Brian Abel-Smith was a British economist and expert adviser and one of the most influential figures of the twentieth century in shaping health and social welfare. In Britain, his research for the Guillebaud committee in 1956 proved that the NHS provided good value for money and deserved more investment. From the 1960s he was one of a new breed of special advisers to Labour government ministers – helping Richard Crossman, Barbara Castle and David Ennals to reconfigure the NHS, set up Resource Allocation Working Party, the Black Inquiry into Health Inequalities. Internationally, he steered the development of health services in over 50 countries, he was a key WHO and EEC adviser, intimately involved in setting the agenda for global campaigns such as Health for All by the year 2000. Abel-Smith was born at 24 Kensington Court Gardens, the younger son of Brigadier-General Lionel Abel-Smith, his wife, Genevieve Lilac, née Walsh, his elder brother, Lionel Abel-Smith, inherited the title and estate of Lord of the Manor of Wendover, in Buckinghamshire.
They were distantly related to the royal family, friends wickedly introduced him as twenty-seventh in line to the crown. Abel-Smith was educated at Hordle House Preparatory School and Haileybury College, before entering the army for his National Service, he was commissioned in the Oxford and Buckinghamshire light infantry in 1946 and was ADC to Sir John Winterton, the military governor of the British zone in Austria during 1947–8. He entered Clare College, Cambridge in 1948, graduating with a II.i in Economics in 1951. He was an active member of the University Labour Club. Abel-Smith remained at Cambridge to study for a PhD under the supervision of the economist Joan Robinson. From 1953 he aligned his research to fit with his appointment as research assistant at the National Institute of Economic and Social Research to assist with the Guillebaud Enquiry on the cost of the National Health Service, his investigation, which demonstrated that the NHS was very good value for money and needed further investment, has been described as'a minor classic of modern social analysis'.
He was awarded a Cambridge PhD in 1955, in the same year Titmuss appointed him as an Assistant Lecturer in his department at the LSE. He was promoted to lecturer in 1957, reader in social administration in 1961, full professor in 1965, he retired in 1991, but returned to work part-time with Elias Mossialos to establish the LSE Health unit. Brian Abel-Smith's research interests in health and social welfare were underpinned by his commitment to socialism, he focused on the impact of the new post-war British welfare state, publishing regular articles and books in the academic and mainstream press to highlight persistent inequalities in health and social welfare that Beveridge's model had not adequately addressed. His first publication was for the Fabian Society in 1953: The Reform of Social Security, he collaborated with the sociologist Peter Townsend – who moved to work with Titmuss at the LSE in 1957 – on projects on poverty and social security. They conducted a major study using a new method of constructing a poverty line that demonstrated that poverty had increased in Britain in the 1950s.
Their 1965 book, The Poor and the Poorest, was used to launch the Child Poverty Action Group, which Abel-Smith remained involved with for the rest of his life. Another of Abel-Smith's key research interests was the development of health services. Following on from his work on the Guillebaud Report on the cost of the NHS, he was invited in 1958 to lead a multi-agency project for the World Health Organization on the costs of health care in six countries, he produced the first comparative classifications, which became the standard for reporting health care expenditure. Although his background was in economics, he was interested in the finance and management of health services, he gained first-hand experience of the British NHS through his appointment as a governor to a number of regional boards and London hospital management committees in the 1960s, including St Thomas' hospital. His ideas on health and social welfare financing reflected his engagement with leading international health economists and social policy theorists such as Wilbur Cohen, Ida Merriam, Milton Roemer and Dorothy Rice, he was invited into expert advisory groups.
He collaborated with Archie Cochrane in the early 1970s, resulting in his classic book Value for Money in the Health Services, which explored strategies for cost containment and efficiency. As his experience through advising developing countries increased, he moved away from his ideological commitment to state-funded services, embraced the concept of social insurance and, in the 1990s, the potential offered by user charges. While at Cambridge, Abel-Smith had been identified by Hugh Dalton as a potential future Labour MP, he began political campaigning, but when he was offered the nomination for Dalton's safe seat in 1957 he turned it down, worried that if his homosexuality were revealed that it would cause embarrassment for his family. Instead he played a key role in modernising the Fabian Society and served it for 31 years as executive committee member and vice-president. From the mid-1950s he served on various Labour Party working parties and committees, providing policy ideas on pensions and social security.
