Kuranda is a town and locality on the Atherton Tableland in the Shire of Mareeba, Far North Queensland, Australia. The town of Myola is located within the locality of Kuranda, it is 25 kilometres via the Kuranda Range road. It is surrounded by tropical rainforest and adjacent to the Wet Tropics World Heritage listed Barron Gorge National Park, it is within the local government area of Shire of Mareeba. Kuranda is positioned on the eastern edge of the Atherton Tableland where the Barron River begins a steep descent to its coastal floodplain; the area is an important wildlife corridor between the Daintree/Carbine Tableland area in the north and Lamb Range/Atherton Tableland in the south, two centres of biodiversity. Parts of Kuranda along its eastern edge, are protected within the Kuranda National Park and Barron Gorge National Park. Both national parks belong to the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. Barron Gorge Forest Reserve and Formatine Forest Reserve have been established in the south of Kuranda.
Closer to the centre of the town is Jumrum Creek Conservation Park where a near threatened, endemic frog species is protected. An elongated dam created by a weir built for a power station was constructed in 1935 and is used to today for recreation; the rainforest around Kuranda has been home to the Djabugay people for over 10,000 years. Europeans began to explore the area throughout the nineteenth century, it is believed a massacre of indigenous people took place at the location in Kuranda known as Skeleton Creek. Kuranda was first settled in 1885 and surveyed by Thomas Behan in 1888. Construction of the railway from Cairns to Myola began in 1887 and the line reached Kuranda in 1891; the current railway station was built in 1915. Kuranda Post Office opened on 25 June 1891. Between 1912 and 1913 Eric Mjöberg lead an expedition to Queensland in which the Kuranda Aboriginal people were observed. Kuranda District State School and Kuranda State High School amalgamated at the commencement of 2007 to create Kuranda District State College.
Although coffee was grown around Kuranda in the early twentieth century, timber was the town's primary industry for a number of years. Kuranda has been known as a tourist destination since the early 1900s, it was both the local Aboriginals which attracted people to the area. Today Kuranda is a'village in the rainforest' with tourism being the current backbone of the local economy. The'village in the rainforest' concept promoted from the 1970s onwards served two purposes, it attracted those seeking a bohemian enclave in which to reside as well as a being a tourist promotional strategy. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s Kuranda was popular with alternative lifestylers, a theme that still runs through the local community today; the Barron Gorge Hydroelectric Power Station was built nearby in the 1960s. Kuranda Library opened in 1996 and underwent a major refurbishment in 2015. At the 2011 census, the locality Kuranda had a population of 2,966. Kuranda has a number of heritage-listed sites: Cairns-to-Kuranda railway line including the Kuranda railway station.
The town receives thousands of tourists each week who arrive from Cairns either on the Kuranda Scenic Railway, the Skyrail Rainforest cableway, coach or by public bus via the Kuranda Range Road, a 40-minute drive from Cairns. The town is surrounded by tropical rainforest, abundant with wildlife and popular amongst birdwatchers. There are several short walks around the village including the Jum Rum Creek Environmental Park which includes The River Walk. Walking to the Barron Gorge National Park to visit Barron Falls is popular. Another 1 kilometre each way on to Wright's Lookout. There is a shuttle service that provides an alternative to walking with a half-hourly service out to the Barron Gorge National Park; this service includes a visit to Wright's Lookout. Attractions in Kuranda include a bird aviary, butterfly sanctuary, wildlife rescue/rehabilitation centre, reptile park and koala sanctuary. There is a fossil and gemstone museum and candy making displays. Cruises are available aboard'Kuranda Riverboat' on the Barron River.
Kuranda provides the visitor with many shopping opportunities, all within easy walking distance around the CBD, including the markets which consist of a range of stalls with locally made arts and produce. Kuranda has numerous art galleries and specialty shops offering a wide selection of locally made and designed art and handicrafts as well as a variety of sidewalk cafes and restaurants. Kuranda is a major centre for opals and didgeridoos, it was the first home of the Tjapukai Indigenous Dance Theatre, established by former New Yorkers Judy and Don Freeman, together with indigenous dancer and actor, David Hudson. The theatre is now located adjacent the Skyrail Terminal at Smithfield. Mareeba Shire Council operate a public library in Kuranda at 18-22 Arara Street; the Kuranda Historical Society was established in 2017 and seeks to collect and display items of historical interest relating to the Kuranda area. The Kuranda Media Association publish a monthly newspaper called "The Kuranda Paper"; the Kuranda branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the CWA Hall on the corner of Barang Street and Thongon Street.
