Chambéry is a city in the department of Savoie, located in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in eastern France. It is the capital of the department and has been the historical capital of the Savoy region since the 13th century, when Amadeus V, Count of Savoy, made the city his seat of power. Together with other Alpine towns Chambéry engages in the Alpine Town of the Year Association for the implementation of the Alpine Convention to achieve sustainable development in the Alpine Arc. Chambéry was awarded Alpine Town of the Year 2006. Chambéry was founded at a crossroads of ancient routes through the Dauphiné, Burgundy and Italy, in a wide valley between the Bauges and the Chartreuse Mountains on the Leysse River; the metropolitan area has more than 125,000 residents, extending from the vineyard slopes of the fr:Combe de Savoie to the shores of the Lac du Bourget, the largest natural lake in France. The city is a major railway hub, at the midpoint of the Franco-Italian Turin–Lyon high-speed railway.
Chambéry is situated in southeast France, 523 kilometres from Paris, 326 kilometres from Marseille, 214 km from Turin, 100 kilometres from Lyon and 85 kilometres from Geneva. It is found in a large valley, surrounded by the Massif des Bauges to the east, Mont Granier and the Chaîne de Belledonne to the south, the Chaîne de l'Épine to the west and the Lac du Bourget to the north; the towns surrounding Chambéry are Barberaz, Cognin, Jacob-Bellecombette, La Motte-Servolex, La Ravoire, Saint-Alban-Leysse and Sonnaz. The history of Chambéry is linked to the House of Savoy and was the Savoyard capital from 1295 to 1563. During this time, Savoy encompassed a region that stretched from Bourg-en-Bresse in the west, across the Alps to Turin, north to Geneva, south to Nice. To insulate Savoy from provocations by France, Duke Emmanuel Philibert moved his capital to Turin in 1563, Chambéry declined. France annexed the regions that constituted the Duchy of Savoy west of the Alps in 1792; the need for urban revitalization was met by the establishment of the Société Académique de Savoie in 1820, devoted to material and ethical progress, now housed in an apartment of the ducal Château.
Chambéry and lands of the former Duchy, as well as The County of Nice, were ceded to France by Piedmont in 1860, under the reign of Napoleon III. The town known as Lemencum first changed its name in the Middle Ages during the period that the Duc de Savoie erected his castle, it was called Camefriacum in 1016, Camberiaco in 1029, Cambariacum in 1036, Cambariaco in 1044. In the next century, Cambariaco changed to Chamberium becoming Chamberi in 1603; the actual name comes from the Gaulois term camboritos. The Latin name cambarius, meaning beer brewer, may explain the name. Another hypothesis is that the Gallo-Roman name Camberiacum suggests the idea of currency changing or trade, or a room where the toll taxes are collected. Chambéry is right on the boundary between the humid subtropical and oceanic climates under the Köppen system. In spite of this it is influenced by its interior position within France, resulting in quite hot summers, winters with frequent temperatures below freezing at night.
The first counts of Savoy settled into an existing fortress in 1285 and expanded it in the early-14th century to serve as a residence, seat of power and administration, as stronghold for the House of Savoy. However, it became obsolete as a serious fortification genuinely capable of resisting a siege. Due to constant French hostilities on the château, Duke Emmanuel Philibert decided to move his capital to Turin; the château remained purely an administrative centre until Christine Marie of France, Duchess of Savoy, returned to hold court in 1640. It was the site of the 1684 marriage between Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia and Anne Marie d'Orléans, niece of Louis XIV. Victor Amadeus II, having abdicated, lived here with his second wife Anna Canalis di Cumiana before they were imprisoned at the Castle of Rivoli for trying to reclaim the throne. In 1786, Victor Amadeus III enlarged it. Under Napoleon Bonaparte, the Aile du Midi was rebuilt and redecorated to house the imperial prefecture of the department of Mont-Blanc.