The Fabian pamphlet he had co-authored with Townsend, New Pension
Dame Harriet Mary Walter is an English stage and screen actress. Her film appearances include Sense and Sensibility, The Governess, Villa des Roses and Man Up. On television she starred as Natalie Chandler in the ITV drama series Law & Order: UK, as Lady Prudence Shackleton in four episodes of Downton Abbey, as Clementine Churchill in The Crown, she was appointed Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 2011 for services to drama. Walter began her career in 1974 and made her Broadway debut in 1983. For her work in various Royal Shakespeare Company productions, including Twelfth Night and Three Sisters, she won the 1988 Olivier Award for Best Actress in a Revival, her other notable work for the RSC includes leading roles in Antony and Cleopatra. She won the Evening Standard Award for Best Actress for her role as Elizabeth I in the 2005 London revival of Mary Stuart, received a Tony Award nomination for Best Actress in a Play when she reprised the role on Broadway in 2009, she reprised her roles of Brutus in Julius Caesar and the title role in Henry IV, as well as playing Prospero in The Tempest, as part of an all-female Shakespeare trilogy in 2016.
Walter was born in England. She is the niece of renowned British actor Sir Christopher Lee, being the daughter of his elder sister Xandra Lee. On her father's side, she is a great-great-great-granddaughter of founder of The Times, she was educated at the Cranborne Chase School. After turning down a university education, she was in turn rejected by five different drama schools before being admitted into the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art. Following her training she gained early experience with the Joint Stock Theatre Company, Paines Plough touring, the Duke's Playhouse, Lancaster, her partner, until his death in 2004, was actor Peter Blythe. On 21 May 2011 she married an American actor, she has worked many times throughout her career with the Royal Shakespeare Company, in productions including Nicholas Nickleby, A Midsummer Night's Dream, as Helena in All's Well That Ends Well, The Castle, Dasha in A Question of Geography, Viola in Twelfth Night, Masha in Three Sisters, The Duchess of Malfi and Much Ado about Nothing.
She returned to the RSC in 2015 to play Linda Loman in Death of a Salesman, directed by Gregory Doran. She was made an associate artist of the Royal Shakespeare Company in 1987, her other theatre work includes Three Birds Alighting on a Field, Hedda Gabler and Mary Stuart. In New York, she made her Broadway debut in 1983, when the RSC production of All's Well That Ends Well transferred there. In 1993 she starred as Biddy in the Off-Broadway production of Three Birds Alighting on a Field, for which she received a Drama Desk Award nomination, she returned to the Broadway stage in 2009 when she and Janet McTeer reprised their roles in Mary Stuart. In 2014 Walter starred as Brutus in an all-female production of Julius Caesar Off-Broadway and received her second Drama Desk nomination, her films include Sense and Sensibility and Hallways, The Governess, Villa des Roses and Bright Young Things. On television, in 1987, she portrayed Lord Peter Wimsey's love interest Harriet Vane for three instalments of the BBC's A Dorothy L. Sayers Mystery, played Detective Inspector Natalie Chandler from 2009–12 in the ITV drama series Law & Order: UK.
Other TV roles include Mrs. Gowan in the 2008 BBC adaptation of Little Dorrit and Lady Shackleton in three episodes of Downton Abbey. Series. In 2016, she played Clementine Churchill on the Netflix series The Crown, in 2017, appeared in two episodes of the BBC drama Call the Midwife as Sister Ursula, she is a patron of several notable charities. Walter played Brutus in Julius Caesar in 2012, the title role in Henry IV in 2014, in all-female productions at the Donmar Warehouse. Both productions transferred to Brooklyn's St. Ann's Warehouse in New York, she is set to reprise both roles, as well as playing Prospero in an all-female production of The Tempest, as part of director Phyllida Lloyd's Shakespeare trilogy at the Donmar's temporary, in-the-round, 420-seat theatre next to King's Cross station in 2016. She was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2000 New Year Honours and Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2011 New Year Honours for services to drama.
