Ruby Falls is a 145 foot high underground waterfall located within Lookout Mountain, near Chattanooga, Tennessee in the United States. The cave which houses Ruby Falls was formed with the formation of Lookout Mountain. About 200 to 240 million years ago the eastern Tennessee area was covered with a shallow sea, the sediments of which formed limestone rock. About 200 million years ago, this area was uplifted and subsequent erosion has created the current topography; the limestone in which the cave is formed is still horizontal, just as it was deposited when it was below sea level. The Lookout Mountain Caverns, which includes Ruby Falls Cave, is a limestone cave; these caves occur when acidic groundwater enters subterranean streams and dissolves the soluble limestone, causing narrow cracks to widen into passages and caves in a process called chemical weathering. The stream which makes up the Falls entered the cave sometime after its formation. Ruby Falls Cave features many of the more well-known types of cave formations including stalactites and stalagmites, columns and flowstone.
The Falls are located in a large vertical shaft. The stream, 1120 feet underground, is fed both by natural springs, it collects in a pool in the cave floor and continues through the mountain until joining the Tennessee River at the base of Lookout Mountain. While Ruby Falls Cave combines with Lookout Mountain Cave to form the Lookout Mountain Caverns, the two caves were not connected by any passage. Ruby Falls Cave is the upper of the two and contains a variety of geological formations and curiosities which Lookout Mountain Cave does not have. Ruby Falls Cave, unlike Lookout Mountain Cave, had no natural openings and could not be entered until the 20th Century. In 1905 the natural entrance to Lookout Mountain Cave was closed during the construction of a railway tunnel. In the 1920s a chemist and cave enthusiast named Leo Lambert thought that he could re-open the cave as a tourist attraction, formed a company to do so, he planned to make an opening farther up the mountain than the original opening and transport tourists to the cave via an elevator.
For this purpose, his company purchased land on the side of Lookout Mountain above Lookout Mountain Cave and in 1928 began to drill through the limestone. In doing so, they discovered a small passageway about four feet wide. Exploring this opening, Lambert discovered the hidden Ruby Falls Cave and its waterfall. On his next trip to visit the cave, Lambert took his wife Ruby, told her that he would name the falls after her. After the discovery of the cave housing Ruby Falls the tunnelers kept digging to locate the original cave they were searching for, the Lookout Mountain caverns, which they reached 1,120 feet underground. On December 30, 1929 the Lookout Mountain caverns were open to the public, by the following year in June the Ruby Falls cave was expanded and opened as well. By 1935 the lower of the two caves was blocked off due to Ruby Falls being the far more popular of the two caves. In 1954, the pathway around the basin was cut in order to allow tourists a better view of the falls; this began the tour-related quip regarding not drinking the falls' water.
Though pure and thus safe to drink, it has large concentrations of magnesium from the strata of the mountain, which makes it a natural laxative. In 1975, the secondary exit from the falls to the base of the mountain was cut; this was to comply with recreation regulations in Tennessee. The secondary exit is used in the event; this secondary exit was used for the popular Ruby Falls Haunted Cavern until 2017 when the event was renamed Dread Hollow and was moved to a new location. The haunted attraction is open to the public from late September, through October. In April 2007, the National Speleological Society published "Caves of Chattanooga" by Larry E. Matthews. Chapter 3, "Ruby Falls Cave", covers the history of Ruby Falls Cave from its discovery in 1928 through 2007. Chapter 1, "Lookout Mountain Cave", covers the cave Leo Lambert was drilling for when he accidentally discovered Ruby Falls Cave. Lambert decided to open both caves to the public, although Lookout Mountain Cave was closed in 1935 since it was not popular with tourists, who were much more impressed with the upper cave.
