Pat Quinn (politician)
Patrick Joseph Quinn Jr. is an American lawyer and politician who served as the 41st Governor of Illinois, from 2009 to 2015. A Democrat, Quinn began his career as an activist by founding the Coalition for Political Honesty, he is working on Take Charge Chicago, a petition for referendums to limit the Mayor of Chicago to two four-year terms and create an elected Consumer Advocate in the city. Born in Chicago, Quinn is a graduate of Georgetown University and Northwestern University School of Law. Quinn began his career as a tax attorney in private practice before working as an aide to then-Illinois Governor Dan Walker, he was elected to one term as a commissioner on the Cook County Board of Tax Appeals, serving from 1982 to 1986. Quinn served as Treasurer of Illinois from 1991 to 1995. In Illinois' 2002 gubernatorial election, Quinn won the Democratic nomination for Lieutenant Governor of Illinois in the primary and was paired with then-U. S. Representative Rod Blagojevich in the general election.
He was sworn into office as Lieutenant Governor in 2003. Quinn assumed the governorship on January 29, 2009, after Governor Blagojevich was impeached and removed from office on corruption charges. Quinn was narrowly elected to a full term in office in 2010, defeating Republican State Senator Bill Brady by a margin of less than 1% out of about 3.5 million votes cast. Quinn was defeated in 2014 by Republican candidate Bruce Rauner. Quinn unsuccessfully ran for Attorney General of Illinois in 2018. Quinn was born in 1948 in Chicago, his family moved to the suburb of Hinsdale, when he was a child. The son of Eileen, a school secretary, Patrick Joseph Quinn, Sr. a public relations official for the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chicago. His grandparents were Irish, he was reared a Roman Catholic and attended the local Roman Catholic elementary school, St. Isaac Jogues, he graduated in 1967 from a Roman Catholic school in Oak Park, Illinois. Quinn went on to graduate from Georgetown University in 1971 with a bachelor's degree from the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service, where he was a student of Professor Jan Karski and a sports editor for The Hoya.
After taking a few years off from education, he earned a Juris Doctor degree from Northwestern University School of Law in 1980. In 1982, Quinn married Julie Ann Hancock; the marriage produced Davey Quinn and Patrick Quinn IV, before the couple's 1986 divorce. Before running for public office, Quinn was involved in political action, serving as an aide to Governor Daniel Walker, he was first put on the political map in the late 1970s by leading a petition to amend the 1970 Illinois Constitution with the "Illinois Initiative". This amendment was intended to increase the power of public referendums in the political process and recalls for public officials; the petition drive was successful, but the Illinois Supreme Court ruled that the Illinois Initiative was an "unconstitutional constitutional amendment," and thus never was presented to voters. Quinn drew more attention to his causes by holding press conferences on Sundays, seen as a slow news day. While still in law school, Quinn scored his first political success in 1980, earning a reputation as a reformer on the Illinois political scene.
Through his organization, "The Coalition for Political Honesty," he initiated and led the statewide campaign for the Cutback Amendment to the Illinois Constitution reducing the size of the Illinois House of Representatives from 177 to 118 members. In 1982, Quinn was elected as commissioner of the Cook County Board of Tax Appeals, now known as the Board of Review. During this time, Quinn was instrumental in the creation of the "Citizens Utility Board", a consumer watchdog organization, he did not seek re-election in 1986, but waged an unsuccessful campaign for the Democratic nomination for Illinois State Treasurer, won by Jerome Cosentino. After this defeat, Quinn served in the administration of Chicago Mayor Harold Washington as Revenue Director. Quinn's bid for office was successful in the 1990 election defeating Peg McDonnell Breslin in the Democratic primary and Greg Baise in the general election, he was elected Illinois State Treasurer and served in that position from 1991 to 1995. During this period, he was publicly critical of Illinois Secretary of State and future Governor, George Ryan.
He drew attention to special vanity license plates that Ryan's office provided for clout-heavy motorists. This rivalry led Quinn to challenge Republican George Ryan in the 1994 general election for secretary of state, unsuccessfully. Quinn took his aspirations to the national stage; when United States Senator Paul Simon chose not to seek re-election in 1996, Quinn entered the race. However Dick Durbin won the Democratic primary and the Senate seat. Quinn sought the Democratic nomination for lieutenant governor in 1998, but was narrowly defeated by Mary Lou Kearns. Quinn did not accept the count and charged fraud, but several weeks after the election he declined to ask the Illinois Supreme Court for a recount and endorsed Kearns. In 1998, Quinn protested an increase in state legislators' salaries by urging citizens to send tea bags to the Governor, Jim Edgar; the tactic was a reference to the Boston Tea Party. As lieutenant governor, he repeated the tactic in 2006, urging consumers to include a tea bag when paying their electricity bills, to protest rate hikes by Commonwealth Edison.