In 2001 she and Kenneth Branagh were both given honorary doctorates and honorary fellowships at the Shakespeare Institute in Stratford. Her performance in Mary Stuart at the Donmar Warehouse transferred to Broadway, where it was nominated for numerous Tony Awards, including Best Actress nods for her and her co-star Janet McTeer. 1981/82, Royal Shakespeare Company, Helena in All's Well That Ends Well 1987/88, Royal Shakespeare Company, Imogen in Cymbeline 1987/88, Royal Shakespeare Company, Viola in Twelfth Night 1987/88, Royal Shakespeare Company, Dacha in A Question of Geography 1988, Royal Shakespeare Company, Masha in Chekhov'sThree Sisters 1989/90, Royal Shakespeare Company, Duc
James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, was a British Labour politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1964 to 1970 and 1974 to 1976. Entering Parliament in 1945, Wilson was appointed a parliamentary secretary in the Attlee ministry and rose through the ministerial ranks. In opposition to the next Conservative government, he served as Shadow Chancellor and Shadow Foreign Secretary. Hugh Gaitskell Labour leader, died in 1963 and Wilson was elected leader. Narrowly winning the 1964 general election, Wilson won an increased majority in a snap 1966 election. Wilson's first period as Prime Minister coincided with a period of low unemployment and relative economic prosperity, though hindered by significant problems with Britain's external balance of payments. In 1969 he sent British troops to Northern Ireland. After losing the 1970 election to Edward Heath, he spent four years as Leader of the Opposition before the February 1974 election resulted in a hung parliament.
After Heath's talks with the Liberals broke down, Wilson returned to power as leader of a minority government until another general election in October, resulting in a narrow Labour victory. A period of economic crisis had begun to hit most Western countries, in 1976 Wilson announced his resignation as Prime Minister. Wilson's approach to socialism was moderate compared to others in his party at the time, emphasising programmes aimed at increasing opportunity in society, rather than on the controversial socialist goal of promoting wider public ownership of industry. Himself a member of the party's "soft left", Wilson joked about leading a cabinet made up of social democrats, comparing himself to a Bolshevik revolutionary presiding over a Tsarist cabinet, but there was arguably little to divide him ideologically from the cabinet majority. Overall, Wilson is seen to have managed a number of difficult political issues with considerable tactical skill, including such divisive issues for his party as the role of public ownership, membership of the European Community, the Vietnam War.
His stated ambition of improving Britain's long-term economic performance was left unfulfilled. He lost his energy and drive in his second premiership, accomplished little as the leadership split over Europe and trade union issues began tearing Labour apart. Wilson was born at 4 Warneford Road, Huddersfield, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, on 11 March 1916, he came from a political family: his father James Herbert Wilson was a works chemist, active in the Liberal Party, going as far as to be Winston Churchill's deputy election agent in his 1908 by election before joining the Labour Party. His mother Ethel was a schoolteacher before her marriage; when Wilson was eight, he visited London and a much-reproduced photograph was taken of him standing on the doorstep of 10 Downing Street. At the age of ten he went with his family to Australia, where he became fascinated with the pomp and glamour of politics. On the way home he told his mother, "I am going to be Prime Minister." Wilson won a scholarship to attend Royds Hall Grammar School, his local grammar school in Huddersfield in Yorkshire.
His father, working as an industrial chemist, was made redundant in December 1930, it took him nearly two years to find work. Wilson was educated in the Sixth Form at the Wirral Grammar School for Boys, where he became Head Boy. Wilson did well at school and, although he missed getting a scholarship, he obtained an exhibition. At Oxford, Wilson was moderately active in politics as a member of the Liberal Party but was influenced by G. D. H. Cole, his politics tutor, R. B. McCallum, considered Wilson as the best student he had, he graduated in PPE with "an outstanding first class Bachelor of Arts degree, with alphas on every paper" in the final examinations, a series of major academic awards. Biographer Roy Jenkins wrote: Academically his results put him among prime ministers in the category of Peel, Asquith, no one else. But...he lacked originality. What he was superb at was the quick assimilation of knowledge, combined with an ability to keep it ordered in his mind and to present it lucidly in a form welcome to his examiners.