Public tours began in 1930. Electric lights were installed in the cave, making it one of the first commercial caves to be so outfitted. Motorists travelling on I-75 in the 1970s and 1980s were subjected to dozens - maybe hundreds - of billboards along their route with the words "SEE RUBY FALLS" beginning hundreds of miles north and south of the falls itself. Ruby Falls remains a staple of Chattanooga tourism. Ruby Falls is owned by the Steiner family of Tennessee. Ruby Falls and the larger Lookout Mountain Caverns complex have been designated a National Historic Landmark, it is associated with the nearby Rock City attraction, which lies atop Lookout Mountain. Johnny Cash and Roy Orbison co-wrote a song with the title "See Ruby Fall" in the mid to late 1960s, a reference to the barn roof advertising slogan "See Ruby Falls" ubiquitous throughout the southern United States in the mid 20th Century. Cloudland Canyon State Park Ruby Falls Official Website Ruby Falls Educational Site City of Lookout Mountain, TN Haunted Caverns Lookout Mountain Information
Waterfalls of North Georgia
The waterfalls of northern Georgia, U. S. are a prominent feature of the geography of that region, as well as a major focus of tourism and outdoor recreation. Many are located in state parks, national forests, wildlife management areas, other public lands. Many are accessible—with varying degrees of ease or difficulty—via established hiking trails, some developed areas include boardwalks, observation platforms, picnic areas, other amenities; the Cherokee called this region "Land of a Thousand Waterfalls". The third-, fourth-, fifth-highest waterfalls in the eastern United States are located in northern Georgia. In this discussion, North Georgia refers to the mountainous regions of the extreme northern portion of the state, an area including Banks, Dawson, Gilmer, Lumpkin, Pickens, Stephens, Union and White Counties. There are, of course, waterfalls in other sections of the state. Waterfalls that are located on private property and thus inaccessible to the public are described as such or are marked.
It is the visitor's responsibility to honor the rights of private landholders. Those maps and descriptions presented here are meant only to provide approximate or relative locations. Numerous publications and online resources are available to those wishing to visit these sites, both by foot and by vehicle; as many of these sites remain in a wild state caution must be exercised at all times. Cherokee Falls & Hemlock Falls—located in Cloudland Canyon State Park near Trenton, in a deep gorge on Sitton Gulch Creek. Amicalola Falls—at 729 feet Amicalola Falls is the highest waterfall in Georgia and the third highest east of the Mississippi River, it is four times the height of Niagara's Horseshoe Falls. It is located on Amicalola Creek in Amicalola Falls State Park and is accessible via several trails and parking areas. Visitors may park at the base of the falls. Another trail connects the falls to the terminus of the Appalachian Trail on nearby Springer Mountain; some sources, including the 2004 Georgia State Parks guide book, claim that Amicaolola Falls are "the tallest east of the Mississippi River," although Crabtree Falls in Virginia and Glassmine Falls in North Carolina are both taller.
Bearden Falls—located in the Chattahoochee National Forest on Bearden Creek. Cochrans Falls—at 600 feet, is tied with Caledonia Cascade as the second highest waterfall in Georgia, it is on Cochrans Creek near Dawsonville. Crawford Falls—located on private property and not accessible to the public. "Edge of the World" Rapids—Class IV rapids on the Amicalola River. Falls Creek Falls—located in the Dawson Forest, an area containing at least forty three waterfalls. Lower Falls & Upper Falls—located on Disharoon Creek in the southwest corner of Dawson County, near the gated community of Big Canoe. Jacks River Falls—on Jacks River in the Cohutta Wilderness Area. Little Rock Creek Falls—in the Chattahoochee National Forest. Long Creek Falls—located near the Appalachian Trail near Three Forks. Noontootla Falls—on a small tributary of Noontootla Creek near Three Forks. Sea Creek Falls—in the Cooper Creek area in eastern Fannin County, near the Union County line. Barnes Creek Falls—in the Cohutta Wilderness Area near Murray County line.
Falls on Davis Creek—located on private property but can be viewed from Pleasant Hill Road near the community of Pleasant Hill. Falls Branch Falls—twin falls, "Lower" and "Upper", on Falls Branch near its confluence with Stanley Creek in northeast Gilmer, near the Fannin County line. Julie Anna Falls—a fifty-foot falls on Turniptown Creek in the Rich Mountain Wilderness Area of the Chattahoochee National Forest. Tumbling Waters—Tails Creek falls 75 feet in a series of cascades on its approach to Carters Lake. Panther Creek Falls—located in the Panther Creek Recreation Area between Clarkesville and Tallulah Falls. Shoals on Soque River—located on private property but accessible to the public; the Mark of the Potter, a potters' cooperative on Highway 197, occupies an old mill beside the Shoals, which can be viewed from the co-op's balcony. Coin-operated machines dispense food for waterfowl. Miner Shoals-located on private property, not accessible to the public. 48-foot near vertical drop. "By far the best waterfall on the river" as stated by State Geologist S. W. McCallie in his Water Powers of Georgia, 1908.