Elaborate modification to the structure were made again after Savoy was annexed by France in 1860. Today, the political administration of the department of Savoie is located in the castle, it is open for tours and concerts; the Fontaine des Éléphants is the most famous landmark in Chambéry. It was built in 1838 to honour Benoît de Boigne's feats; the monumental fountain has strikingly realistic sculptures of the head and forelimbs of four lifesize elephants truncated into the base of a tall column in the shape of the savoyan cross, topped by a statue of de Boigne. At first, the landmark was mocked by the local residents who were annoyed by it, but it now is accepted as one of the city's symbols. Since the early controversy, the statue kept its nickname of les quatre sans culs. A total restoration was done betwe
Legion of Honour
The Legion of Honour is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoleon Bonaparte and retained by all French governments and régimes. The order's motto is Honneur et Patrie, its seat is the Palais de la Légion d'Honneur next to the Musée d'Orsay, on the left bank of the Seine in Paris; the order is divided into five degrees of increasing distinction: Chevalier, Commandeur, Grand officier, Grand-croix. During the French Revolution, all of the French orders of chivalry were abolished, replaced with Weapons of Honour, it was the wish of Napoleon Bonaparte, the First Consul, to create a reward to commend civilians and soldiers. From this wish was instituted a Légion d'honneur, a body of men, not an order of chivalry, for Napoleon believed that France wanted a recognition of merit rather than a new system of nobility. However, the Légion d'honneur did use the organization of the old French orders of chivalry, for example the Ordre de Saint-Louis; the insignia of the Légion d'honneur bear a resemblance to those of the Ordre de Saint-Louis, which used a red ribbon.
Napoleon created this award to ensure political loyalty. The organization would be used as a façade to give political favours and concessions; the Légion d'honneur was loosely patterned after a Roman legion, with legionaries, commanders, regional "cohorts" and a grand council. The highest rank was not a Grand Cross but a Grand aigle, a rank that wore the insignia common to a Grand Cross; the members were paid, the highest of them generously: 5,000 francs to a grand officier, 2,000 francs to a commandeur, 1,000 francs to an officier, 250 francs to a légionnaire. Napoleon famously declared, "You call these baubles, well, it is with baubles that men are led... Do you think that you would be able to make men fight by reasoning? Never; that is good only for the scholar in his study. The soldier needs glory, rewards." This has been quoted as "It is with such baubles that men are led." The order was the first modern order of merit. Under the monarchy, such orders were limited to Roman Catholics, all knights had to be noblemen.
The military decorations were the perks of the officers. The Légion d'honneur, was open to men of all ranks and professions—only merit or bravery counted; the new legionnaire had to be sworn into the Légion d'honneur. It is noteworthy that all previous orders were crosses or shared a clear Christian background, whereas the Légion d'honneur is a secular institution; the badge of the Légion d'honneur has five arms. In a decree issued on the 10 Pluviôse XIII, a grand decoration was instituted; this decoration, a cross on a large sash and a silver star with an eagle, symbol of the Napoleonic Empire, became known as the Grand aigle, in 1814 as the Grand cordon. After Napoleon crowned himself Emperor of the French in 1804 and established the Napoleonic nobility in 1808, award of the Légion d'honneur gave right to the title of "Knight of the Empire"; the title was made hereditary after three generations of grantees. Napoleon had dispensed 15 golden collars of the Légion d'honneur among his family and his senior ministers.
This collar was abolished in 1815. Although research is made difficult by the loss of the archives, it is known that three women who fought with the army were decorated with the order: Virginie Ghesquière, Marie-Jeanne Schelling and a nun, Sister Anne Biget; the Légion d'honneur was visible in the French Empire. The Emperor always wore it and the fashion of the time allowed for decorations to be worn most of the time; the king of Sweden therefore declined the order. Napoleon's own decorations were captured by the Prussians and were displayed in the Zeughaus in Berlin until 1945. Today, they are in Moscow. Louis XVIII changed the appearance of the order. To have done so would have angered the 35,000 to 38,000 members; the images of Napoleon and his eagle were removed and replaced by the image of King Henry IV, the popular first king of the Bourbon line. Three Bourbon fleurs-de-lys replaced the eagle on the reverse of the order. A king's crown replaced the imperial crown. In 1816, the grand cordons were renamed grand crosses and the legionnaires became knights.
