Croix de Guerre 1914–1918 (France)
The Croix de guerre 1914–1918 is a French military decoration, the first version of the Croix de guerre. It was created to recognize French and allied soldiers who were cited for valorous service during World War I, similar to the British mentioned in dispatches but with multiple degrees equivalent to other nations' decorations for courage. Soon after the outbreak of World War I, French military officials felt that a new military award had to be created. At that time, the Citation du jour existed to acknowledge soldiers, but it was just a sheet of paper. Only the Médaille Militaire and Legion of Honour were bestowed for courage in the field, due to the numbers now involved, a new decoration was required in earnest. At the end of 1914, General Boëlle, Commandant in Chief of the French 4th Army Corps, tried to convince the French administration to create a formal military award. Maurice Barrès, the noted writer and parliamentarian for Paris, gave Boëlle support in his efforts. On 23 December 1914, the French parliamentarian Georges Bonnefous proposed a legislative bill to create the Croix de la Valeur Militaire signed by 66 other parliamentarians.
Émile Driant, a parliamentarian who served in the war zone during much of this time, became its natural spokesman when he returned to the legislature. On 18 January 1915, Driant submitted this bill but the name of the military award was renamed to Croix de guerre. After parliamentary discussions, the bill was adopted on 2 April 1915. World War I began in 1914 and ended in 1918, so the final name adopted is "Croix de guerre 1914–1918"; every Croix de guerre awarded carries at least one citation for gallantry or courage to a member of any rank of the French military or of an allied army. Ribbon devices indicate the degree of the soldier's role during the action cited; the lowest degree is represented by a bronze star and the highest degree is represented by a bronze palm. The cross is only awarded once and subsequent actions worthy of citations will be limited to additional ribbon devices on the received insignia; the number of ribbon devices on a Croix de guerre is not limited, some awards to ace fighter pilots, had long ribbons with dozens of stars and palms.
The Croix de guerre 1914-1918 was attributed to: French and allied soldiers individually cited for a wartime act of gallantry. Soldiers who were/are members of units recognized by a collective unit award of the Croix de guerre may wear the Fourragère of the Croix de guerre 1914-1918 as long as they remain members of that unit. Soldiers who took part as members of units during repeated feats of arms recognized by more than one collective award of the Croix de guerre may continue to wear the fourragère after leaving the meritorious unit. Battle streamers in the colours of the Croix de guerre 1914-1918 are affixed to the colours of recipient units; the cross was designed by the sculptor Paul-Albert Bartholomé. It is 37 mm wide, Florentine bronze cross pattée, with two crossed swords pointing up between the arms; the obverse centre medallion bears the relief image of the French Republic in the form of the bust of a young woman wearing a Phrygian cap surrounded by the circular relief inscription RÉPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE.
Not knowing how long the war would last, the reverse centre medallion bears the dates 1914–1915, 1914–1916, 1914–1917 and 1914–1918. The cross is suspended by a ring through a suspension loop cast atop the upper cross arm, it hangs from a 37 mm wide green silk moiré ribbon with seven narrow 1,5 mm wide vertical red stripes evenly spaced and two 1 mm red edge stripes. The lowest degree is represented by a bronze star and the highest degree is represented by a silver palm; the cross was worn with the appropriate attachments to signify the singular or multiple awards of the decoration. Bronze star: for those who were mentioned at the regiment or brigade level. Silver star: for those who were cited at the division level. Silver gilt star: for those. Bronze palm: for those who were cited at the army level. Silver palm: could be worn in lieu of five bronze palms. General Charles de Gaulle Fighter ace lieutenant Charles Nungesser Fighter ace captain Georges Guynemer General Edgard de Larminat General Joseph de Goislard de Monsabert Colonel Théophile Marie Brébant General Jean Vallette d'Osia General Raoul Salan Fighter ace colonel René Fonck General Marie-Pierre Kœnig General Raoul Magrin-Vernerey Fighter ace lieutenant-colonel Charles Nuville Fighter ace captain Georges Madon Marshal Joseph Joffre General Robert Nivelle Corporal Eugene Bullard, French Air Force United States Major General Charles Budworth United Kingdom Lieutenant Colonel John Creagh Scott United Kingdom General George S. Patton United States General Douglas MacArthur United States Lieutenant General Lewis H. Brereton United States Brigadier General Edward Terence
Blérancourt is a commune in the department of Aisne in Hauts-de-France in northern France. The Château de Blérancourt, an influential design by Salomon de Brosse houses the National Museum of French-American Friendship and Cooperation, founded by Anne Morgan, daughter of the financier J. Pierpont Morgan; the collections of the Museum include many works on the theme of WW1, among them several painting of Joseph-Félix Bouchor. The corps de logis of the château no longer exists, but de Brosse's twin cubical stone pavilions and a grand entrance gateway approached by a stone bridge across a moat survive; the pavilions have identical façades on all sides, framed in rusticated quoins at the corners: each consists of a pair of pedimented windows that make a composition with a central œil de bœuf window under a hemicyclical arch that carries the dentilled cornice across and breaks into the roof balustrading above. Slate roofs with cyma curves converge to a central four-sided cap; the central gateway takes the form of a triumphal arch with a prominent keystone.