Kuranda District State School and Kuranda State High School amalgamated in 2007 to form Kuranda District State College. The nocturnal frog species Litoria myola is only found in the vicinity of a few creeks near Kuranda; the area boasts a rich diversity of invertebrate fauna including Australi
Weipa is a mining town on the Gulf of Carpentaria coast of the Cape York Peninsula in Queensland, is the largest town on the Cape. At the 2011 census, Weipa had a population of 3,334, it exists because of the enormous bauxite deposits along the coast. The Port of Weipa is involved in exports of bauxite. Over the last decade or so there have been occasional shipments of live cattle from the port. Weipa is just south of Duyfken Point, a location now agreed to be the first recorded point of European contact with the Australian continent. Dutch explorer Willem Janszoon, on his ship the Duyfken, sighted the coast here in 1606; this was 164 years. In 1895 Presbyterian missionary Reverend Nicholas John Hey established a mission at the junction of Embley River and Spring Creek which he called Weipa, believed to derive from the Anhathangayth word meaning fighting ground. In 1932 the mission relocated 28 kilometres to Jessica Point continuing under the same name. Restrictive legislation was enacted by the state of Queensland in 1911, making the Protector the legal guardian of every Aborigine and half-caste child, the right to confine any such person within any reserve or Aboriginal institution, the right to imprison any Aborigine or half-caste for 14 days if, in the Protector's judgement, they were guilty of neglect of duty, gross insubordination or wilful preaching of disobedience.
It gave powers to the police to confine Aborigines to reserves to "protect them from corruption". This latter power was given by Comalco in 1957 to justify the removal of Weipa Aborigines. In 1932 the community had to relocate to its present site, at Jessica Point now called Napranum because of malaria, it is about 12 kilometres south of the present town of Weipa. At this time most of the people were Awngthim but soon different tribes and clans were brought from Old Mapoon, other communities. In 1955 a geologist, Henry Evans, discovered that the red cliffs on the Aboriginal reserve remarked on by the early Dutch explorers and Matthew Flinders, were enormous deposits of bauxite – the ore from which aluminium is made – and to a lesser extent tungsten; the "Comalco Act of 1957" revoked the reserve status, giving the company 5,760 square km of Aboriginal reserve land on the west coast of the Peninsula and 5,135 square km on the east coast of Aboriginal-owned land. Mining commenced in 1960; the mission became a government settlement in 1966 with continued attempts by Comalco to relocate the whole community elsewhere.
The company built a new town for its workers on the other side of the bay. Weipa has a tropical savanna climate, with hot temperatures above 30 °C throughout the year. Three distinct seasons exist; the wet season, which runs from January to April, is characterised by heavy downpours on an daily basis. Monsoon lows and tropical cyclones cause more extreme rainfall, up to 200 mm in 24 hours; the dry season, running from May to September, features dry days. The build-up season, running from October to December, is oppressively hot and humid, with frequent days over 35 °C. Dewpoints in the wet season average 24 °C. Rainfall during the build-up is infrequent, but when it does occur, it falls in brief, heavy downpours associated with severe thunderstorms; these seasons are not always set, however. Extreme temperatures have ranged from 10.2 °C to 38.4 °C. The highest daily rainfall recorded was 327.8 mm during the passage of Tropical Cyclone Oswald in January 2013. The present town was constructed by Comalco, a large aluminium company, which began making trial shipments of bauxite to Japan in 1962.
A railway was constructed to transport the ore from the mine at Andoom to the dump of the export facility at Lorim Point. The bauxite mine is the world's largest with planned expansions increasing the margin over other mines in 2010. There are two schools in Weipa; the Western Cape College is a government co-educational school. It is on the corner of Eastern Avenues in Rocky Point. In 2015, the school had an enrolment of 1,073 students with 93 teachers. St Joseph's Parish School is a Roman Catholic co-educational primary school at 2 Boundary Road, Rocky Point. Opened in 2016, the school only offered enrolment in years P-3 but expects in 2018 to be able to offer enrolment across all primary levels. Weipa has a visitor's centre, swimming pool, bowling green, golf club and squash courts. There are basketball courts as well as football fields. Weipa Town Authority operates a public library at Hibberd Drive in Weipa. At Nanum the shopping precinct has a Woolworths supermarket, coffee shop, travel agent, clothing shop, post office, newsagency / sports shop and butchers.
