Bad Vigaun is a municipality and spa town in the district of Hallein, in the Austrian state of Salzburg. Bad Vigaun known as Vigaun, is located in the historic Tennengau region, about 15 km south of the state capital Salzburg; the municipal area stretches from the Hagen Mountains, the Tennen Mountains and the Untersberg massif in the west to the Osterhorn Group of the Salzkammergut Mountains in the east. It comprises the cadastral communities of Vigaun; the municipality has access to the Salzburg-Tyrol Railway line and the S-Bahn Salzburg network at Bad Vigaun station as well as to the Tauern Autobahn at the Hallein junction. The settlement of Vicone was first mentioned in a 748 deed. Derived from Latin: vicus, the place was settlet in Roman times, when the area was part of the Noricum province; the local parish was documented in land register issued by Bishop Arno of Salzburg in the late 8th century. The present-day Late Gothic church building, dedicated to Saint Dionysius, was erected from 1488 to 1516.
Hot springs in Vigaun were drilled in 1976. The municipality was awarded the official status of a spa town by resolution of the Salzburg state government in 2002
Hoher Dachstein is a karstic Austrian mountain, the second highest mountain in the Northern Limestone Alps. It is situated at the border of Upper Austria and Styria in central Austria, is the highest point in each of those states. Parts of the massif lie in the state of Salzburg, leading to the mountain being referred to as the Drei-Länder-Berg; the Dachstein massif covers an area of around 20×30 km with dozens of peaks above 2,500 m, the highest of which are in the southern and south-western areas. Seen from the north, the Dachstein massif is dominated by the glaciers with the rocky summits rising beyond them. By contrast, to the south, the mountain drops vertically to the valley floor; the geology of the Dachstein massif is dominated by the Dachstein-Kalk Formation, dating from Triassic times. In common with other karstic areas, the Dachstein is permeated by a rich cave system, including some of the largest caves in Austria, such as the Mammuthhöhle and the Hirlatzhöhle. Another significant tourist destination is the Eisriesenhöhle.
The Dachstein is famous for its fossils, including Megalodonts. Glaciers are uncommon in the Northern Limestone Alps, those on the Dachstein — the Hallstätter Gletscher, the Großer Gosaugletscher and the Schladminger Gletscher — are the largest, as well as being the northernmost and the easternmost in the whole of the Alps. Several smaller ice-fields exist, such as the Kleine Gosaugletscher and the Schneelochgletscher; the glaciers are retreating and may disappear within 80 years. The Hallstatt glacier withdrew by 20 m in the year 2003 alone. By 2018, it is estimated that the glacier has retreated more than 1 km since 1908; the summit was first reached in 1832 by Peter Gappmayr, via the Gosau glacier, after an earlier attempt by Erzherzog Karl via the Hallstätter glacier had failed. Within two years of Gappmayr's success a wooden cross had been erected at the summit; the first person to reach the summit in winter was Friedrich Simony, on 14 January 1847. The sheer southern face was first climbed on 22 September 1909 by the brothers Irg and Franz Steiner.
Being the highest point of two different Bundesländer, the summit is a popular goal in both summer and winter. In fine weather as many as 100 climbers may be attempting the ascent, leading to congestion at key sections of the climb; the best-known routes are Schulter-Anstieg: Simony Hütte - Hallstatt glacier - Dachsteinwarte - east ridge Randkluft-Anstieg: Simony Hütte - Hallstatt glacier - north-east face West ridge: Adamekhütte - Gosau glacier - Obere Windluke - west ridgeThese routes require basic alpine equipment for crossing the glaciers and knowledge of climbing. The more interesting climbing routes are concentrated on the south face, the most famous among them being the Steinerweg and the Pichlweg. Limestone Alps List of mountains of the Alps List of European ultra prominent peaks List of World Heritage Sites in Austria "Dachstein". SummitPost.org. "Hoher Dachstein, Austria" on Peakbagger
Rußbach am Paß Gschütt
Rußbach am Paß Gschütt is a municipality in the Hallein district in the Austrian state of Salzburg. The municipality lies in the Rußbach valley, a tributary of the Lammer River in the Tennengau
Rafting and white water rafting are recreational outdoor activities which use an inflatable raft to navigate a river or other body of water. This is done on whitewater or different degrees of rough water. Dealing with risk and the need for teamwork is a part of the experience; this activity as an adventure sport has become popular since the 1950s, if not earlier, evolving from individuals paddling 10 feet to 14 feet rafts with double-bladed paddles or oars to multi-person rafts propelled by single-bladed paddles and steered by a person at the stern, or by the use of oars. Rafting on certain sections of rivers is considered an extreme sport, can be fatal, while other sections are not so extreme or difficult. Rafting is a competitive sport practiced around the world which culminates in a world rafting championship event between the participating nations; the International Rafting Federation referred to as the IRF, is the worldwide body which oversees all aspects of the sport. Whitewater rafting can be traced back to 1811 when the first recorded attempt to navigate the Snake River in Wyoming was planned.