The king decreed. The Légion d'honneur became the second-ranking order of knighthood of the French monarchy, after the Order of the Holy Spirit. Following the overthrow of the Bourbons in favour of King Louis Philippe I of the House of Orléans, the Bourbon monarchy's orders were once again abolished and the Légion d'honneur was restored in 1830 as the paramount decoration of the French nation; the insignia were drastically altered. In 1847, there were 47,000 members, yet another revolution in Paris brought a new design to the Légion d'honneur. A nephew of the founder, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, was elected president and he restored the image of his uncle on the crosses of the order. In 1852, the first recorded woman, Angélique Duchemin, an old revolutionary of the 1789 uprising against the absolute monarchy, was admitted into the order. On 2 December 1851, President Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte staged a coup d'état with the help of the armed forces, he made himself Emperor of the French one year on 2 December 1852, after a successful plebiscite.
An Imperial crown was added. During Napoleon III's reign, the first American was admitted
Montpellier is a city near the south coast of France on the Mediterranean Sea. It is the capital of the Hérault department, it is located in the Occitanie region. In 2016, 607,896 people lived in 281,613 in the city itself. Nearly one third of the population are students from three universities and from three higher education institutions that are outside the university framework in the city. Montpellier is the third-largest French city on the Mediterranean coast after Nice, it is the 7th-largest city of France, is the fastest-growing city in the country over the past 25 years. In the Early Middle Ages, the nearby episcopal town of Maguelone was the major settlement in the area, but raids by pirates encouraged settlement a little further inland. Montpellier, first mentioned in a document of 985, was founded under a local feudal dynasty, the Guilhem, who combined two hamlets and built a castle and walls around the united settlement; the two surviving towers of the city walls, the Tour des Pins and the Tour de la Babotte, were built around the year 1200.
Montpellier came to prominence in the 12th century—as a trading centre, with trading links across the Mediterranean world, a rich Jewish cultural life that flourished within traditions of tolerance of Muslims and Cathars—and of its Protestants. William VIII of Montpellier gave freedom for all to teach medicine in Montpellier in 1180; the city's faculties of law and medicine were established in 1220 by Cardinal Conrad of Urach, legate of Pope Honorius III. This era marked the high point of Montpellier's prominence; the city became a possession of the Kings of Aragon in 1204 by the marriage of Peter II of Aragon with Marie of Montpellier, given the city and its dependencies as part of her dowry. Montpellier gained a charter in 1204 when Peter and Marie confirmed the city's traditional freedoms and granted the city the right to choose twelve governing consuls annually. Under the Kings of Aragon, Montpellier became a important city, a major economic centre and the primary centre for the spice trade in the Kingdom of France.
It was the second or third most important city of France at that time, with some 40,000 inhabitants before the Black Death. Montpellier remained a possession of the crown of Aragon until it passed to James III of Majorca, who sold the city to the French king Philip VI in 1349, to raise funds for his ongoing struggle with Peter IV of Aragon. In the 14th century, Pope Urban VIII gave Montpellier a new monastery dedicated to Saint Peter, noteworthy for the unusual porch of its chapel, supported by two high, somewhat rocket-like towers. With its importance increasing, the city gained a bishop, who moved from Maguelone in 1536, the huge monastery chapel became a cathedral. In 1432, Jacques Cœur established himself in the city and it became an important economic centre, until 1481 when Marseille overshadowed it in this role. At the time of the Reformation in the 16th century, many of the inhabitants of Montpellier became Protestants and the city became a stronghold of Protestant resistance to the Catholic French crown.
In 1622, King Louis XIII besieged the city which surrendered after a two months siege, afterwards building the Citadel of Montpellier to secure it. Louis XIV made Montpellier capital of Bas Languedoc, the town started to embellish itself, by building the Promenade du Peyrou, the Esplanade and a large number of houses in the historic centre. After the French Revolution, the city became the capital of the much smaller Hérault. During the 19th century the city thrived on the wine culture that it was able to produce due to the abundance of sun throughout the year; the wine consumption in France allowed Montpellier's citizens to become wealthy until in the 1890's a fungal disease had spread amongst the vineyards and the people were no longer able to grow the grapes needed for wine. After this the city had grown because it welcomed immigrants from Algeria and other parts of northern Africa after Algeria's independence from France. In the 21st century Montpellier is between 8th largest city; the city had another influx in population more largely due to the student population, who make up about one-third of Montpellier's population.
