John Talbot of Grafton
Sir John Talbot of Grafton, Worcestershire was a prominent recusant English Catholic layman of the reigns of Elizabeth I of England and James I of England. He was connected by marriage to one of the Gunpowder Plot conspirators, by acquaintance or family ties to other important Catholic figures, he fell under suspicion from the English government. The descendant of an influential landowning family, John Talbot became a member of Lincoln's Inn, 10 February 1555-6, he was member of Parliament for Droitwich in 1572. It was when passing through Smithfield, London, in July 1580, with Mr. and Mrs. Talbot, that Robert Johnson, the Catholic martyr, was recognized by Sledd, the informer. Robert Persons calls Robert Johnson "Mr. Talbot's priest", though, as it appears, he was, Lady Petre's. Talbot was committed to the custody of the Dean of Westminster, 24 August 1580, afterwards removed to the house of his brother-in-law, Sir John Petre, in Aldersgate Street. On 1 October 1581, the plague being rife in the City, he was moved to some other house within ten or twelve miles of London.
In 1583 the priest, Hugh Hall, confessed. Talbot was restricted to the house of one Henry Whitney, at Mitcham and two miles round it. In 1588 he was imprisoned in Wisbech Castle for having heard Mass contrary to the provisions of the statute 23 Eliz. c. i. From 9 Dec. 1588, to about 13 May 1589, he was liberated on bail, owing to his own and his wife's bad health. He seems to have been restricted to his house in Clerkenwell. On 12 March 1589-90, he was ordered into confinement at the house of Richard Fiennes at Broughton, whence he was released on bail for a fortnight on 24 May 1590, he was again allowed out on bail on 20 December 1590, 22 July 1591. In 1592 he was at "Bickslie" Kent. On 27 August 1592, the recusants imprisoned at Ely and Broughton were ordered back to their respective prisons. However, next year we find him in Ely gaol. Thence he was liberated on bail for a considerable period to act as umpire in a family dispute. On he was allowed to take "the Bathes" at Bath, on account of his health.
Between Michaelmas, 1593, 10 March following, he paid £120 in fines for recusancy. Afterwards he was imprisoned in Banbury Castle, whence he was released on bail for two months, 27 February 1596-7, his leave being subsequently extended on 29 April 1597, 6 Nov. 1597. In 1601 he was living in Worcestershire and pressure was brought to bear on him to secure his influence to promote the candidature of Sir Thomas Leighton as one of the parliamentary representatives of the shire. In 1604 he was paying £20 a month in fines for his recusancy, the benefit of, on 26 August granted to Sir William Anstruther, who on 13 October in the same year obtained his pardon. On the following 8 December a warrant was issued for the release to him of £160, due from him to the Crown in fines for recusancy. In 1605 he was suspected of complicity with the conspirators of the Gunpowder Plot, one of whom, Robert Wintour, of Huddington near Droitwich, had married his daughter Gertrude. Robert Wintour, declared that he had said nothing on the subject to his father-in-law, knowing that he would not join the plot under any circumstances.
Indeed, he had driven the fugitive conspirators from his door when they arrived at his manor at Pepperhill. Talbot was arrested, on 4 December 1605, examined. On 26 September 1606, the value of his recusancy was granted to Lord Hay, he died in 1607, or on 28 January 1611. He was the only son and heir of Sir John Talbot, of Grafton, of Albrighton and wife Frances Giffard, daughter of Sir John Giffard, grandson of Sir John Talbot of Albrighton, Shropshire by second wife Margaret Troutbeck, daughter of Adam Troutbeck of Mobberley, Chester, in turn a son of Sir Gilbert Talbot by second wife Etheldreda, called Audrey, daughter of William Landwade Cotton of Landwade, Cambridgeshire, he was the father, by Katherine Petre, daughter of Sir William Petre and his second wife, Anne Browne, daughter of Sir William Browne, Lord Mayor of London, of: Anne Talbot, married 18 November 1585 Thomas Hanmer, had issue, including Sir John Hanmer, 1st Baronet George Talbot, 9th Earl of Shrewsbury, a Catholic priest John Talbot of Longford, Market Drayton, married Eleanor Baskerville, daughter of Sir Thomas Baskerville of Wolvershill, of Brinsop and had one son: John Talbot, 10th Earl of Shrewsbury Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed..