Quinn won the Democratic nomination for lieutenant governor in March 2002, subsequently won the general election on the D
Crain's Chicago Business
Crain's Chicago Business is a weekly business newspaper in Chicago. It is owned by Detroit-based Crain Communications, a held publishing company with more than 30 magazines, including Advertising Age, Modern Healthcare, Crain's New York Business, Crain's Detroit Business, Crain's Cleveland Business, Automotive News, it has a readership of 219,693 per week. ChicagoBusiness.com, the paper's digital equivalent, draws over 1 million unique visitors per month and over 2.2 million page views per month. The first issue of Crain's Chicago Business is dated April 17, 1978. In 1977, when Crain Communications chief Rance Crain went to Houston to give a speech to the Houston Advertising Club, he spent an afternoon listening to the publisher of the Houston Business Journal explain how his publication was developed. "I figured if a business publication worked well in Houston, it would be twice as successful in Chicago," Rance Crain said. Rance Crain was the newspaper's first editor-in-chief, while Art Mertz, a longtime sales manager at Crain Communications' Advertising Age magazine, served as the first publisher.
Rance tapped Steve Yahn, a senior editor at Advertising Age, to develop the prototype, do the initial hiring, get the paper going acting as the paper's first editor. "We wanted to call it Chicago Business, but another guy came out with a paper with a similar name," Yahn said. "I told Rance he ought to put the Crain name on our publication to differentiate them, he did."Crain's was planned to publish every other week, but with the demise of the Chicago Daily News that year, those creating Crain's decided to make it a weekly publication, using the end of the Daily News for marketing purposes and drawing on editorial talent from the failed paper. The first newsstand issue of Crain’s Chicago Business appeared on Monday, June 5, 1978, a 46-page edition with an exclusive lead story on how the Marshall Field & Co. department store chain was planning further suburban expansion. To promote the new paper, Rance handed out free issues to commuters at Union Station during the morning rush hour. “While I was passing out copies, a newsstand vendor in the station came up to me,” Rance recalled.
“He said, ‘I sure hope you don’t have much of your own money tied up in this, because it’s not going to work.’”The Chicago business community greeted the new journal with cynicism. “We would be working on stories and call sources, saying we were with Crain’s Chicago Business,” said Sandy Pesmen, feature editor at Crain's and former feature writer at the Daily News. “They would say ‘Who? What? The people who make the toilets?’ Some thought we were the plumbing manufacturer. Pretty soon, we were introducing ourselves by saying, “Hello, this is so-and-so from C-R-A-I-N’s Chicago Business.”One of Crain's’s biggest assets from the beginning was its physical appearance. “The first major sign of encouragement we got was for our lively, contemporary look,” Steve Yahn said. "A lot of people said. And, the intent — Crain's was meant to be a ‘hybrid’ between a city publication and a financial publication.”From the start, it strove to build its reputation with enterprise reporting. “Rance loves scoops,” former Crain's editor Dan Miller said.
“And the ‘scoops mentality’ became ingrained in the culture of the new reporters we brought in.” However, one of those early scoops caused a firestorm that threatened to damage the new paper’s reputation. In late July, Crain's learned through sources in the Chicago advertising community that Sears, Roebuck & Co. planned to drastically curtail its advertising. The banner story on August 7, with the headline “Sears slashes TV, print ad budgets,” stated that cuts could reach the $100 million mark; the giant retailer angrily denied the report. “They called it preposterous,” Yahn said. “As a result, we suffered credibility problems around town. From early August until mid-October, we kept trying to find a way to get it back.” Came the break that stunningly and permanently reversed Crain's fortunes. “A young Sears public relations man named Wiley Brooks came to see Rance on a job interview,” Yahn said. “He wanted to be CCB managing editor. Brooks told Rance that our earlier article about Sears's ad cuts was true, that he had the proof, that there was to be a massive reorganization of the company.”