With no training, experience, or proper equipment, the river was found to be too difficult and dangerous. Hence, it was given the nickname “Mad River.” The first commercial rafting trip took place. On June 9, 1940, Clyde Smith lead a successful trip through the Snake River Canyon. Otherwise known as the International Scale of River Difficulty, below are the six grades of difficulty in white water rafting, they range from simple to dangerous and potential death or serious injuries. Class 1: Very small rough areas, might require slight maneuvering. Class 2: Some rough water, maybe some rocks, might require some maneuvering. Class 3: Small waves, maybe a small drop, but no considerable danger. May require significant maneuvering. Class 4: Whitewater, medium waves, maybe rocks, maybe a considerable drop, sharp maneuvers may be needed. Class 5: Whitewater, large waves, large volume, possibility of large rocks and hazards, possibility of a large drop, requires precise maneuvering. Class 6: Class 6 rapids are considered to be so dangerous that they are unnavigable on a reliably safe basis.
Rafters can expect to encounter substantial whitewater, huge waves, huge rocks and hazards, and/or substantial drops that will impart severe impacts beyond the structural capacities and impact ratings of all rafting equipment. Traversing a Class 6 rapid has a increased likelihood of ending in serious injury or death compared to lesser classes; the overall risk level on a rafting trip using proper precautions is low. Thousands of people safely enjoy rafting trips every year. Like most outdoor sports, rafting in general has become safer over the years. Expertise in the sport has increased, equipment has become more specialized and improved in quality; as a result, the difficulty rating of most river runs has changed. A classic example is the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, which had a reputation far exceeding its actual safety statistics. Today the Grand Canyon sees hundreds of safe rafting trips by both do it yourself rafters and commercial river concessionaires. Rafting companies require customers to sign waiver forms indicating understanding and acceptance of potential serious risks.
Both do-it-yourself and commercial rafting trips begin with safety presentations to educate rafting participants about problems that may arise. Depending on the area, safety regulations covering rafting, both for the general do-it-yourself public as well as commercial operators, may exist in legislation; these range from the mandatory wearing of lifejackets, carrying certain equipment such as whistles and throwable flotation devices, to certification of commercial outfitters and their employees. It is advisable to discuss safety measures with a commercial rafting operator before signing on for that type of trip; the required equipment needed is essential information to be considered. Risks in white water rafting stem from improper behavior. Certain features on rivers are inherently unsafe and have remained so; these would include ‘keeper hydraulics’, ‘strainers’, undercut rocks, of course dangerously high waterfalls. In safe areas, moving water can always present risks—such as when a swimmer attempts to stand up on a rocky riverbed in strong current, risking foot entrapment.
Irresponsible behavior related to rafting while intoxicated has contributed to many accidents. Typical rafting injuries include trauma from striking an object, traumatic stress from the interaction of the paddler’s positioning and equipment and the force of the water, overuse injuries, submersion/environmental injuries, non-environmental injuries due to undisclosed medical conditions. Studies have shown that injury rates in rafting are low, though they may be skewed due to a large number of unreported incidents. Fatalities are rare in both do-it-yourself rafting. Meta-analyses have calculated. Like all outdoor activities, rafting must balance its use of nature with the conservation of rivers as a natural resource and habitat; because of these issues, some rivers now have regulations restricting the annual seasons and daily operating times or numbers of rafters. Conflicts have arisen when co
The Alps are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies in Europe, separating Southern from Central and Western Europe and stretching 1,200 kilometres across eight Alpine countries: France, Italy, Liechtenstein, Austria and Slovenia. The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Extreme shortening caused by the event resulted in marine sedimentary rocks rising by thrusting and folding into high mountain peaks such as Mont Blanc and the Matterhorn. Mont Blanc spans the French–Italian border, at 4,810 m is the highest mountain in the Alps; the Alpine region area contains about a hundred peaks higher than 4,000 metres. The altitude and size of the range affects the climate in Europe. Wildlife such as ibex live in the higher peaks to elevations of 3,400 m, plants such as Edelweiss grow in rocky areas in lower elevations as well as in higher elevations. Evidence of human habitation in the Alps goes back to the Palaeolithic era.
A mummified man, determined to be 5,000 years old, was discovered on a glacier at the Austrian–Italian border in 1991. By the 6th century BC, the Celtic La Tène culture was well established. Hannibal famously crossed the Alps with a herd of elephants, the Romans had settlements in the region. In 1800, Napoleon crossed one of the mountain passes with an army of 40,000; the 18th and 19th centuries saw an influx of naturalists and artists, in particular, the Romantics, followed by the golden age of alpinism as mountaineers began to ascend the peaks. The Alpine region has a strong cultural identity; the traditional culture of farming and woodworking still exists in Alpine villages, although the tourist industry began to grow early in the 20th century and expanded after World War II to become the dominant industry by the end of the century. The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted in the Swiss, Italian and German Alps. At present, the region has 120 million annual visitors; the English word Alps derives from the Latin Alpes.