Black Falls—on the grounds of Camp Frank D. Merrill, a Mountain Ranger camp 11 miles north of Dahlonega. Public access may be restricted. Blood Mountain Creek Falls—four falls. Cane Creek Falls—located on the grounds of Camp Glisson, a camp operated by the
Smith Creek (Chattahoochee River)
Smith Creek is a stream in Georgia, is a tributary of the Chattahoochee River. The creek is 6.65 miles long. Smith Creek rises in the northeastern corner of White County, where White County meets Habersham County, on the western edge of Hickorynut Ridge, south of Tray Mountain, at the base of Anna Ruby Falls and the confluence of York Creek and East Fork Smith Creek; the creek runs south and forms Unicoi Lake, a reservoir created by Unicoi State Park Lake Dam, a United States Army Corps of Engineers project in Unicoi State Park turns west and flows into the Chattahoochee River in northern Helen, right off of State Route 75. The creek watershed is designated by the United States Geological Survey as sub-watershed HUC 031300010102, is named Smith Creek-Chattahoochee River sub-watershed, drains an area of 27 square miles north of Helen, east of the Chattahoochee River. In addition to Smith Creek, the area is drained by Spoilcane Creek to the west of Smith Creek, 5.67 miles long, Horton Creek to its south, 2.66 miles long, both of which flow into Smith Creek on its way to the Chattahoochee.
Smith Creek and Anna Ruby Falls List of rivers of Georgia Water Resource Region South Atlantic-Gulf Water Resource Region Apalachicola basin
Raven Cliff Falls (Georgia)
This article refers to Raven Cliff Falls in Georgia. Raven Cliff Falls are located in Georgia on a creek that joins Dodd Creek; the waterfall consists of three drops, a 60-foot drop, followed by a 20-foot drop into a deep pool, followed by a cascade of 20 feet to Dodd Creek. The waterfall is an unusual double cascade flowing down through a fissure in a massive granite outcrop. There are three other major waterfalls located on Dodd Creek, with the largest having a 70-foot drop. Raven Cliff Falls is formed by a modest size mountain stream; the waterfall and creek are within of the Raven Cliffs Wilderness of the Chattahoochee National Forest. The creek is known as one of the most beautiful in northern Georgia. Raven Cliff Falls is one of four popular waterfalls in the Forest near Georgia. Two of the other waterfalls, Anna Ruby Falls and Dukes Creek Falls, are in White County, while the third waterfall, DeSoto Falls, is in neighboring Lumpkin County. Raven Cliff Falls are reached by the Raven Cliffs Trail.
The trail, about 2.5 miles in length, is easy to hike until near the end. From 2,040 feet at the trailhead near Bear Den Creek the path slopes upward to 2,600 feet at the base of the falls. Blue blazes mark the trail, easy to follow; the trailhead lies just off the Richard Russell Scenic Highway. From the parking area the trail runs northwest into a scenic valley teeming with mountain laurel, mixed hardwoods and moss-covered seepages. Along the way the trail passes clear pools and cascading whitewater; the trail ends at an impressive 80-foot cliff formation split down the middle with Raven Cliff Falls in between. A steep path leading to the top of the cliff offers wonderful views of the valley and the creek below. While the trail is serene, it may be visited during weekends, it is ideal for dayhikes and family outings. The area is popular for primitive-style tent camping. Rappelling from the cliff face, once a popular activity, is no longer permitted. Raven Cliff Falls Trail Photos and Driving Directions Mountain Travel Guide Profile TopoQuest Map of Raven Cliff Falls Raven Cliff Trail description and Google map to location
Dukes Creek is the creek in White County, Georgia, on which gold was found in 1828. Either Frank Logan or one of his slaves is given the credit for this find; the discovery of gold in White County and neighboring Lumpkin County led to the Georgia Gold Rush. The creek is 8.76 miles long. Dukes Creek rises right off of State Route 348 at the confluence of Bear Den Creek and Little Low Gap Branch, about 2 miles west of Helen, flows into the Chattahoochee River just east of the intersection between State Route 17 and State Route 75 southeast of Helen; the creek receives inflow from Dodd Creek, Dover Creek, Ash Creek on its way to the Chattahoochee River. The 150 foot Dukes Creek Falls, which are located on Davis Creek at its confluence with Dukes Creek, are accessed by a hiking trail called the Dukes Creek Trail. There is an observation platform at the falls. Dukes Creek Falls is one of four waterfalls in the Chattahoochee National Forest near Helen, Georgia that are popular destinations. Two of the other waterfalls, Anna Ruby Falls and Raven Cliff Falls, are in White County and the third waterfall, DeSoto Falls, is in neighboring Lumpkin County.