"John Talbot". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton; the entry cites: Calendars of State Papers, for 1581 to 1610. MSS. Commission, Cal. of Cecil MSS. IV, 268.
East Horndon is a village in the civil parish of West Horndon, in the south of the borough of Brentwood in Essex in the East of England. It is situated just south of the A127 road near Herongate; the village Church of All Saints is located to the north of the A127, is redundant, but in the care of the Churches Conservation Trust. There were Heron on the north of the church and Abbotts on the south. By the fourteenth century the Tyrells of Herongate had been gaining influence, became the patrons of the church; this family demolished most of the Norman church. The chancel and south transept are late fifteenth century. There is a splendid limestone figure of Alice, wife of Sir John Tyrell, flanked by her children all named; the south and north chapels were built for the interments of the family. Climb the stairs to enter the south gallery - a pleasant living room for the chantry priest in pre-Reformation times a Tudor fireplace. Outside this attractive building is a squat tower with distinctive corner turrets, a stepped parapet.
Below, on the south of the church, East Horndon is reduced to the original old road to Herongate, winding up the hill, two restaurants and two houses. Crossing the road bridge to the other side and returning the way we have come, we find the old road running off towards the Thames, in its angle is East Horndon Hall, the old manor or Abbots. There is reputed to have been a tunnel from the Hall to the church across the present Southend Road. East Horndon once had its own petrol station with a nightclub known as "Elliots", renamed Twilights in the mid 1980s; the club was opened during the early 1980s and closed in 1989. At the time of closure, everything was abandoned behind, including beer and equipment; the nightclub and petrol station still remain today, but they are derelict. The nightclub is a popular urban exploration hotspot but it is unsafe to enter; the southern portion of the traditional parish of East Horndon is now in the unitary authority of Thurrock. Two legends persist about the church.
One tells of Sir James Tyrell who died. It appears that he had been asked to kill a serpent-type animal which escaped from a ship in the Thames and roamed the woods round the manor of Herongate and the church, terrifying the people, he managed to slay it, chopping of its head. His son, looking for him, trod on a bone of the animal and, gangrene setting in, he lost his leg. There is a glass window at Heron depicting a one-legged man; the legend has been reworked in comic book form in London Falling. The second legend is that Queen Anne Boleyn's heart is buried there. West Horndon Friends of All Saints East Horndon website http://www.essexchurches.info - All Saints, East Horndon on Essex Churches website All Saints, East Horndon on Churches Conservation Trust website
Herongate is a village in south Essex, England. The village is situated on the A128 road between Brentwood and West Horndon The population of the village is listed in the civil parish of Herongate and Ingrave. Media related to Herongate at Wikimedia Commons
The Tudor period is the period between 1485 and 1603 in England and Wales and includes the Elizabethan period during the reign of Elizabeth I until 1603. The Tudor period coincides with the dynasty of the House of Tudor in England whose first monarch was Henry VII. In terms of the entire span, the historian John Guy argues that "England was economically healthier, more expansive, more optimistic under the Tudors" than at any time in a thousand years. Following the Black Death and the agricultural depression of the late 15th century, the population began to increase, it was less than 2 million in 1450, about 4 million in 1600. The growing population stimulated economic growth, accelerated the commercialisation of agriculture, increased the production and export of wool, encouraged trade, promoted the growth of London; the high wages and abundance of available land seen in the late 15th century and early 16th century were replaced with low wages and a land shortage. Various inflationary pressures due to an influx of New World gold and a rising population, set the stage for social upheaval with the gap between the rich and poor widening.