Brooks's proof was a voluminous, secret five-year plan referred to informally at Sears as the “Yellow Book.” Brooks proceeded to leak the plan to Crain's in three sections. “Each one cost Crain’s a lunch at Nick’s Fishmarket,” Yahn said. “I still remember sprinting through the downtown streets with the first part of the book in a manila folder. Our whole reputation for accuracy was on the line.”In a bylined piece by Yahn, Crain’s broke the story of Sears's secret plan on December 4 with a detailed 10-page package that included charts and numerous sidebars drawn from the plan. “It made our reputation,” Yahn said. "TV picked up on it in a big way on the weekend. And on Monday, copies were gone by 9 A. M. and newsstands were calling for replacements. We were interviewed by BBC and covered by Business Week, Business Week was after us for original documents. Sears did not respond.”Crain's continued to go after exclusives aggressively. “Our idea was to scoop the dailies, to print news people hadn’t seen before,” Rance said.
"We pursued middle-sized companies. We got great publicity for the Sears story.
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
Eunice Kennedy Shriver
Eunice Mary Kennedy Shriver, DSG was a member of the Kennedy family. She was a sister of Ted Kennedy, her husband, Sargent Shriver, was the United States Ambassador to France during the Lyndon B. Johnson presidency. In 1962, Shriver founded Camp Shriver, which started on her Maryland farm known as Timberlawn, evolved into Special Olympics in 1968. Eunice Mary Kennedy was born in Massachusetts, she was the fifth of nine children of Sr. and Rose Fitzgerald. Shriver was educated at the Convent of The Sacred Heart, London and at Manhattanville College in Upper Manhattan. After graduating from Stanford University with a Bachelor of Science degree in sociology in 1943, she worked for the Special War Problems Division of the U. S. State Department, she moved to the U. S. Justice Department as executive secretary for a project dealing with juvenile delinquency, she served as a social worker at the Federal Industrial Institution for Women for one year before moving to Chicago in 1951 to work with the House of the Good Shepherd women's shelter and the Chicago Juvenile Court.
In 1969, Shriver pursued her interest in intellectual disability there. She started organizing small activities with Paris organizations reaching out to families of kids who had special needs to provide activities for them, laying the foundation for a robust international expansion of the Special Olympics in the late'70s and'80s. Shriver campaigned for her elder brother, during his successful 1960 U. S. presidential election. In 1968, she helped Anne McGlone Burke nationalize the Special Olympics movement and is the only woman to have her portrait appear, during her lifetime, on a U. S. coin – the 1995 commemorative Special Olympics silver dollar. Although Shriver was a Democrat, she was a vocal supporter of the pro-life movement. In 1990, Shriver wrote a letter to The New York Times denouncing the misuse of a quotation by President Kennedy used out of context by a pro-choice group. During Bill Clinton's 1992 Democratic U. S. presidential campaign, she was one of several prominent Democrats – including Governor Robert P.
Casey of Pennsylvania, Bishop Austin Vaughan of New York – who signed a letter to The New York Times protesting the Democratic Party's pro-choice plank in its platform. Shriver was a supporter of several pro-life organizations: Feminists for Life of America, the Susan B. Anthony List, Democrats for Life of America. A lifelong Democrat, Shriver supported her Republican son-in-law Arnold Schwarzenegger's successful 2003 Governor of California election. On January 28, 2008, Shriver was present at American University in Washington, D. C. when her brother, U. S. Senator Edward M. Kennedy, announced his endorsement of Barack Obama's 2008 Democratic U. S. presidential campaign. A longtime advocate for children's health and disability issues, Shriver was a key founder of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, a part of the National Institutes of Health in 1962, she has helped to establish numerous other university programs, government initiatives, health-care facilities, support service networks throughout the country.
In 1961, she championed the creation of the President's Panel on Mental Retardation, significant in the movement from institutionalization to community integration in the US and throughout the world, a major public policy challenge. In 1982, Shriver founded the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Center for Community of Caring at University of Utah, Salt Lake City; the Community is a "grades K-12, whole school, comprehensive character education program with a focus on disabilities... adopted by 1,200 schools nationwide and in Canada."She was awarded the nation's highest civilian award, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, in 1984 by U. S. President Ronald Reagan, because of her work on behalf of those with intellectual disability. In 1990 Shriver was awarded the Eagle Award from the United States Sports Academy; the Eagle Award is the Academy's highest international honor and was awarded to Shriver for her significant contributions to international sport. In 1992, Shriver received the Award for Greatest Public Service Benefiting the Disadvantaged, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards.