There is a chemist and fishing store and within walking distance is a gift shop and whitegoods store, credit union and government social security office. At Evans Landing there are a
Mossman is a town and a locality in Far North Queensland, Australia, on the Mossman River. It is within the local government area of Shire of Douglas. In the 2016 census, Mossman had a population of 1,937 people. Mossman is located on the Captain Cook Highway 75 kilometres north of the regional city of Cairns, 15 kilometres east of the Mount Carbine Tableland. Mossman Gorge, a popular attraction within Daintree National Park, is located west of town. Sugar cane farming is an important aspect of the local economy, with Mossman Central Mill, the only sugar mill in the district, processing the cane before sending it to Cairns for shipping domestically and internationally; the district was known as Mossman River after the river which flows through it. The Mossman River, in turn, was named by the explorer George Dalrymple on 6 December 1873 after Hugh Mosman who discovered gold in Charters Towers. Dalrymple wrote "I named this river the Mossman River, after Mossman, an explorer and mining man, member of a prominent mining family".
The town was known for a brief time as Hartsville after Daniel Hart, an early settler. The name was simplified to Mossman. Mossman Central Sugar Mill commenced crushing on 23 August 1897. Mossman River Post Office opened by 1895 and was renamed Mossman in 1899. Mossman River State School opened on 31 January 1898 under head teacher Thomas Garland, it was renamed Mossman State School in 1910. A secondary department was opened on 1 February 1955, which operated until a separate Mossman State High School opened on 30 January 1973; the establishment and subsequent growth of Cairns and the completion of the Cairns Railway up through the Barron Gorge in 1891, gave a more direct gateway to the hinterland but, at this period, it was found that the Mossman district contained suitable land for sugar-growing. The establishment of the sugar mill at Mossman formed the nucleus of the town, which grew at the expense of Port Douglas; the district was served by two separate 2-foot gauge tramway systems. Both at one time handled general goods, as well as sugar cane.
Mossman district owes its present prosperity to these tramways which pioneered the first reasonable transport in the neighbourhood, for trafficable roads followed later. During World War II, Mossman was attacked in a Japanese air raid on 31 July 1942. A single flying boat dropped a bomb that injured a child. Mossman State High School opened on 30 January 1973. Mossman Library opened in 1977. Mossman Central Mill Company Limited started life as a grower owned co-operative sugar mill back in 1894. On 23 August 1897, the sugarcane from Bonnie Doon was the first to be crushed at the Mossman Sugar Mill. Mrs Annie Rose fed the first sugarcane into the mill, with the mill producing its first sugar after crushing 27,905 tonnes of cane for the initial season. In 1906, Mossman Mill became the first Queensland mill to crush over 100,000 tonnes of cane; that season lasted just under 8 months, extending from June 1906 to late January 1907. Sugar was shipped from Port Douglas, however road transport came to the forefront and became the preferred mode of transport for sugar to the bulk sugar terminal in Cairns.
Louis John Frederick Prince pioneered the use of computers for cane payment accounting and, in 1971, Mossman purchased the first process control computer used in the world sugar industry. Mossman State School is a government primary school for girls at 30-34 Front Street. In 2017, the school had an enrolment of 213 students with 16 teachers and 22 non-teaching staff. Mossman State High School is a government secondary school for girls at 46-62 Front Street. In 2017, the school had an enrolment of 611 students with 62 teachers and 41 non-teaching staff, it includes a special education program. St Augustine's School is a Catholic primary school for girls at Grogan Street. In 2017, the school had an enrolment of 217 students with 13 non-teaching staff. Douglas Shire Council operates Mossman Library at Mossman; the Mossman branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at 28 Front Street. Prior to 2008, Mossman was the seat of the Shire of Douglas. In 2008, the Shire of Douglas was amalgamated into the Cairns Region, administered from both Cairns and Mossman.