This was a period of significant change for the majority of the rural population, with manorial lords beginning the process of enclosure of village lands, open to everyone. The Reformation transformed English religion during the Tudor period; the four sovereigns, Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I, Elizabeth I had different approaches, with Henry replacing the pope as the head of the Church of England but maintaining Catholic doctrines, Edward imposing a strict Protestantism, Mary attempting to reinstate Catholicism, Elizabeth arriving at a compromising position that defined the not-quite-Protestant Church of England. It began with the insistent demands of Henry VIII for an annulment of his marriage that Pope Clement VII refused to grant. Historians agreed that the great theme of Tudor history was the Reformation, the transformation of England from Catholicism to Protestantism; the main events, constitutional changes, players at the national level have long been known, the major controversies about them resolved.
Historians until the late 20th century assumed that they knew what the causes were: on the one hand, a widespread dissatisfaction or disgust with the evils, corruptions and contradictions of the established religion, setting up an undertone of anti-clericalism that indicated a rightness for reform. A second, less powerful influence was the intellectual impact of certain English reformers, such as the long-term impact of John Wycliffe and his “Lollardy” reform movement, together with a stream of Reformation treatises and pamphlets from Martin Luther, John Calvin, other reformers on the continent; the interpretation by Geoffrey Elton in 1960 is representative of the orthodox interpretation. He argues that: The existing situation proved untenable because the laity feared and despised much about the Church, its officers, its courts and its wealth.... A poverty-stricken and ignorant lower clergy, wealthy bishops and abbots, a wide ramification of jurisdiction, a mixture of high claims and low deeds did not make for respect or love among the laity.
Social historians after 1960 began in-depth investigations of English religion at the local level, discovered the orthodox interpretation was quite mistaken. The Lollardy movement had expired, the pamphleteering of continental reformers hardly reached beyond a few scholars at the University of Cambridge—King Henry VIII had vigorously and publicly denounced Luther's heresies. More important, the Catholic Church was in a strong condition in 1500. England was devoutly Catholic, it was loyal to the pope, local parishes attracted strong local financial support, religious services were quite popular both at Sunday Mass and at family devotions. Complaints about the monasteries and the bishops were uncommon; the kings got along well with the popes and by the time Luther appeared on the scene, England was among the strongest supporters of orthodox Catholicism, seemed a most unlikely place for a religious revolution. Henry VII, founder of the House of Tudor, became King of England by defeating King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field, the culmination of the Wars of the Roses.
Henry engaged in a number of administrative and diplomatic initiatives. He paid close attention to detail and, instead of spending lavishly, concentrated on raising new revenues, his new taxes were unpopular, when Henry VIII succeeded him, he executed Henry VII's two most hated tax collectors. Henry VIII, energetic and headstrong, remains one of the most visible kings of England because of his six marriages, all designed to produce a male heir, his heavy retribution in executing many top officials and aristocrats. In foreign-policy, he focused on fighting France—with minimal success—and had to deal with Scotland and the Holy Roman Empire with military mobilisation or actual expensive warfare that led to high taxes; the chief military success came over Scotland. The main policy development was Henry's taking full control of the Church of England; this followed from his break from Rome, caused by the refusal of the Pope to annul his original marriage. Henry thereby introduced a mild variation of the Protestant Reformation.
There were two main aspects. First Henry rejected the Pope as the head of the Church in England, insisting that national sovereignty required the Absolute supremacy of the king. Henry worked with Parliament in passing a series of laws that implemented the break. Englishmen could no longer appeal to Rome. All the decisions were to be made in England, ultima
Lord Mayor of London
The Lord Mayor of London is the City of London's mayor and leader of the City of London Corporation. Within the City, the Lord Mayor is accorded precedence over all individuals except the sovereign and retains various traditional powers and privileges, including the title and style The Right Honourable the Lord Mayor of London; this office differs from the much more powerful Mayor of London, a popularly elected position and covers the much larger Greater London area. In 2006 the Corporation of London changed its name to the City of London Corporation, when the title Lord Mayor of the City of London was reintroduced to avoid confusion with the Mayor of London. However, the legal and used title remains Lord Mayor of London; the Lord Mayor is elected at Common Hall each year on Michaelmas, takes office on the Friday before the second Saturday in November, at The Silent Ceremony. The Lord Mayor's Show is held on the day after taking office. One of the world's oldest continuously elected civic offices, the Lord Mayor's main role nowadays is to represent and promote the businesses and residents in the City of London.