He continued in academia, becoming one of the youngest Oxford dons of the century at the age of 21. He was a lecturer in Economic History at New College from 1937, a research fellow at University College. On New Year's Day 1940, in the chapel of Mansfield College, Oxford, he married Mary Baldwin who remained his wife until his death. Mary Wilson became a published poet, they had two sons and Giles. In their twenties, his sons were under a kidnap threat from the IRA because of their father's prominence. On the outbreak of the Second World War, Wilson volunteered for military service but was classed as a specialist and moved into the civil service instead. For much of
University technical college
A university technical college is a type of secondary school in England, led by a sponsor university. The university supports the curriculum development of the UTC, provides professional development opportunities for teachers, guides suitably qualified students to foundation degrees and full degrees; the sponsor university appoints key members of staff. The first UTCs were established in 2010. UTCs were introduced in 2010 by the coalition government under the free schools programme, they are funded by the taxpayer, non-selective, free to attend and not controlled by a local authority. While this is true of most academies and free schools, UTCs are collectively distinctive in a number of ways. UTCs all have a university as a lead sponsor. Further education colleges, charitable organisations and the private sector may co-sponsor a UTC, however they must be led by a university. Like studio schools, University Technical Colleges enroll students aged 14–19, whereas free schools and academies can choose the age range of their pupils.
Existing schools cannot convert to become a UTC. However, the most distinctive element of UTCs is that they offer technically oriented courses of study, combining National Curriculum requirements with technical and vocational elements. UTCs must specialise in subjects that require technical and modern equipment, but they all teach business skills and the use of information and communications technology. UTCs are supposed to offer clear routes into higher education or further learning in work; the university technical college programme as a whole is sponsored by the Baker Dearing Educational Trust, established by Lord Baker. Baker Dearing's promotion of UTCs is supported by the Edge Foundation, the Gatsby Charitable Foundation and the Garfield Weston Foundation. Many large companies have pledged to co-sponsor UTCs including Arup, British Airways, Jaguar Land Rover and Sony. In 2017, 48 colleges were open; the establishment of university technical colleges has been criticised by some teaching unions, who claim they will cause further fragmentation of local provision of education for 16- to 19-year-olds.
Others have argued that because they offer similar programmes of study, UTCs will divert funds away from further education colleges. The age intake range of UTCs have been criticised, with unions arguing that 14 is too early an age for most children to receive such a specialised education, it has been suggested that the technical and vocational aspects of UTCs will create a two-tier education system, with UTCs being less well regarded than more academically orientated schools. By February 2017, eight UTCs had closed or converted to other school types owing to low pupil numbers. Michael Gove, who as Education minister was a driving force behind the UTC policy, wrote in 2017 that it "had not worked", owing to lack of academic rigour. Ofsted has been critical of UTCs: with the publication of the report on the Medway UTC, in May 2018, five of the 26 inspected had been placed in special measures. George Osborne told a hearing of the Education Select Committee on 2 May 2018 that the model of seeking to move children at the age of 14 has not worked.
In June and July 2018, three further UTC's were rated as "inadequate" by Ofsted – Derby Manufacturing UTC, UTC@Harbourside and Health Futures UTC. UTC@Harbourside announced that it would close at the end of the academic year 2018–2019, which would make it the ninth UTC to close. Burton and South Derbyshire UTC: project on hold as of September 2016 Doncaster UTC: opening September 2020 University Technical College Wigan will close in July 2019. UTC@Harbourside will close in July 2019. Academy City Technology College Free school Studio school University Technical Colleges
Dame Margaret Isabel Cole, DBE was an English socialist politician and poet. She wrote several detective stories in conjunction with G. D. H. Cole, she went on to hold important posts in London government in the period after the Second World War. Daughter of John Percival Postgate and Edith Postgate, Margaret was educated at Roedean School and Girton College, Cambridge. While at Girton, through her reading of H. G. Wells, George Bernard Shaw and others, she came to question the Anglicanism of her upbringing and to embrace socialism after reading notable books on the subject. Upon completing her course, Margaret became a classics teacher at St Paul's Girls' School, her poem The Falling Leaves, a response to the First World War, on the OCR English Literature syllabus at GCSE, shows the influence of Latin poetry in its use of long and short syllables to create mimetic effects. During World War I, her brother Raymond Postgate sought exemption from military service as a socialist conscientious objector, but was denied recognition and jailed for refusing military orders.