In 2014, the Shire of Douglas was de-amalgamated from Cairns Region and reinstated as Shire of Douglas. Mossman is rich in sporting clubs such as the Mossman Sharks rugby league club, Coral Coast Judo Club, Douglas United Dragons Football Club, A Basketball League run out of the high school Indoor Sport Centre, the Port Douglas Crocs AFL club, Mossman Gymnastics, Port Douglas and Mossman Rugby Union club, Lady Dragons Indigenous Rugby League Football Club and much, much more. A young 9 year old Jermaine Ryan broke the world record for the fastest 9 year old 100m track and field in 2016. Jove Thompson an 11-year who has broken the world record for catching the worlds biggest jungle perch and the fastest time for a 100m, 200m and 800m track and field time. Jermaine's time of 100m was 14.59 seconds and Jove's time for the 100m was 12.62 seconds, 200m 21.47 seconds and 800m 1.54 minutes. Mossman has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Johnston Road: Mossman District
Hope Vale, Queensland
Hope Vale is a town within the Aboriginal Shire of Hope Vale and a locality split between the Aboriginal Shire of Hope Vale and the Shire of Cook, Australia. It is an Aboriginal community. At the 2011 census, Hopevale had a population of 974 people. Hope Vale is on Cape York Peninsula about 46 kilometres northwest of Cooktown by road, about 10 kilometres off the Battlecamp Road that leads to Lakefield National Park and Laura; the Cape Bedford Mission was established by Johann Flierl, a missionary of the Lutheran Church in 1886, with the settlement at Elim on the beach. Owing to fears that the German-influenced Aboriginal people might cooperate with the advancing Japanese in World War II, the total population of 286 was evacuated south to various communities by the military in May 1942; the German Lutheran missionaries were sent to internment camps. Most of the people were sent to Woorabinda, near Rockhampton, in Queensland, where a large number perished from disease and malnutrition. Hope Vale was re-established as a Lutheran mission in September 1949.
Aboriginal people from the Hope Valley and Cape Bedford Missions settled there. A work crew was allowed to return in 1949 and the first families came home in 1950. Hopevale Post Office opened on 1 May 1965 and closed in 1990. Hopevale is no longer run as a mission by its own elected community council. In 1986 it received a "deed of grant in trust" which "granted title to 110,000 ha of land, Aboriginal Reserve Land held by the Under Secretary as trustee, to the community council to act as trustees of the land for the benefit of the residents." The Aboriginal Land Act 1991 transferred into Indigenous ownership all previous reserve land under DOGIT titles. "The Warra people of the Hopevale Community of Eastern Cape York Peninsula in Queensland received acknowledgement of their native title rights in December 1997. The determination recognised rights of exclusive possession, occupation use and enjoyment over 110,000 ha. "Hopevale is home to several clan groups who speak Guugu Yimidhirr and other related languages, as well as English.
Due to a lack of reliable water supplies at Elim, the community was shifted about 20 kilometres inland to its present site. Notable former residents of Hopevale are Queensland rugby league player Matt Bowen and lawyer and activist Noel Pearson. Pearson has criticised the level of violence in the community. On 21 July 2008 the Hope Vale community opened the Indigenous Knowledge and Technology Centre, in the Jack Bambie building at 5 Muni Street; this centre provides training venue and public Internet access. The Hope Vale community has a strong choral singing tradition since its evacuation to Woorabinda; the ensemble has performed at the Queensland Music Festival on three occasions—in 2005, 2007 and 2009. Marie Yamba Aboriginal Mission, a Mission situated south of Proserpine that commenced in 1897 and finished in 1902 with 24 Aboriginals being moved to Hope Vale Mission. Pohlner, Peter. 1986. Gangarru. Hopevale Mission Board, Queensland. ISBN 1-86252-311-8 Poland, Wilhelm. Loose leaves. Originally published as three booklets by The Mission Institute of Neuendettelsau, Bavaria, 1905-1912.
Reprint: Lutheran Publishing House, Adelaide. 1988. ISBN 0-85910-468-0 Roth, W. E. 1897. The Queensland Aborigines. 3 Vols. Reprint: Facsimile Edition, Hesperian Press, Victoria Park, W. A. 1984. ISBN 0-85905-054-8. Sutton, Peter. Languages of Cape York: Papers presented to a Symposium organised by the Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra.. ISBN 0-85575-046-4. Wynter, Jo and Hill, John. 1991. Cape York Peninsula: Pathways to Community Economic Development; the Final Report of The Community Economic Development Projects Cook Shire. Cook Shire Council. Aboriginal Co-Ordinating Council Media Facility. 2002. The Woorabinda Story: 7 Years in Exile. Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Cairns. 20 April 2005. The Morning Show with Pat Morrish. Radio Broadcast. Bambie, Herman. 2000. Bringing Them Home Oral History Project. Hope Vale, 26 October, Oral History, TRC 5000/ 204. Bennett and Gordon, Wilfred. 2007. ‘Social Capital and the Indigenous Tourism Entrepreneur’.