Today, these businesses are in the financial sector and the Lord Mayor is regarded as the champion of the entire UK-based financial sector regardless of ownership or location throughout the country. As leader of the Corporation of the City of London, the Lord Mayor serves as the key spokesman for the local authority and has important ceremonial and social responsibilities. All Lord Mayors of London are apolitical; the Lord Mayor of London delivers many hundreds of speeches and addresses per year, attends many receptions and other events in London and beyond. Many incumbents of the office make overseas visits while Lord Mayor of London; the Lord Mayor ex-officio Rector of London's City, University of London and Admiral of the Port of London, is assisted in day-to-day administration by the Mansion House'Esquires' and whose titles include the City Marshal, Sword Bearer and Common Crier. Peter Estlin is serving as the 691st Lord Mayor, for the 2018–19 period. Of the 69 cities in the United Kingdom, the City of London is among the 30.
The Lord Mayor is entitled to the style The Right Honourable. The style, however, is used; the latter prefix applies only to Privy Counsellors. A woman who holds the office is known as a Lord Mayor; the wife of a male Lord Mayor is styled as Lady Mayoress, but no equivalent title exists for the husband of a female Lord Mayor. A female Lord Mayor or an unmarried male Lord Mayor may appoint a female consort a fellow member of the corporation, to the role of Lady Mayoress. In speech, a Lord Mayor is referred to as "My Lord Mayor", a Lady Mayoress as "My Lady Mayoress", it was once customary for Lord Mayors to be appointed knights upon taking office and baronets upon retirement, unless they held such a title. This custom was followed with a few inconsistencies from the 16th until the 19th centuries. However, from 1964 onwards, the regular creation of hereditary titles such as baronetcies was phased out, so subsequent Lord Mayors were offered knighthoods. Since 1993, Lord Mayors have not automatically received any national honour upon appointment.
Furthermore, foreign Heads of State visiting the City of London on a UK State Visit, diplomatically bestow upon the Lord Mayor one of their suitable national honours. For example, in 2001, Sir David Howard was created a Grand Cordon of the Order of Independence of Jordan by King Abdullah II. Lord Mayors have been appointed at the beginning of their term of office Knights or Dames of St John, as a mark of respect, by HM The Queen, Sovereign Head of the Order of St John; the office of Mayor was instituted in 1189, the first holder of the office being Henry Fitz-Ailwin de Londonestone. The Mayor of the City of London has been elected by the City, rather than appointed by the Sovereign since a Royal Charter providing for a Mayor was issued by King John in 1215; the title "Lord Mayor" came to be used after 1354, when it was granted to Thomas Legge by King Edward III. Lord Mayors are elected for one-year terms. Numerous individuals have served multiple terms in office, including: As Mayor: 24 terms: Henry Fitz-Ailwin de Londonestone 9 terms: Ralph de Sandwich 8 terms: Gregory de Rokesley 7 terms: Andrew Buckerel.
Grafton is a village in Worcestershire, England. Grafton Wood is an ancient wood part of the Forest of Feckenham, is now jointly owned by the Worcestershire Wildlife Trust and Butterfly Conservation. In October 2014 the two organisations bought Laight Rough, a seven-acre of ancient woodland, adjoining Grafton Wood. Grafton Wood is the centre of the only colony of the brown hairstreak butterflies in the Midlands. Laight Rough is important for other butterflies such as white admiral, white-letter hairstreak and the silver-washed fritillary. In 2009 the Bat Conservation Trust launched a detail study of 10 counties in England to determine the range of the Bechstein's bat and in 2010 a lactating female Bechstein's was discovered in Grafton Wood suggesting that there was a breeding colony in the wood or close by; the People's Trust for Endangered Species are funding further research work. In October 2014 it was reported that the scarce Brandt's bat has been found at the 300-year-old woodland
Dictionary of National Biography
The Dictionary of National Biography is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published since 1885. The updated Oxford Dictionary of National Biography was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes and online, with 50,113 biographical articles covering 54,922 lives. Hoping to emulate national biographical collections published elsewhere in Europe, such as the Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, in 1882 the publisher George Smith, of Smith, Elder & Co. planned a universal dictionary that would include biographical entries on individuals from world history. He approached Leslie Stephen editor of the Cornhill Magazine, owned by Smith, to become the editor. Stephen persuaded Smith that the work should focus only on subjects from the United Kingdom and its present and former colonies. An early working title was the Biographia Britannica, the name of an earlier eighteenth-century reference work; the first volume of the Dictionary of National Biography appeared on 1 January 1885.