Her support for her brother led her to a belief in pacifism. During her subsequent campaign against conscription, she met G. D. H. Cole, whom she married in a registry office in August 1918; the couple worked together for the Fabian Society before moving to Oxford in 1924, where they both taught and wrote. In the early 1930s, Margaret abandoned her pacifism in reaction to the suppression of socialist movements by the governments in Germany and Austria and to the events of the Spanish Civil War. In 1941, Margaret Cole was co-opted onto the Education Committee of the London County Council, on the nomination of Herbert Morrison, became a champion of comprehensive education, she was an alderman on London County Council from 1952 until the Council's abolition in 1965. She was a member of the Inner London Education Authority from its creation in 1965 until her retirement from public life in 1967. Harold Wilson had given her an OBE in 1965 and she became a Dame when she was awarded a DBE in 1970, she wrote several books including a biography of her husband.
Margaret's brother Raymond was a labour historian and novelist. Margaret and her husband jointly authored many mystery novels. Margaret and her husband created a partnership, but not a marriage, her husband took little interest in sex and he regarded women as a distraction for men. Cole documented this comprehensively in a biography she wrote of her husband after his death. G. D. H. and M. I. Cole The Death of a Millionaire G. D. H. and M. I. Cole The Blatchington Tangle G. D. H. and M. I. Cole The Murder at Crome House G. D. H. and M. I. Cole The Man from the River G. D. H. and M. I. Cole Superintendent Wilson's Holiday G. D. H. and M. I. Cole Poison in the Garden Suburb aka Poison in a Garden Suburb G. D. H. and M. I. Cole Burglars in Bucks aka The Berkshire Mystery G. D. H. and M. I. Cole Corpse in Canonicalsaka The Corpse in the Constable's Garden G. D. H. and M. I. Cole The Great Southern Mystery aka The Walking Corpse G. D. H. and M. I. Cole Dead Man's Watch G. D. H. and M. I. Cole Death of a Star G. D. H. and M. I. Cole A Lesson in Crime G. D. H. and M. I. Cole The Affair at Aliquid G. D. H. and M. I. Cole End of an Ancient Mariner G. D. H. and M. I. Cole Death in the Quarry G. D. H. and M. I. Cole Big Business Murder G. D. H. and M. I. Cole Dr Tancred Begins G. D. H. and M. I. Cole Scandal at School aka The Sleeping Death G. D. H. and M. I. Cole Last Will and Testament G. D. H. and M. I. Cole The Brothers Sackville G. D. H. and M. I. Cole Disgrace to the College G. D. H. and M. I. Cole The Missing Aunt G. D. H. and M. I. Cole Mrs Warrender's Profession G. D. H. and M. I. Cole Off with her Head!
G. D. H. and M. I. Cole Double Blackmail G. D. H. and M. I. Cole Greek Tragedy G. D. H. and M. I. Cole Wilson and Some Others G. D. H. and M. I. Cole Murder at the Munition Works G. D. H. and M. I. Cole Counterpoint Murder G. D. H. and M. I. Cole Knife in the Dark G. D. H. and M. I. Cole Toper's End G. D. H. and M. I. Cole Death of a Bride G. D. H. and M. I. Cole Birthday Gifts G. D. H. and M. I. Cole The Toys of Death Margaret Cole Growing up into Revolution M. I. Cole The Life of G. D. H. Cole. UK National Archives
Labour Party (UK)
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom, described as an alliance of social democrats, democratic socialists and trade unionists. The party's platform emphasises greater state intervention, social justice and strengthening workers' rights; the Labour Party was founded in 1900, having grown out of the trade union movement and socialist parties of the nineteenth century. It overtook the Liberal Party to become the main opposition to the Conservative Party in the early 1920s, forming two minority governments under Ramsay MacDonald in the 1920s and early 1930s. Labour served in the wartime coalition of 1940-1945, after which Clement Attlee's Labour government established the National Health Service and expanded the welfare state from 1945 to 1951. Under Harold Wilson and James Callaghan, Labour again governed from 1964 to 1970 and 1974 to 1979. In the 1990s Tony Blair took Labour closer to the centre as part of his "New Labour" project, which governed the UK under Blair and Gordon Brown from 1997 to 2010.