In: J. Buultjens and D. Fuller Striving for Sustainability: Case Studies in Indigenous Tourism, pp. 333–70. Lismore, NSW, Australia: Southern Cross University Press. Brad, Jen. 1994. Milbi Thagaalbigu Balgaayga. Hopevale: Guugu Yimithirr Cultural Centre. Callaghan, editor. Mangal-Bungal Clever with Hands: Baskets and stories woven by some of the women of Hopevale, Cape York Peninsula. Hopevale Community Learning Centre Aboriginal Corporation. ISBN 978-0-646-46701-6 Costello, David Bringing Them Home Oral History Project. Hope Vale, 26 October, Oral History, TRC 5000/ 187. Deeral, Eric no date. Lest we Forget: Home at Last. Hopevale: Guugu Yimithirr Cultural Centre. Dekker, John. 8 June 1970. Guugu-Yimidhirr Words of Life. Global Recordings: catalogue number C16750, CD. Dekker, John. 8 June 1970. Guugu-Yimidhirr Words of Life. Global Recordings: catalogue number C16751, CD. Evans, Kay E. 1972. ‘Marie Yamba and Hope Vale: The Lutheran Missions to the North Queensland Aborigines, 1886-1905’ Queensland Heritage 2.6:26-35.
Gordon and Haviland, John. 1980. "Milbi: Aboriginal Tales from Queensland's Endeavour River. Canberra: Australian National University Press. Gordon and Bennett, Judy (July 2007 first print no
Chillagoe is a town and locality in northern Queensland, Australia. It is within the local government area of Shire of Mareeba, it was once a thriving mining town for a range of minerals, but is now reduced to a small zinc mine and some marble quarries. In the 2011 census, Chillagoe had a population of 192 people. Just out of town is the Chillagoe-Mungana Caves National Park containing limestone caves. There are between 1,000 caves in the Chillagoe-Mungana area; the caves, the spectacular karst landscape and the mining and smelting history are the main tourist attractions to the region. It has been stated by leading geologist Professor Ian Plimer that the Chillagoe region has the most diverse geology in the world. Chillagoe was named by William Atherton in 1888; the name is taken from the refrain of a sea shanty: "Hikey, Psyche, Chillagoe, Walabadorie". James Mulligan had explored the area in 1873 and Atherton backed up his reports of rich copper outcrops in the area. Mining pioneer John Moffat sent prospectors to the field in 1888 and monopolised the field.
A receiving office opened in 1891 but closed in 1893. A post office opened in 1900 with F. Donner as the postmaster; the Chillagoe Railway and Mining Company's line opened from Mareeba in 1901 and a Town Reserve was proclaimed 27 October 1910. Chillagoe is sometimes remembered for its involvement in the Mungana affair, a mining scandal which brought down the government. In 1919, after fluctuating fortunes and closures, ownership of the smelter was transferred to the Queensland Government; this acquisition by the Labor Government brought allegations of political corruption which persisted for many years. Closures plagued the smelter again in the late 1920s; when the Labor Party lost power in 1929, the new government ordered a Royal Commission into the incident. The political careers of two former Queensland Premiers,'Red' Ted Theodore and William McCormack, were ruined by the Commission’s report. Read the famous book by Frank Hardy: "Power without Glory"; the Chillagoe Public Library opened in 2002.