The school of medicine is what kickstarted the city's thriving university culture,however many other universities have been well established in the coastal city that has developments such as the Corum and the Antigone that too have been drawing in more and more students. William I of Montpellier William II of Montpellier William III of Montpellier William IV of Montpellier William V of Montpellier William VI of Montpellier William VII of Montpellier William VIII of Montpellier Marie of Montpellier and King Peter II of Aragon James I of Aragon James II of Majorca James III of Majorca The city is situated on hilly ground 10 km inland from the Mediterranean coast, on the River Lez; the name of the city, Monspessulanus, is said to have stood for mont pelé, or le mont de la colline Montpellier is located 170 km from Marseille, 242 km from Toulouse, 748 km from Paris. Montpellier's highest point is the Place du Peyrou, at an altitude of 57 m; the city is built on two hills and Montpelliéret, thus some o
Fiesole is a town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Florence in the Italian region of Tuscany, on a scenic height above Florence, 5 km northeast of that city. Both Harvard University and Georgetown University have their centers of Italian Renaissance Studies domiciled in Fiesole; the Decameron by Giovanni Boccaccio is set in the slopes of Fiesole. The city was featured in the novels Peter Camenzind by Hermann Hesse and A Room with a View by E. M. Forster. Since the 14th century the city has always been considered a getaway for the upper class of Florence and up to this day Fiesole remains noted for its expensive residential properties; the city is considered to be the wealthiest and most affluent suburb of Florence. In 2016 the city had the highest median family income in the whole of Tuscany. Fiesole was founded in the 9th–8th century BC, as it was an important member of the Etruscan confederacy, as may be seen from the remains of its ancient walls; the first recorded mention of the town dates to 283 BC, when the town known as Faesulae, was conquered by the Romans.
In pagan antiquity it was the seat of a famous school of augurs, every year twelve young men were sent thither from Rome to study the art of divination. Sulla colonized it with veterans, who afterwards, under the leadership of Gaius Mallius, supported the cause of Catilina. Fiesole was the scene of Stilicho's great victory over the Germanic hordes of the Vandals and Suebi under Radagaisus in 406. During the Gothic War the town was several times besieged. In 539 Justin, the Byzantine general, razed its fortifications, it was an independent town for several centuries in the early Middle Ages, no less powerful than Florence in the valley below, many wars arose between them. Dante reflects this rivalry in his Divine Comedy by referring to "the beasts of Fiesole.". By the 14th century, rich Florentines had countryside villas in Fiesole, one of them is the setting of the frame narrative of the Decameron. Boccaccio's poem Il Ninfale fiesolano is a mythological account of the origins of the community.
Robert Browning mentions “sober pleasant Fiesole” several times in his poem "Andrea Del Sarto". Remnants of Etruscan walls. Roman baths. Roman theatre. Palazzo Comunale of the 14th century; the cathedral of Fiesole, containing the shrine of St. Romulus, according to legend the first Bishop of Fiesole, that of his martyred companions the shrine of St. Donatus of Fiesole; the Badia or ancient cathedral of St. Romulus, built in 1028 by Bishop Jacopo Bavaro with materials taken from several older edifices, at the foot of the hill on which Fiesole stands, supposed to cover the site of the martyrdom of St. Romulus; the old cathedral became a Benedictine abbey, which passed into the hands of the Canons Regular of the Lateran. It once possessed a valuable library; the abbey was closed in 1778. The room in the Episcopal Palace where Carmelite bishop St. Andrew Corsini lived and died; the little Church of Santa Maria Primerana in the cathedral square, where the same saint was warned by Our Lady of his approaching death.