For her work in nationalizing the Special Olympics, Shriver received the Civitan International World Citizenship Award. Her advocacy on this issue has earned her other awards and recognitions, including honorary degrees from numerous universities, she is the second only woman to appear on a US coin while still living. Her portrait is on the obverse of the 1995 commemorative silver dollar honoring the Special Olympics. On the reverse is the quotation, "As we hope for the best in them, hope is reborn in us." In 1998, Shriver was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame. Shriver received the 2002 Theodore Roosevelt Award, an annual award given by the National Collegiate Athletic Association to a graduate from an NCAA member institution who earned a varsity letter in college for participation in intercollegiate athletics, who became a distinguished citizen of national reputation based on outstanding life accomplishment. In addition to the Teddy recognition, she was selected in 2006 as part of the NCAA Centennial celebration as one of the 100 most-influential individuals in its first century.
In 2006, she received a papal knighthood from Pope Benedict XVI, being made a Dame of the Order of St. Gregory the Great, her mother had been created a papal countess in 1950 by Pope Pius XII. In 2008, the U. S. Congress changed the NICHD's name to the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Hea
United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois
The United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois is the federal trial-level court with jurisdiction over the northern counties of Illinois. Appeals from the Northern District of Illinois are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit; the court is divided into two geographical divisions: The eastern division includes Cook, DuPage, Kane, Kendall, La Salle and Will counties. Its sessions are held in Wheaton; the western division includes Boone, Carroll, De Kalb, Jo Daviess, Lee, McHenry, Stephenson and Winnebago. Its sessions are held in Rockford; the United States District Court for the District of Illinois was established by a statute passed by the United States Congress on March 3, 1819, 3 Stat. 502. The act established a single office for a judge to preside over the court; the court was not within any existing judicial circuit, appeals from the court were taken directly to the United States Supreme Court. In 1837, Congress created the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit, placing it in Chicago and giving it jurisdiction over the District of Illinois, 5 Stat.
176. The Northern District itself was created by a statute passed on February 1855, 10 Stat. 606, which subdivided the District of Illinois into the Northern and the Southern Districts. The boundaries of the District and the seats of the courts were set forth in the statute: The counties of Hancock, McDonough, Woodford and Iroquois, all the counties in the said State north of them, shall compose one district, to be called the northern district of Illinois, courts shall be held for the said district at the city of Chicago; the district has since been re-organized several times. The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Illinois was created on March 3, 1905 by 33 Stat. 992, by splitting counties out of the Northern and Southern Districts. It was eliminated in a reorganization on October 2, 1978 which replaced it with a Central District, 92 Stat. 883, formed from parts of the Southern District, returning some counties to the Northern District. The Illinois Northern District, which contains the entire Chicago metropolitan area, accounts for 1531 of the 1828 public corruption convictions in Illinois between 1976 and 2012 84%, making it the federal district with the most public corruption convictions in the nation between 1976 and 2012.
As of November 19, 2014 Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their district court. Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the district court judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, have not served as chief judge. A vacancy is filled by the judge highest in seniority among the group of qualified judges; the chief judge serves until age 70, whichever occurs first. The age restrictions are waived if no members of the court would otherwise be qualified for the position; when the office was created in 1948, the chief judge was the longest-serving judge who had not elected to retire on what has since 1958 been known as senior status or declined to serve as chief judge. After August 6, 1959, judges could not remain chief after turning 70 years old; the current rules have been in operation since October 1, 1982. The United States Attorney's Office for the Northern District of Illinois represents the United States in civil and criminal litigation in the court.
The current United States Attorney is John R. Lausch Jr. since November 22, 2017. Courts of Illinois List of United States federal courthouses in Illinois United States District Court for the Southern District of Illinois Official website United States Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois Official Website Office of Special Counsel, Northern District of Illinois
Edward M. Burke
Edward M. "Ed" Burke is alderman of the 14th Ward of the City of Chicago. A member of the Democratic Party, he was first elected to the Chicago City Council in 1969, represents part of the city's Southwest Side. Chair of Council's Committee on Finance, Burke has been called Chicago's "most powerful alderman" by the Chicago Sun-Times. Burke was named one of the "100 Most Powerful Chicagoans" by Chicago Magazine, describing him as "ne of the last of the old-school Chicago Machine pols."Burke is the longest-serving alderman in Chicago history. He was a leader of the "Vrdolyak 29" during the first term of Mayor Harold Washington, the "Council Wars" era. Burke and his staff were the subjects of federal and local investigations, members of his staff were the targets of indictments and convictions involving payroll and contracting irregularities. Burke is the lead partner in a law firm. On November 29, 2018, Burke's office at Chicago City Hall and his Aldermanic ward office were seized by federal agents, who ejected staff and papered over the doors and windows.