Chillagoe State School opened on 1 April 1902. At the 2006 census, Chillagoe had a population of 227. Chillagoe has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Chillagoe smelters Mungana Archaeological Area Woothakata is a property on beautiful Chillagoe creek named after the early Tableland shire which Chillagoe was a part of. Woothakata is an Aboriginal word which describes the way Aborigines traveled to Ngarrabullgan/Mount Mulligan, an important meeting place; the heritage-listed Chillagoe smelters, the cemetery and the many old mines attract history buffs to the area. The Mareeba Shire Council operates a public library in Chillagoe at 21-23 Queen Street. University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Chillagoe and Chillagoe Shire
Cooktown is a town and locality in the Shire of Cook, Australia. Cooktown is located about 2,000 kilometres north of Brisbane and 328 kilometres north of Cairns, by road. Cooktown is about 857 kilometres south of Cape York by road. At the time of the 2016 census, Cooktown had a population of 2,631. Cooktown is at the mouth of the Endeavour River, on Cape York Peninsula in Far North Queensland where James Cook beached his ship, the Endeavour, for repairs in 1770. Both the town and Mount Cook which rises up behind the town were named after James Cook. Cooktown is one of the few large towns in the Cape York Peninsula and was founded on 25 October 1873 as a supply port for the goldfields along the Palmer River, it was called "Cook's Town" until 1 June 1874. In the local Guugu Yimithirr language the name for the region is Gangaar Aboriginal pronunciation:, which means " Rock Crystals." Quartz crystals were used in various Aboriginal ceremonies across the continent and are found in the vicinity. The site of modern Cooktown was the meeting place of two vastly different cultures when, in June 1770, the local Aboriginal Guugu Yimithirr tribe cautiously watched the crippled sailing ship – His Majesty's Bark Endeavour – limp up the coast seeking a safe harbour after sustaining serious damage to its wooden hull on the Endeavour Reef, south of Cooktown.
The Guugu Yimithirr people saw the Endeavour beach in the calm waters near the mouth of their river, which they called "Wahalumbaal". The captain of the Endeavour, Lieutenant James Cook, wrote: "... it was happy for us that a place of refuge was at hand. The British crew spent seven weeks on the site of present-day Cooktown, repairing their ship, replenishing food and water supplies, caring for their sick; the extraordinary scientist, Joseph Banks, Swedish naturalist Daniel Solander, who accompanied Cook on the expedition, collected and documented over 200 new species of plants. The young artist Sydney Parkinson illustrated the specimens and he was the first British artist to portray Aboriginal people from direct observation. After some weeks, Joseph Banks met and spoke with the local people, recording about 50 Guugu Yimithirr words, including the name of the intriguing animal the natives called gangurru. Cook recorded the local name as "Kangooroo, or Kanguru"; the first recorded sighting of kangaroos by Europeans was on Grassy Hill, which rises above the place where the ship was beached.
Cook climbed this hill to work out a safe passage for the Endeavour to sail through the surrounding reefs, after it was repaired. "The visit on the 19th of July 1770 ended in a skirmish after Cook refused to share the turtles he kept on the Endeavour with the local inhabitants. They set fire to the grass around Cook's camp twice, killing a suckling pig. After Cook wounded one of the men with a musket, they ran away. Cook and some others followed them and caught up with them on a rocky bar near Furneaux Street, now known as Reconciliation Rocks. A “little old man” appeared from the group of Indigenous Australians and they were reconciled; this was an important historic event as it is believed that this is the first recorded reconciliation between Europeans and Indigenous Australians ever."Cook named the river the "Endeavour" after his ship, and, as they sailed north, he hoisted the flag known as the "Queen Anne Jack" and claimed possession of the whole eastern coast of Australia for Britain. He named Cape York Peninsula after the then-Duke of Albany.
"In 1886 the people of Cooktown were anxious to recover the brass guns of the Endeavour which were thrown overboard, in order to place them as a memento in their town. The next recorded European expedition to the area was nearly 50 years when another botanist, Allan Cunningham, accompanying Captain Phillip Parker King, visited the remarkable region in 1819-20, he collected numerous botanical specimens for the British Museum and Kew Gardens. In 1872, William Hann discovered gold in southwest of Cooktown, his findings were reported to James Venture Mulligan who led an expedition to the Palmer River in 1873. Mulligan's expedition found quantities of alluvial gold and thus began the gold rush, to bring prospectors to the Endeavour River from all over the world; the Queensland government responded to Mulligan's reports, soon a party was dispatched to advise whether the Endeavour River would be a suitable site for a port. Shortly after, a new township was established at the site of the present town, on the southern bank of the river and Cooktown Post Office opened on 1 January 1874.