Maurus Servius Honoratus, an ancient commentator of Virgil, says in his commentary that all high mountains are called Alpes by Celts. The term may be common to Italo-Celtic, because the Celtic languages have terms for high mountains derived from alp; this may be consistent with the theory. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the Latin Alpes might derive from a pre-Indo-European word *alb "hill". Albania, a name not native to the region known as the country of Albania, has been used as a name for a number of mountainous areas across Europe. In Roman times, "Albania" was a name for the eastern Caucasus, while in the English languages "Albania" was used as a name for Scotland, although it is more derived from the Latin albus, the color white; the Latin word Alpes could come from the adjective albus. In modern languages the term alp, albe or alpe refers to a grazing pastures in the alpine regions below the glaciers, not the peaks. An alp refers to a high mountain pasture where cows are taken to be grazed during the summer months and where hay barns can be found, the term "the Alps", referring to the mountains, is a misnomer.
The term for the mountain peaks varies by nation and language: words such as Horn, Kopf, Spitze and Berg are used in German speaking regions. The Alps are a crescent shaped geographic feature of central Europe that ranges in a 800 km arc from east to west and is 200 km in width; the mean height of the mountain peaks is 2.5 km. The range stretches from the Mediterranean Sea north above the Po basin, extending through France from Grenoble, stretching eastward through mid and southern Switzerland; the range continues onward toward Vienna and east to the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia. To the south it dips into northern Italy and to the north extends to the southern border of Bavaria in Germany. In areas like Chiasso and Allgäu, the demarcation between the mountain range and the flatlands are clear; the countries with the greatest alpine territory are Austria, Italy and Switzerland. The highest portion of the range is divided by the glacial trough of the Rhône valley, from Mont Blanc to the Matterhorn and Monte Rosa on the southern side, the Bernese Alps on the northern.
The peaks in the easterly portion of the range, in Austria and Slovenia, are smaller than those in the central and western portions. The variances in nomenclature in the region spanned by the Alps makes classification of the mountains and subregions difficult, but a general classification is that of the Eastern Alps and Western Alps with the divide between the two occurring in eastern Switzerland according to geologist Stefan Schmid, near the Splügen Pass; the highest peaks of the Western Alps and Eastern Alps are Mont Blanc, at 4,810 m and Piz Bernina at 4,049 metres. The second-highest major
Scheffau am Tennengebirge
Scheffau am Tennengebirge is a municipality in the Hallein district of Salzburg, Austria. The municipality of Scheffau am Tennengebirge lies in the southern Tennengau of the Salzburger Land; the River Lammer flows through its territory. Its subordinate parishes are: Unterscheffau, Voregg, Weitenau, its Katastralgemeinden are Voregg und Weitenau. The villages lies at the foot of the Tennengebirge mountain range that rises to a height of 2,300 m and, to the south, forms the boundary with Pongau. To the north the municipality includes part of the Ostern Group, up to 1,600 m high; the centre of the municipality is in the Lammer valley in Unterscheffau and Oberscheffau
Golling an der Salzach
Golling an der Salzach is a market town in the Hallein district of Salzburg, Austria. It is located on the southern rim of the Tennengau region south of the city of Salzburg. Here at the confluence of the Salzach and its Lammer tributary, the river leaves the Salzachöfen Gorge between the Berchtesgaden Alps and the Tennen Mountains ranges of the Northern Limestone Alps and flows northwards into the broad Salzburg basin; the Hoher Göll massif of the Berchtesgaden Alps in the west comprise the Schwarzbachfall Cave and the 76 m high Golling Waterfall, a natural monument. Parallel to the Salzach River, the historic Salzachtal Straße enters the narrow gorge at Lueg Pass. Golling station is a stop on the Salzburg-Tyrol Railway, served by ÖBB trains and the Salzburg suburban S-Bahn network; the market town has access to the Tauern Autobahn from Salzburg to Villach. The municipal area comprises the cadastral communities of Golling and Obergäu. Golling proper is colloquially just called Markt; the area on the road to the copper mines in the Pongau region in the south had been settled at least since the Bronze Age.
Here a Roman road led from the city of Iuvavum across the Eastern Alps to Aquileia in Italy. Held by the Bavarian counts of Plain, Golingen first appeared in a 1241 deed, it was the site of Golling Castle erected at the behest of the Salzburg Archbishop Eberhard II on a hill above the town. It served as seat of the local administration and to control the trade route passing the narrow Salzach Valley between Golling and Hohenwerfen Castle; the name is derived from Slavic golica. A market beneath the castle was mentioned in 1284, market rights were granted about 1390. Golling was devastated by the insurgents of the German Peasants' War in 1526; the Pass Lueg ravine south of the town was further fortified by the Salzburg prince-archbishops during the Thirty Years' War. In September 1809, it was the site of heavy fighting, when Salzburg rebels made a stand against united Franco-Bavarian occupation forces during the War of the Fifth Coalition, they could however not prevent the annexation by the Kingdom of Bavaria according to the Treaty of Schönbrunn.
With Salzburg, Golling passed to the Austrian Empire in 1816 by resolution of the Vienna Congress. Seats in the municipal assembly as of 2009 elections: Austrian People's Party: 13 Social Democratic Party of Austria: 5 Freedom Party of Austria: 3 Joseph Mohr, who wrote the words to the Silent Night Christmas carol, served as priest of the Golling parish church from 1820 to 1821. Municipal website Tourist site