now Grayson County were Caddo Amerindian groups, including Tonkawa and Kichai; these groups engaged in agriculture and traded with Spanish and French colonists at trading posts along the Red River. Trading posts were established at Preston Bend on the Red River and Pilot Grove during 1836 and 1837. After the establishment of the Peters Colony in the early 1840s, settlement near the Red River increased. Grayson County was created from Fannin County by the Texas State Legislature on March 17, 1846.
The county seat, was designated by the Texas State Legislature. In the 1850s, trading and marketing at Preston Bend became more important, as agriculture expanded in the county; this was helped by the first trail in the state. It went from Preston Bend to Texas. More growth occurred after the establishment of Sherman as station of the Butterfield Overland Mail route in 1856. Opinions in the county about secession were divided. County residents voted by more than two to one in 1861 against secession, desiring to remain in the Union; the Great Hanging at Gainesville in nearby Cooke County in October 1862 was an attack on dissenters, men who were suspected of resisting conscription and having been Unionists. After 150-200 men were arrested by state troops, the military organized a so-called "Citizens Court", which had no basis in state law, its jury convicted and sentenced more than 25 men to death by hanging. Another 14 were lynched outright by a mob without the cover of a trial. A total of 42 men were killed in the proceedings that month, considered the largest vigilante murders in US history.
Violence continued for a time in Sherman and other towns of North Texas, at times at the hands of Confederate military. E. Junius Foster, the editor of the Patriot newspaper, was murdered in 1862 by Capt. Jim Young, son of Col. William Young, killed in Cooke County; the senior Young had organized the Citizens Court that put so many men to death, Foster had "applauded" Young's death. When other men were rounded up as suspect Unionists in Sherman, Brig. General James W. Throckmorton intervened and saved all but five, lynched. Men from Grayson County served the Confederacy at locations in the South; the Eleventh Texas Cavalry captured federal forts in the Indian Territory north of the Red River. Grayson County and much of Texas suffered economic depression in the postwar years during the Reconstruction era, based in part on difficulties in reliance on agriculture in the South, adjustments to free labor, other problems; the driving of cattle herds north along Preston Road provided needed income for the county during this period.
After the Houston and Texas Central Railroad and the Missouri and Texas Railroad began operating in the county in 1872, settlement in Grayson County picked up and flourished during the 1870s and 1880s. Cotton plantations were developed to cultivate this as the predominant commodity crop. Many towns, including Denison, Van Alstyne, Whitewright and Tom Bean, were founded during this time. In 1879, a group of settlers who had settled in North Texas both before and after statehood came together in Grayson County for political discussions, they formed the Old Settlers Association of North Texas. The association purchased 26 acres, they continued to meet on an annual basis for many years. On May 15, 1896, a tornado measuring F5 on the Fujita scale struck Sherman; the tornado's damage path was 400 yards wide and 28 miles long, it killed 73 people and injured 200. About 50 homes were destroyed, with 20 of them being obliterated. During the Sherman Riot of 1930, Grayson County's 1876 courthouse was burned down by a white mob that rioted during the trial of George Hughes, an African-American man.
When the riot started, Hughes was locked by police in the vault at the courthouse and died in the fire. After rioters retrieved Hughes' body from the vault, they dragged it behind a car, hanged it, set afire. Texas Ranger Frank Hamer was in Grayson County during this riot and reported the situation to Texas Governor Dan Moody. Governor Moody sent National Guard troops to Grayson County on May 9 and more on May 10 to control the situation. Grayson County's current courthouse was completed in 1936; the Bridge War called the Red River Bridge War or the Toll Bridge War, was a 1931 bloodless boundary conflict between the U. S. states of Oklahoma and Texas over an existing toll bridge and a new free bridge crossing the Red River between Grayson County and Bryan County, Oklahoma. In 1938, construction of a dam on the Red River was authorized by the U. S. Congress; the dam's construction was completed in part by the use of labor provided by German prisoners-of-war held at Camp Howze, in Cooke County, during World War II.
The dam is now known as Denison Dam. Lake Texoma was formed behind it and is used for recreation and electrical power generation. Perrin Air Force Base was constructed in 1941; the base closure in 1971 was a blow to the county economy. The availability of skilled labor associated with the base helped attract industrial plants. In addition, the base was converted to a civilian airpo
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government