After Corbyn took over in 2015, the party has moved leftward. Labour is the Official Opposition in the Parliament of the United Kingdom, having won the second-largest number of seats in the 2017 general election; the Labour Party is the largest party in the Welsh Assembly, forming the main party in the current Welsh government. The party is the third largest in the Scottish Parliament. Labour is a member of the Party of European Socialists and Progressive Alliance, holds observer status in the Socialist International, sits with the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats in the European Parliament; the party includes semi-autonomous Scottish and Welsh branches and supports the Social Democratic and Labour Party in Northern Ireland. As of 2017, Labour had the largest membership of any party in Western Europe; the Labour Party originated in the late 19th century, meeting the demand for a new political party to represent the interests and needs of the urban working class, a demographic which had increased in number, many of whom only gained suffrage with the passage of the Representation of the People Act 1884.
Some members of the trades union movement became interested in moving into the political field, after further extensions of the voting franchise in 1867 and 1885, the Liberal Party endorsed some trade-union sponsored candidates. The first Lib–Lab candidate to stand was George Odger in the Southwark by-election of 1870. In addition, several small socialist groups had formed around this time, with the intention of linking the movement to political policies. Among these were the Independent Labour Party, the intellectual and middle-class Fabian Society, the Marxist Social Democratic Federation and the Scottish Labour Party. At the 1895 general election, the Independent Labour Party put up 28 candidates but won only 44,325 votes. Keir Hardie, the leader of the party, believed that to obtain success in parliamentary elections, it would be necessary to join with other left-wing groups. Hardie's roots as a lay preacher contributed to an ethos in the party which led to the comment by 1950s General Secretary Morgan Phillips that "Socialism in Britain owed more to Methodism than Marx".
In 1899, a Doncaster member of the Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants, Thomas R. Steels, proposed in his union branch that the Trade Union Congress call a special conference to bring together all left-wing organisations and form them into a single body that would sponsor Parliamentary candidates; the motion was passed at all stages by the TUC, the proposed conference was held at the Memorial Hall on Farringdon Street on 26 and 27 February 1900. The meeting was attended by a broad spectrum of working-class and left-wing organisations—trades unions represented about one third of the membership of the TUC delegates. After a debate, the 129 delegates passed Hardie's motion to establish "a distinct Labour group in Parliament, who shall have their own whips, agree upon their policy, which must embrace a readiness to cooperate with any party which for the time being may be engaged in promoting legislation in the direct interests of labour." This created an association called the Labour Representation Committee, meant to co-ordinate attempts to support MPs sponsored by trade unions and represent the working-class population.
It had no single leader, in the absence of one, the Independent Labour Party nominee Ramsay MacDonald was elected as Secretary. He had the difficult task of keeping the various strands of opinions in the LRC united; the October 1900 "Khaki election" came too soon for the new party to campaign effectively. Only 15 candidatures were sponsored. Support for the LRC was boosted by the 1901 Taff Vale Case, a dispute between strikers and a railway company that ended with the union being ordered to pay £23,000 damages for a strike; the judgement made strikes illegal since employers could recoup the cost of lost business from the unions. The apparent acquiescence of the Conservative Government of Arthur Balfour to industrial and business interests intensified support for the LRC against a government that appeared to have little concern for the industrial proletariat and its problems. In the 1906 election, the LRC won 29 seats—helped by a secret 1903 pact between Ramsay MacDonald and Liberal Chief Whip Herbert Gladstone that aimed to avoid splitting the opposition vote between Labour and Liberal candidates in the interest of removing the Conservatives from office.
In their first meeting after the election the group's Members of Parliament decided to adop
Cambridge (UK Parliament constituency)
Cambridge is a parliamentary constituency created in 1295 represented in the House of Commons of the U. K. Parliament, it has been represented since May 2015 by a member of the Labour Party. Cambridge returned two Members to Parliament from 1295 until 1885; these were townsmen who were involved in local government until many acquired government positions in the 18th century. Under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 representation was reduced to one member with effect from the 1885 general election. From 1910 to 1992, Cambridge was Conservative-won, save for 1945-1950 and 1966-1968 when it was Labour-won. Related extra representation 1603–1950Historically the city of Cambridge retained some electors and was the source of MPs to a second constituency, for Cambridge University, covering all successful alumni in its electorate; the university seat was created in 1603 as part of the scheme of University constituencies. Its MPs included Isaac Newton, William Pitt the Younger, Lord Palmerston, George Stokes, Richard Jebb, Archibald Hill before abolition in 1950.