On January 3, 2019, Burke was charged with attempted extortion for using his political office to drive business for his law firm. Burke's wife is Illinois Supreme Court Justice Anne M. Burke, he and his wife were foster parents and were party to a protracted publicized, racially charged child custody dispute. Burke is a lifelong resident of Chicago, his father, Joseph P. Burke, was a Cook County Sheriff's policeman. Joseph Burke served as committeeman from the 14th Ward, was elected alderman from the 14th Ward in November 1953. Ed Burke attended Visitation Grammar School in Visitation Parish on Chicago's South Side and is a 1961 graduate of Quigley Preparatory Seminary, he graduated with a bachelor's degree from DePaul University in 1965 worked for three years as a Chicago police officer, assigned to the state's attorney's office. Meanwhile, he studied law at DePaul University College of Law. In 1968, Burke received a Juris Doctor degree, was admitted to the Illinois Bar, married his wife, Anne Marie.
While in law school in the late 1960s, an era of escalation in the Vietnam War, Burke received a draft deferment as a full-time student. After his marriage and the death of his father, he applied for and was granted a hardship deferment, as the sole support of his wife and two younger brothers. In June 1969, the Illinois Selective Service board of appeals reclassified him 1-A. At the same time, he was accepted into a Chicago-based United States Army Reserve unit, the 363rd civil affairs group, as a private. Political rivals expressed concern that special consideration allowed Burke to join the Reserve unit ahead of others, but an Army investigation found no evidence of manipulation in his favor. Burke succeeded his father in local politics, first as Democratic Committeeman and as alderman from the 14th Ward. After the elder Burke died in office of cancer on May 11, 1968, Edward Burke took leave from his job as a policeman to replace his father as Democratic committeeman for the 14th Ward. Though not a precinct captain, Burke won election to his father's committeeman seat in a secret vote of 65 precinct captains, defeating a veteran precinct captain by just 3½ votes.
At 24, Burke was the youngest person in Chicago's history to become a ward committeeman, a position he has held since. The 14th Ward Democrats slated the young Burke as the Democratic candidate in a special election called for on March 11, 1969, to fill vacancies in City Council, including the 14th Ward. Burke faced six opponents, but won with a majority of 11,204 votes, while the next highest candidate received 1460 votes, he was sworn in by Mayor Daley on March 14. Following the 1971 aldermanic elections, the Council approved the appointment of Burke, at the time a police sergeant on leave, as chairman of the Police and Fire Committee. In 1972 and 1973, Burke joined Alderman Edward Vrdolyak in a dissident caucus of aldermen demanding a greater voice in city affairs from Mayor Richard J. Daley and finance committee chairman Thomas Keane; the dissident aldermen were labelled the "Young Turks," and their caucus was called the "coffee rebellion" after the beverage served at their morning meetings.
In the backroom of the City Council chamber, Burke once threatened to punch Alderman Leon Despres in the nose if Despres were not so old. Former city commissioner of consumer affairs Jane Byrne announced her challenge to Chicago Mayor Michael Bilandic on April 24, 1978, describing herself as an alternative to a "cabal of evil men has fastened onto the government of the City of Chicago," and, when pressed to name them, singled out Burke and Vrdolyak. After Burke's first campaign for alderman, he has been unopposed in most of his re-election campaigns. In 2007, Burke faced his first opponent since a school teacher who had never run for office. A Burke supporter unsuccessfully challenged the validity of the opponent's ballot application, but the case was tied up in court for most of the campaign, Burke went on to win with nearly 90 percent of the vote. Burke was, along with Alderman Edward Vrdolyak, a leader of the "Vrdolyak 29", a City Council majority voting block, which included 28 white and one Puerto Rican aldermen, who opposed the agenda of the newly elected Mayor Harold Washington, Chicago's first black mayor, during Washington's first three years as mayor, 1983–1986, a period referred to as Council Wars.