The Smithgall Woods – Dukes Creek Conservation Area includes a portion of Dukes Creek. The creek watershed is designated by the United States Geological Survey as sub-watershed HUC 031300010103, is named Dukes Creek sub-watershed, drains an area of about 22 square miles west and south of Helen, as well as west and south of the Chattahoochee River headwaters. Archives of White County, Roadside Georgia Smithgall Woods Conservation Area and Lodge Dukes Creek Falls Trail: Photos, Maps & Driving Directions Water Resource Region South Atlantic-Gulf Water Resource Region Apalachicola basin
National Recreation Trail
National Recreation Trail is a designation given to existing trails that contribute to health and recreation goals in the United States. Over 1,148 trails in all 50 U. S. states, available for public use and ranging from less than a mile to 485 miles in length, have been designated as NRTs on federal, state and owned lands. Trails may be nominated for designation as NRTs each year; the NRT online database includes information on most designated trails. National Recreational Trails are part of the National Trails System. Most NRTs are hiking trails. A few are water trails; the National Park Service and the United States Forest Service jointly administer the National Recreation Trails Program with help from a number of other federal and nonprofit partners, notably American Trails, the lead nonprofit for developing and promoting NRTs. The National Trails System Act of 1968 authorized creation of a national trail system composed of National Recreation Trails and National Scenic Trails. National Historic Trails were added in 1978.
While National Scenic Trails and National Historic Trails may only be designated by an act of Congress, National Recreation Trails may be designated by the Secretary of Interior or the Secretary of Agriculture to recognize exemplary trails of local and regional significance in response to an application from the trail's managing agency or organization. Through designation, these trails are recognized as part of America's national system of trails; the National Recreation Trail Program, an independent advocacy organization, supports designated NRTs with an array of benefits, including promotion, technical assistance, a newsletter, email alerts, networking. Its goal is to promote the use and care of existing trails and stimulate the development of new trails to create a national network of trails and realize the vision of "Trails for All Americans." A state-by-state index provide details on featured trails. The first-ever NRT Photo Contest was sponsored in 2003 by American Trails and is continuing each year.
A Request for Proposals for art projects on National Recreation Trails was undertaken. The National Trails System Act of 1968 National Recreation Trails Program Online Database of designated National Recreation Trails American Trails
White County, Georgia
White County is a county located near the northeast corner of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 27,144; the county seat is Cleveland. The county was created on December 22, 1857 from part of Habersham County and named for Newton County Representative David T. White, who helped a Habersham representative attain passage of an act creating the new county. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 242 square miles, of which 241 square miles is land and 1.5 square miles is water. The highest point in White County is 4,430-foot Tray Mountain, shared with Towns County to the north. Tray is the 6th-highest mountain peak in Georgia. Another prominent White County peak is Yonah Mountain known as Mount Yonah; this 3,143-foot peak, located between Helen and Cleveland, is rimmed by sheer cliffs and is the highest point on Georgia's Piedmont Plateau. All of White County is located in the Upper Chattahoochee River sub-basin of the ACF River Basin. Towns County - north Habersham County - east Hall County - south Lumpkin County - west Union County - northwest Chattahoochee National Forest Unicoi State Park As of the census of 2000, there were 19,944 people, 7,731 households, 5,782 families residing in the county.
The population density was 83 people per square mile. There were 9,454 housing units at an average density of 39 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.16% White, 2.17% Black or African American, 0.40% Native American, 0.51% Asian, 0.18% Pacific Islander, 0.51% from other races, 1.07% from two or more races. 1.56% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,731 households out of which 31.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.70% were married couples living together, 8.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.20% were non-families. 21.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 2.91. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.20% under the age of 18, 9.20% from 18 to 24, 27.80% from 25 to 44, 25.20% from 45 to 64, 14.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years.
For every 100 females there were 98.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,084, the median income for a family was $40,704. Males had a median income of $29,907 versus $22,168 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,193. About 8.40% of families and 10.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.30% of those under age 18 and 15.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 27,144 people, 10,646 households, 7,750 families residing in the county; the population density was 112.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 16,062 housing units at an average density of 66.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 95.1% white, 1.7% black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.5% American Indian, 0.8% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 16.0% were English, 14.9% were American, 14.5% were Irish, 10.8% were German.
Of the 10,646 households, 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.6% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.2% were non-families, 22.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.93. The median age was 42.3 years. The median income for a household in the county was $41,756 and the median income for a family was $50,981. Males had a median income of $40,265 versus $31,061 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,680. About 16.9% of families and 19.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.4% of those under age 18 and 12.0% of those age 65 or over. Cleveland Helen Sautee-Nacoochee Yonah Mossy Creek Robertstown Scorpion Hollow Shoal Creek Benefit Leo National Register of Historic Places listings in White County, Georgia Lanier Meaders White County Chamber of Commerce website White County Government Website White County Historical Society Website History of White County, Georgia