In May 1891 Leslie Stephen resigned and Sidney Lee, Stephen's assistant editor from the beginning of the project, succeeded him as editor. A dedicated team of sub-editors and researchers worked under Stephen and Lee, combining a variety of talents from veteran journalists to young scholars who cut their academic teeth on dictionary articles at a time when postgraduate historical research in British universities was still in its infancy. While much of the dictionary was written in-house, the DNB relied on external contributors, who included several respected writers and scholars of the late nineteenth century. By 1900, more than 700 individuals had contributed to the work. Successive volumes appeared quarterly with complete punctuality until midsummer 1900, when the series closed with volume 63; the year of publication, the editor and the range of names in each volume is given below. Since the scope included only deceased figures, the DNB was soon extended by the issue of three supplementary volumes, covering subjects who had died between 1885 and 1900 or, overlooked in the original alphabetical sequence.
The supplements brought the whole work up to the death of Queen Victoria on 22 January 1901. Corrections were added. After issuing a volume of errata in 1904, the dictionary was reissued with minor revisions in 22 volumes in 1908 and 1909. In the words of the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, the dictionary had "proved of inestimable service in elucidating the private annals of the British", providing not only concise lives of the notable deceased, but additionally lists of sources which were invaluable to researchers in a period when few libraries or collections of manuscripts had published catalogues or indices, the production of indices to periodical literatures was just beginning. Throughout the twentieth century, further volumes were published for those who had died on a decade-by-decade basis, beginning in 1912 with a supplement edited by Lee covering those who died between 1901 and 1911; the dictionary was transferred from its original publishers, Elder & Co. to Oxford University Press in 1917.
Until 1996, Oxford University Press continued to add further supplements featuring articles on subjects who had died during the twentieth century. The supplements published between 1912 and 1996 added about 6,000 lives of people who died in the twentieth century to the 29,120 in the 63 volumes of the original DNB. In 1993 a volume containing missing biographies was published; this had an additional 1,000 lives, selected from over 100,000 suggestions. This did not seek to replace any articles on existing DNB subjects though the original work had been written from a Victorian perspective and had become out of date due to changes in historical assessments and discoveries of new information during the twentieth century; the dictionary was becoming less and less useful as a reference work. In 1966, the University of London published a volume of corrections, cumulated from the Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research. There were various versions of the Concise Dictionary of National Biography, which covered everyone in the main work but with much shorter articles.
The last edition, in three volumes, covered everyone who died before 1986. In the early 1990s Oxford University Press committed itself to overhauling the DNB. Work on what was known until 2001 as the New Dictionary of National Biography, or New DNB, began in 1992 under the editorship of Colin Matthew, professor of Modern History at the University of Oxford. Matthew decided that no subjects from the old dictionary would be excluded, however insignificant the subjects appeared to a late twentieth-century eye. Suggestions for new subjects were solicited through questionnaires placed in libraries and universities and, as the 1990s advanced and assessed by the editor, the 12 external consultant editors and several hundred associate editors and in-house staff. Digitization of the DNB was performed by the Alliance Photosetting Company in India; the new dictionary would cover British history, "broadly defined", up to 31 December 2000. The research project was conceived as a collaborative one, with in-house staff co-ordinating the work of