In 1992 Cambridge was won by Labour's Anne Campbell. In 2005 it was taken by David Howarth of the Liberal Democrats, the first time the party including its two forerunner parties had taken the seat since the 1906 Liberal-progressive landslide. In 2015 Huppert was unseated by the Labour candidate Daniel Zeichner who took the seat with a thin majority of 599 votes; the 2015 result gave the seat the 7th-smallest majority of Labour's 232 seats by percentage of majority. Most recent results of other partiesIn 2015 three other parties candidates kept their deposits by winning more than 5% of the vote. In order of public preference these candidates stood for the Conservatives, Green Party and UKIP respectively. Turnout since 1918Turnout at general elections has ranged between 86.48% in 1950 to 60.6% in 2001. 1868-1918: The Municipal Borough of Cambridge, plus the village of Chesterton.1918-1983: The Municipal Borough of Cambridge. Under the Representation of the People Act 1918, the boundaries were expanded to align with those of the Municipal Borough, incorporating further parts of the former Urban District of Chesterton not included in the Parliamentary Borough to the north, the parish of Cambridge Without to the south.
The boundaries were further expanded for the 1950 General Election, under the Representation of the People Act 1948. 1983-2010: The City of Cambridge wards of Abbey, Castle, Cherry Hinton, East Chesterton, King's Hedges, Newnham, Petersfield and West Chesterton.2010-present: The City of Cambridge wards of Abbey, Castle, Cherry Hinton, East Chesterton, King’s Hedges, Newnham, Romsey and West Chesterton. The constituency covers the city of Cambridge, including areas such as Chesterton and Cherry Hinton, although one ward in the south of the city is in South Cambridgeshire constituency. From 1983 to 1997, both wards were in the now-abolished seat of South West Cambridgeshire, from 1997 to 2010 in South Cambridgeshire; the Boundary Commission for England submitted their final proposals in respect of the Sixth Periodic Review of Westminster Constituencies in September 2018. If these proposals are approved by Parliament they will reduce the total number of MPs from 650 to 600 and come into effect at the next UK general election, due to take place in May 2022 under the terms of the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011.
The Commission has recommended that the Queen Edith's ward be transferred back from South Cambridgeshire, resulting in the boundaries of the constituency being co-terminous with those of the City of Cambridge. Constituency created Election of William Forsyth declared void on petition, due to his holding an office of profit under the Crown. Resignation of Andrew Steuart. Previous election declared due to bribery and treating. By-election triggered by the appointment of Fitzroy Kelly as Solicitor-General of England and Wales By-election triggered by the resignation of Sir Alexander Cray Grant, Bt. by accepting the office of Steward of the Manor of Poynings Previous by-election declared void on petition due to bribery and treating by Manners-Sutton's agents. By-election triggered by the appointment of Thomas Spring Rice as Secretary of State for War and the Colonies. By-election triggered by the appointment of Thomas Spring Rice as Chancellor of the Exchequer. By-election triggered by the elevation to the peerage of Thomas Spring Rice as Lord Monteagle of Brandon.
By-election triggered by the death of Charles Madryl Cheere. By-election triggered by the appointment of the Marquess of Graham as Commander of the Board of Control. By-election triggered by the appointment of Frederick William Trench as Storekeeper of Ordnance. By-election triggered by the resignation of the Hon. Edward Finch. By-election triggered by the appointment of Robert Manners as First Equerry and Clerk Marshal of the Mews. By-election triggered by the simultaneous election of Francis Dickins for Northamptonshire, his decision to sit for that constituency instead of Cambridge. By-election triggered by the appointment of John Mortlock to office. By-election triggered by the appointment of James Whorwood Adeane to office. By-election triggered by the elevation to the peerage of Charles Sloane Cadogan. By-election triggered by the appointment of Charles Sloane Cadogan to office. By-election triggered by the appointment of Charles Sloane C