Vrdolyak, a Burke mentor, was chairman of the Cook County Democratic Party. Vrdolyak forged the alliance by e
The Washington Post
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper published in Washington, D. C. with a particular emphasis on national politics and the federal government. It has the largest circulation in the Washington metropolitan area, its slogan "Democracy Dies in Darkness" began appearing on its masthead in 2017. Daily broadsheet editions are printed for the District of Columbia and Virginia; the newspaper has won 47 Pulitzer Prizes. This includes six separate Pulitzers awarded in 2008, second only to The New York Times' seven awards in 2002 for the highest number awarded to a single newspaper in one year. Post journalists have received 18 Nieman Fellowships and 368 White House News Photographers Association awards. In the early 1970s, in the best-known episode in the newspaper's history, reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein led the American press' investigation into what became known as the Watergate scandal, their reporting in The Washington Post contributed to the resignation of President Richard Nixon.
In years since, the Post's investigations have led to increased review of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. In October 2013, the paper's longtime controlling family, the Graham family, sold the newspaper to Nash Holdings, a holding company established by Jeff Bezos, for $250 million in cash; the Washington Post is regarded as one of the leading daily American newspapers, along with The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, The Wall Street Journal. The Post has distinguished itself through its political reporting on the workings of the White House and other aspects of the U. S. government. Unlike The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post does not print an edition for distribution away from the East Coast. In 2009, the newspaper ceased publication of its National Weekly Edition, which combined stories from the week's print editions, due to shrinking circulation; the majority of its newsprint readership is in the District of Columbia and its suburbs in Maryland and Northern Virginia.
The newspaper is one of a few U. S. newspapers with foreign bureaus, located in Beirut, Beijing, Bogotá, Hong Kong, Jerusalem, London, Mexico City, Nairobi, New Delhi and Tokyo. In November 2009, it announced the closure of its U. S. regional bureaus—Chicago, Los Angeles and New York—as part of an increased focus on "political stories and local news coverage in Washington." The newspaper has local bureaus in Virginia. As of May 2013, its average weekday circulation was 474,767, according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, making it the seventh largest newspaper in the country by circulation, behind USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Daily News, the New York Post. While its circulation has been slipping, it has one of the highest market-penetration rates of any metropolitan news daily. For many decades, the Post had its main office at 1150 15th Street NW; this real estate remained with Graham Holdings when the newspaper was sold to Jeff Bezos' Nash Holdings in 2013.
Graham Holdings sold 1150 15th Street for US$159 million in November 2013. The Washington Post continued to lease space at 1150 L Street NW. In May 2014, The Washington Post leased the west tower of One Franklin Square, a high-rise building at 1301 K Street NW in Washington, D. C; the newspaper moved into their new offices December 14, 2015. The Post has its own exclusive zip code, 20071. Arc Publishing is a department of the Post, which provides the publishing system, software for news organizations such as the Chicago Tribune and the Los Angeles Times; the newspaper was founded in 1877 by Stilson Hutchins and in 1880 added a Sunday edition, becoming the city's first newspaper to publish seven days a week. In 1889, Hutchins sold the newspaper to Frank Hatton, a former Postmaster General, Beriah Wilkins, a former Democratic congressman from Ohio. To promote the newspaper, the new owners requested the leader of the United States Marine Band, John Philip Sousa, to compose a march for the newspaper's essay contest awards ceremony.
Sousa composed "The Washington Post". It became the standard music to accompany the two-step, a late 19th-century dance craze, remains one of Sousa's best-known works. In 1893, the newspaper moved to a building at 14th and E streets NW, where it would remain until 1950; this building combined all functions of the newspaper into one headquarters – newsroom, advertising and printing – that ran 24 hours per day. In 1898, during the Spanish–American War, the Post printed Clifford K. Berryman's classic illustration Remember the Maine, which became the battle-cry for American sailors during the War. In 1902, Berryman published another famous cartoon in the Post—Drawing the Line in Mississippi; this cartoon depicts President Theodore Roosevelt showing compassion for a small bear cub and inspired New York store owner Morris Michtom to create the teddy bear. Wilkins acquired Hatton's share of the newspaper in 1894 at Hatton's death. After Wilkins' death in 1903, his sons John and Robert ran the Post for two years before selling it in 1905 to John Roll McLean, owner of the Cincinnati Enquirer.
During the Wilson presidency, the Post was credited with the "most famous newspaper typo" in D. C. history according to Reason magazine. When John McLean died in 1916, he put the newspap