The Palmer goldfields and its centre, were growing quickly. The recorded output of gold from 1873 to 1890 was over half a million ounces. Cooktown was the port through which this gold was exported and supplies for the goldfields brought in. Word of the gold spread, Cooktown was soon thriving, as prospectors arrived from around the world. Population estimates vary but there were around 7,000 people in the area and about 4,000 permanent residents in the town by 1880. At that time, Cooktown boasted a large number of hotels and guest houses. There were 47 licensed pubs within the town boundaries in 1874 although this nu
A wetland is a distinct ecosystem, inundated by water, either permanently or seasonally, where oxygen-free processes prevail. The primary factor that distinguishes wetlands from other land forms or water bodies is the characteristic vegetation of aquatic plants, adapted to the unique hydric soil. Wetlands play a number of functions, including water purification, water storage, processing of carbon and other nutrients, stabilization of shorelines, support of plants and animals. Wetlands are considered the most biologically diverse of all ecosystems, serving as home to a wide range of plant and animal life. Whether any individual wetland performs these functions, the degree to which it performs them, depends on characteristics of that wetland and the lands and waters near it. Methods for assessing these functions, wetland ecological health, general wetland condition have been developed in many regions and have contributed to wetland conservation by raising public awareness of the functions and the ecosystem services some wetlands provide.
Wetlands occur on every continent. The main wetland types are swamp, marsh and fen. Many peatlands are wetlands; the water in wetlands is either brackish, or saltwater. Wetlands can be non-tidal; the largest wetlands include the Amazon River basin, the West Siberian Plain, the Pantanal in South America, the Sundarbans in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. The UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment determined that environmental degradation is more prominent within wetland systems than any other ecosystem on Earth. Constructed wetlands are used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater as well as stormwater runoff, they may play a role in water-sensitive urban design. A patch of land that develops pools of water after a rain storm would not be considered a "wetland" though the land is wet. Wetlands have unique characteristics: they are distinguished from other water bodies or landforms based on their water level and on the types of plants that live within them. Wetlands are characterized as having a water table that stands at or near the land surface for a long enough period each year to support aquatic plants.
A more concise definition is a community composed of hydric soil and hydrophytes. Wetlands have been described as ecotones, providing a transition between dry land and water bodies. Mitsch and Gosselink write that wetlands exist "...at the interface between terrestrial ecosystems and aquatic systems, making them inherently different from each other, yet dependent on both."In environmental decision-making, there are subsets of definitions that are agreed upon to make regulatory and policy decisions. A wetland is "an ecosystem that arises when inundation by water produces soils dominated by anaerobic and aerobic processes, which, in turn, forces the biota rooted plants, to adapt to flooding." There are four main kinds of wetlands – marsh, swamp and fen. Some experts recognize wet meadows and aquatic ecosystems as additional wetland types; the largest wetlands in the world include the swamp forests of the Amazon and the peatlands of Siberia. Under the Ramsar international wetland conservation treaty, wetlands are defined as follows: Article 1.1: "...wetlands are areas of marsh, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water, static or flowing, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres."
Article 2.1: " may incorporate riparian and coastal zones adjacent to the wetlands, islands or bodies of marine water deeper than six metres at low tide lying within the wetlands." Although the general definition given above applies around the world, each county and region tends to have its own definition for legal purposes. In the United States, wetlands are defined as "those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or groundwater at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, that under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands include swamps, marshes and similar areas"; this definition has been used in the enforcement of the Clean Water Act. Some US states, such as Massachusetts and New York, have separate definitions that may differ from the federal government's. In the United States Code, the term wetland is defined "as land that has a predominance of hydric soils, is inundated or saturated by surface or groundwater at a frequency and duration sufficient to support a prevalence of hydrophytic vegetation adapted for life in saturated soil conditions and under normal circumstances supports a prevalence of such vegetation."
Related to this legal definitions, the term "normal circumstances" are conditions expected to occur during the wet portion of the growing season under normal climatic conditions, in the absence of significant disturbance. It is not uncommon for a wetland to be dry for long portions of the growing season. Wetlands can be dry during the dry season and abnormally dry periods during the wet season, but under normal environmental conditions the soils in a wetland will be saturated to the surface or inundated such that the soils become anaerobic, those conditions will persist through the wet portion of the growing season; the most important factor producing wetlands is flooding. The duration of flooding or prolonged soil saturation by groundwater determines whether the resulting wetland has aquatic, marsh or swamp vegetation