Built in 996 and further expanded in medieval times, has maintained the Gothic presbytery from that period. It received a new façade with graffito decoration by Ludovico Buti; the interior, on a single hall, has a 13th-century panel portraying Madonna with Child. In the transept are two marble bas-reliefs by Francesco da Sangallo, a terracotta from Andrea della Robbia's workshop; the church of S. Alessandro, with the shrine of St. Alexander and martyr; the Monastery of San Francesco on the crest of the hill, with the cells of St. Bernardine of Siena and seven Franciscan Beati. Church of San Girolamo, the home of Venerable Carlo dei Conti Guidi, founder of the Hieronymites of Fiesole. San Domenico, the novice-home of Fra Angelico and of St. Antoninus of Florence. Fontanelle, a villa near S. Domenico, where St. Aloysius came to live in the hot summer months, when a page at the court of Grand Duke Francesco de' Medici. Villa I Tatti, a campus of Harvard University Villa Medici in Fiesole. Villa Le Balze, a campus of Georgetown University Villa Palmieri Villa Schifanoia.
Villa Sparta, former residence in exile of the Greek royal family Fonte Lucente, where a miraculous crucifix is revered. Castello di Vincigliata Episcopal Seminary of FiesoleIn the neighbourhood are: Monte Senario, the cradle of the Servite Order, where its seven holy founders lived in austerity S. Martino di Mensola, with the body of St. Andrew, an Irish saint, still incorrupt. Monte Ceceri and the monument to Leonardo da Vinci's attempted flight Angelo Maria Bandini, Italian author Bernard Berenson, American art historian Giovanni Bocaccio, Renaissance humanist Arnold Böcklin, Swiss painter St. Andrew Corsini, a Florentine Carmelite friar, Bishop of Fiesole Alexandre Dumas, French writer Bridget of Fiesole, 9th century Irish nun Mino da Fiesole, Florentine sculptor and painter Helen of Greece and Denmark, queen mother of Romania. Hermann Hesse, German writer, featured the city in his well-known novel Peter Camenzind Paul of Greece, King of Greece Paul Klee, German painter Francesco Landini, singer, poet and instrument maker Elisabeth Mann-Borgese
Minnie Goodnow was an American nurse, nursing educator, historian of nursing. During World War I she was a member of the second Harvard Unit of nurses who sailed for France in late 1915. Minnie Goodnow was born in the daughter of Franklin Goodnow and Elizabeth Goodnow, she attended nursing school in Colorado. Goodnow was a registered nurse, she served as superintendent at the Woman's Hospital in Denver, Colorado, at Bronson Hospital in Kalamazoo, at Children's Hospital in Washington, D. C. and as director of nursing at Milwaukee County Hospital and the University of Pennsylvania. Her last work before retiring in 1945 was as superintendent of nurses at the Pratt Diagnostic Hospital in Boston. In 1915 Goodnow joined the second Harvard Unit of American medical personnel, she wrote in detail about her experiences working in military hospitals in France and England, in articles for American newspapers and nursing journals. She wrote about the problem of the non-professional nurse volunteer in the war zone, noting "In most cases, she is quite undisciplined, unaccustomed to continuous, prosaic work, without knowledge of, or background for, the unique and peculiar relations which exists between a sick man and his nurse," adding particular caution about "a small but conspicuous number who wish to make an impression by their artistic uniform, to do a few spectacular things and to get credit for being heroines."After her return from active war work, Goodnow gave lectures about her experiences.