The Jardins du Nouveau Monde, on its grounds, contain an arboretum and garden plants from the New World. The house of Louis de Saint-Just now houses a museum devoted to the French Revolution. Claude-Nicolas Le Cat surgeon. Louis Antoine de Saint-Just revolutionary and author. Communes of the Aisne department Musée Franco-Américain website INSEE
Legion of Honour
The Legion of Honour is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoleon Bonaparte and retained by all French governments and régimes. The order's motto is Honneur et Patrie, its seat is the Palais de la Légion d'Honneur next to the Musée d'Orsay, on the left bank of the Seine in Paris; the order is divided into five degrees of increasing distinction: Chevalier, Commandeur, Grand officier, Grand-croix. During the French Revolution, all of the French orders of chivalry were abolished, replaced with Weapons of Honour, it was the wish of Napoleon Bonaparte, the First Consul, to create a reward to commend civilians and soldiers. From this wish was instituted a Légion d'honneur, a body of men, not an order of chivalry, for Napoleon believed that France wanted a recognition of merit rather than a new system of nobility. However, the Légion d'honneur did use the organization of the old French orders of chivalry, for example the Ordre de Saint-Louis; the insignia of the Légion d'honneur bear a resemblance to those of the Ordre de Saint-Louis, which used a red ribbon.
Napoleon created this award to ensure political loyalty. The organization would be used as a façade to give political favours and concessions; the Légion d'honneur was loosely patterned after a Roman legion, with legionaries, commanders, regional "cohorts" and a grand council. The highest rank was not a Grand Cross but a Grand aigle, a rank that wore the insignia common to a Grand Cross; the members were paid, the highest of them generously: 5,000 francs to a grand officier, 2,000 francs to a commandeur, 1,000 francs to an officier, 250 francs to a légionnaire. Napoleon famously declared, "You call these baubles, well, it is with baubles that men are led... Do you think that you would be able to make men fight by reasoning? Never; that is good only for the scholar in his study. The soldier needs glory, rewards." This has been quoted as "It is with such baubles that men are led." The order was the first modern order of merit. Under the monarchy, such orders were limited to Roman Catholics, all knights had to be noblemen.
The military decorations were the perks of the officers. The Légion d'honneur, was open to men of all ranks and professions—only merit or bravery counted; the new legionnaire had to be sworn into the Légion d'honneur. It is noteworthy that all previous orders were crosses or shared a clear Christian background, whereas the Légion d'honneur is a secular institution; the badge of the Légion d'honneur has five arms. In a decree issued on the 10 Pluviôse XIII, a grand decoration was instituted; this decoration, a cross on a large sash and a silver star with an eagle, symbol of the Napoleonic Empire, became known as the Grand aigle, in 1814 as the Grand cordon. After Napoleon crowned himself Emperor of the French in 1804 and established the Napoleonic nobility in 1808, award of the Légion d'honneur gave right to the title of "Knight of the Empire"; the title was made hereditary after three generations of grantees. Napoleon had dispensed 15 golden collars of the Légion d'honneur among his family and his senior ministers.
This collar was abolished in 1815. Although research is made difficult by the loss of the archives, it is known that three women who fought with the army were decorated with the order: Virginie Ghesquière, Marie-Jeanne Schelling and a nun, Sister Anne Biget; the Légion d'honneur was visible in the French Empire. The Emperor always wore it and the fashion of the time allowed for decorations to be worn most of the time; the king of Sweden therefore declined the order. Napoleon's own decorations were captured by the Prussians and were displayed in the Zeughaus in Berlin until 1945. Today, they are in Moscow. Louis XVIII changed the appearance of the order. To have done so would have angered the 35,000 to 38,000 members; the images of Napoleon and his eagle were removed and replaced by the image of King Henry IV, the popular first king of the Bourbon line. Three Bourbon fleurs-de-lys replaced the eagle on the reverse of the order. A king's crown replaced the imperial crown. In 1816, the grand cordons were renamed grand crosses and the legionnaires became knights.