She wrote and lectured on rehabilitation nursing, on nursing education. Goodnow was superintendent of nurses at Newport Hospital in Rhode Island from 1929 to 1935. In 1933, she and a colleague attended the Congress of the International Council of Nurses in Paris, she resigned that position to embark on a two-year trip to forty countries, to study nursing programs, give lectures, research a new edition of her text on the history of nursing. Published works by Goodnow include The Nursing of Children, Ten Lessons in Chemistry for Nurses, First-year nursing. Several of her textbooks went through multiple editions and translations, for decades after publication. Goodnow lived in Brookline, Massachusetts in her years, died in 1952, at Pratt Diagnostic Hospital, aged 80 years. Minnie Goodnow's gravesite in Hilton, New York, at BillionGraves.com
Mary Adelaide Nutting
Mary Adelaide Nutting was an American nurse and pioneer in the field of hospital care. After graduating from Johns Hopkins University's first nurse training program in 1891, Nutting helped to found a modern nursing program at the school. In 1907, she became involved in an experimental program at the new Teachers College at Columbia University. Ascending to the role of chair of the nursing and health department, Nutting authored a vanguard curriculum based on preparatory nursing education, public health studies, social service emphasis, she served as president of a variety of councils and committees that served to standardize nursing education and ease the process of meshing nurse-profession interest with state legislation. Nutting was the author of a multitude of scholarly works relating to the nursing field, her work, A History of Nursing, remains an essential historic writing today, she is remembered for her legacy as a pioneer in the field of nursing, but her activist role in a time where women still had limited rights.
In November 1858, Mary Adelaide Nutting was born to Vespasian and Harriet Sophia Nutting at a hospital in Frost Village, District of East Canada. Her parents were of English descent, her ancestors seem to have been Loyalists who emigrated to Canada from the US. This was a common trend for many people who remained loyal to the English crown during the American Revolutionary War, subsequent to the US victory fled the country to seek refuge in the British colony of Quebec. One of six children, she was close to her only sister, who shared similar interest in the arts and music. At a young age, Nutting's family moved to Waterloo, this is where she spent a better part of her childhood. Despite coming from meager economic means, all the children received an education at the local village academy. Nutting's father was a court clerk. However, he thought. A gifted student, passionate about her studies, Nutting studied at the Bute House School in Montreal, spent a brief period at a convent school in St. Johns Newfoundland.
In 1881, along with her mother and her siblings, took up residence in Ottawa, where she became involved in the fields of music and design. Having found her first real niche, she spent a brief time studying the arts in Lowell and continued this education back in Ottawa. Nutting's sister was the principal at the Cathedral School for Girls, this opened the door for Nutting's first real experience with teaching, as she spent a year instructing piano and music education, she is remembered as a independent woman, made the personal decision early on to not marry to prevent any hindrance of her career aspirations. Nutting had an early interest in the arts, but influenced by her admiration for Florence Nightingale, the British war-time nurse and patron of the modern nursing field, she developed a budding interest in nursing; this was compounded by the fact that Nutting underwent the painful experience of watching her mother die at the hands of "incompetent" health care. By sheer chance, she came across a newspaper article advertising for a brand-new opportunity to participate in a nurse training program at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore.
In October 1889, at the age of 31, Nutting was one of 17 students to enroll in the inaugural class at the Johns Hopkins school of nursing. This training program was a unique opportunity because admission required no prior experience or higher education. Nutting graduated from Johns Hopkins in 1891, she decided taking a position as head nurse. In 1893, Nutting was promoted to assistant superintendent, served under her close acquaintance Isabel Hampton; when Hampton made the decision to resign just a year Nutting assumed the role as superintendent and principal of the nursing school, which entailed both administrative and hospital service leadership. In her newfound position of authority, Nutting saw an opportunity to make changes to the program at Johns Hopkins University and breakthroughs in the development of nursing curricula throughout the country; as one account says of her succession to superintendent: "Thus began her lifelong crusade to bring education of nurses within universities." One of the major flaws of the training school at Hopkins was that while the school allowed lower-class individuals to attend, a much heavier emphasis was placed on the time spent served laboring in the hospital than on the educational aspects.
This posed a twofold problem. They were serving on average 60–105 hours a week, which left no time to focus on their school work. While at the time conditions at the nursing school were less than ideal, the late 19th century marked the first significant advancement in medical studies. In 1893, The Johns Hopkins Medical School was founded, this drew a sharper focus to the need to reform preexisting practices. To address the obstacles within her own program, Nutting met with the trustees in 1895 to convey the "exploitative" nature of the current system. Incorporating detailed statistical analysis and data, Nutting's work, The Statistical Report of Work Hours in Training Sch
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It