The king decreed. The Légion d'honneur became the second-ranking order of knighthood of the French monarchy, after the Order of the Holy Spirit. Following the overthrow of the Bourbons in favour of King Louis Philippe I of the House of Orléans, the Bourbon monarchy's orders were once again abolished and the Légion d'honneur was restored in 1830 as the paramount decoration of the French nation; the insignia were drastically altered. In 1847, there were 47,000 members, yet another revolution in Paris brought a new design to the Légion d'honneur. A nephew of the founder, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, was elected president and he restored the image of his uncle on the crosses of the order. In 1852, the first recorded woman, Angélique Duchemin, an old revolutionary of the 1789 uprising against the absolute monarchy, was admitted into the order. On 2 December 1851, President Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte staged a coup d'état with the help of the armed forces, he made himself Emperor of the French one year on 2 December 1852, after a successful plebiscite.
An Imperial crown was added. During Napoleon III's reign, the first American was admitted
Anne Morgan (philanthropist)
Anne Tracy Morgan was an American philanthropist who provided relief efforts in aid to France during and after World War I and World War II. Morgan was educated traveled and grew up amongst the wealth her father had amassed, she was awarded a medal from the National Institute of Social Science in 1915, the same year she published the story The American Girl. In 1932 she became the first American woman appointed a commander of the French Legion of Honor, she was born on July 25, 1873 at "Cragston" her family's country estate on the Hudson River at Highland Falls, New York, the youngest of four siblings born to John Pierpont Morgan and Frances Louisa Tracy Morgan. In 1903, she became part owner of the Villa Trianon near Versailles, along with decorator and socialite Elsie De Wolfe and theatrical/literary agent Elisabeth Marbury. Morgan was instrumental in assisting De Wolfe, her close friend, in pioneering a career in interior decoration; the three women, known as "The Versailles Triumvirate," hosted a salon in France and, in 1903, along with Anne Harriman Vanderbilt, helped organize the Colony Club, the first women's social club in New York City and helped found the exclusive neighborhood of Sutton Place along Manhattan's East River.
Around 1910, she became a union activist. Anne Morgan supported striking female workers in New York's garment industry, she and other wealthy female members of her social circle stood in picket lines with striking shirtwaist workers and contributed financially to their cause. These strikes in New York's garment industry preceded the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire. In 1912, she started the Society for the Prevention of Useless Gift Giving with Eleanor Robson Belmont. In 1916, Morgan and De Wolfe funded Cole Porter's first Broadway musical, See America First, produced by Marbury. From 1917 to 1921, Morgan took residence near the French front, not far from both Soissons and the "Chemin des Dames" at Blérancourt, ran a formidable help organisation, The American Friends of France, financed out of her own deep pockets with the help of an active network in the States; the AFF was active in succoring noncombatants, organizing a health service that still exists in Soissons, a workshop to provide basic furniture to bombed-out families, a holiday camp for children, a mobile library, taken over by the library in Soissons, so on.
She returned in 1939 to help the Soissons evacuees. Anne Murray Dike, a doctor, joined Anne Morgan in France; the estate of Blérancourt was transformed into a museum and inaugurated in 1930, one year after the death of Anne Murray Dike. The two were rewarded for their services, they developed a romantic relationship. Dike is buried in the village cemetery at Blérancourt. Morgan's friendships included many celebrities of her day, her connection to individuals such as Cole Porter, as mentioned above, allowed her to compile a cookbook for charity. Titled the Spécialités de la Maison and published in 1940 to benefit the AFF, it offered recipes by cultural icons such as Pearl S. Buck, Salvador Dalí, Katharine Hepburn, she died on January 1952 in Mount Kisco, New York. A four-story townhouse built in the Sutton Place neighborhood of Manhattan's Upper East Side in New York City for Anne Morgan in 1921 was donated as a gift to the United Nations in 1972, it is now the official residence of the United Nations Secretary-General.
Morgan, Anne Tracy, Noted Relations: Celebrities, et Cetera. Retrieved 2006 Morgan, Anne Tracy, Encyclopædia Britannica. Dec 22, 2006