Sapienza University of Rome
The Sapienza University of Rome called Sapienza or the University of Rome, is a collegiate research university located in Rome, Italy. Formally known as Università degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza", it is one of the largest European universities by enrollments and one of the oldest in history, founded in 1303; the University is one of the most prestigious Italian universities ranking first in national rankings and in Southern Europe. Most of the Italian ruling class studied at Sapienza. Sapienza educated numerous notable alumni, including many Nobel laureates, Presidents of the European Parliament and European Commissioners, heads of several nations, notable religious figures and astronauts.. In September 2018, it was included in the top 100 of the QS World University Rankings Graduate Employability Ranking. Sapienza University of Rome was founded in 1303 with the Papal bull In Supremae praeminentia Dignitatis, issued on 20 April 1303 by Pope Boniface VIII, as a Studium for ecclesiastical studies more under his control than the universities of Bologna and Padua, making it the first pontifical university.
In 1431 Pope Eugene IV reorganized the studium with the bull In supremae, in which he granted masters and students alike the broadest possible privileges and decreed that the university should include the four schools of Law, Medicine and Theology. He introduced a new tax on wine. However, the University's days of splendour came to an end during the sack of Rome in 1527, when the studium was closed and the professors dispersed, some were killed. Pope Paul III restored the university shortly after his ascension to the pontificate in 1534. In the 1650s the university became meaning wisdom, a title it retains. In 1703, Pope Clement XI purchased some land with his private funds on the Janiculum, where he made a botanical garden, which soon became the most celebrated in Europe through the labours of the Trionfetti brothers; the first complete history of the Sapienza University was written in 1803-1806 by Filippo Maria Renazzi. University students were newly animated during the 19th-century Italian revival.
In 1870, La Sapienza stopped being the papal university and became the university of the capital of Italy. In 1935 the new university campus, planned by Marcello Piacentini, was completed. Sapienza University has many campuses in Rome but its main campus is the Città Universitaria, which covers 44 ha near the Roma Tiburtina Station; the university has satellite campuses outside Rome, the main of, in Latina. In 2011 a project was launched to build a campus with residence halls near Pietralata station, in collaboration with the Lazio region. In order to cope with the ever-increasing number of applicants, the Rector approved a new plan to expand the Città Universitaria, reallocate offices and enlarge faculties, as well as create new campuses for hosting local and foreign students; the Alessandrina University Library, built in 1667 by Pope Alexander VII, is the main library housing 1.5 million volumes. Orto Botanico dell'Università di Roma "La Sapienza", a botanical garden Sant'Ivo alla Sapienza San Pietro in Vincoli: the cloister is part of the Engineering School Villa Mirafiori: a Neo-Renaissance palace built during the 19th century, some rooms are decorated with fine frescoes.
The Department of Philosophy is located in this building. Since the 2011 reform, Sapienza University of Rome has 65 departments. Today Sapienza, with 140,000 students and 8,000 among academic and technical and administrative staff, is the largest university in Italy; the university has significant research programmes in the fields of engineering, natural sciences, biomedical sciences and humanities. It offers 10 Masters Programmes taught in English; as of the 2016 Academic Ranking of World Universities, Sapienza is positioned within the 151-200 group of universities and among the top 3% of universities in the world. In 2018, the subject Classics and Ancient history of Sapienza is ranked the 1st in the world by QS World University Rankings by subject; as the same ranking, the subject Archaeology ranks the 9th. In 2016, the Center for World University Rankings ranked the Sapienza University of Rome as the 90th in the world and the top in Italy in its World University Rankings. In order to cope with the large demand for admission to the university courses, some faculties hold a series of entrance examinations.
The entrance test decides which candidates will have access to the undergraduate course. For some faculties, the entrance test is only a mean through which the administration acknowledges the students' level of preparation. Students that do not pass the test can still enroll in their chosen degree courses but have to pass an additional exam during their first year. On 15 January 2008 the Vatican cancelled a planned visit to La Sapienza University by Pope Benedict XVI, to speak at the university ceremony launching the 2008 academic year due to protests by some students and professors; the title of the speech would have been'The Truth Makes Us Good and Goodness is Truth'. Some students and professors protested in reaction to a 1990 speech that Pope Benedict XVI gave in which he, in their opinion, endorsed the actions of the church against Galileo in 1633. Among the prominent scholars who have taught at the Sapienza University of Rome are architects Ernesto Basile and Bruno Zevi.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was a German philosopher and an important figure of German idealism. He achieved wide recognition in his day and—while influential within the continental tradition of philosophy—has become influential in the analytic tradition as well. Although Hegel remains a divisive figure, his canonical stature within Western philosophy is universally recognized. Hegel's principal achievement was his development of a distinctive articulation of idealism, sometimes termed absolute idealism, in which the dualisms of, for instance and nature and subject and object are overcome, his philosophy of spirit conceptually integrates psychology, the state, art and philosophy. His account of the master–slave dialectic has been influential in 20th-century France. Of special importance is his concept of spirit as the historical manifestation of the logical concept and the "sublation" of contradictory or opposing factors: examples include the apparent opposition between nature and freedom and between immanence and transcendence.
Hegel has been seen in the 20th century as the originator of the thesis, synthesis triad, but as an explicit phrase it originated with Johann Gottlieb Fichte. Hegel has influenced many writers whose own positions vary widely. Karl Barth described Hegel as a "Protestant Aquinas" while Maurice Merleau-Ponty wrote that "all the great philosophical ideas of the past century—the philosophies of Marx and Nietzsche, German existentialism, psychoanalysis—had their beginnings in Hegel." He was born on August 27, 1770 in Stuttgart, capital of the Duchy of Württemberg in southwestern Germany. Christened Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, he was known as Wilhelm to his close family, his father, Georg Ludwig, was Rentkammersekretär at the court of Duke of Württemberg. Hegel's mother, Maria Magdalena Louisa, was the daughter of a lawyer at the High Court of Justice at the Württemberg court, she died of a "bilious fever". Hegel and his father caught the disease, but they narrowly survived. Hegel had Christiane Luise. At the age of three, he went to the German School.
When he entered the Latin School two years he knew the first declension, having been taught it by his mother. In 1776, he entered Stuttgart's gymnasium illustre and during his adolescence read voraciously, copying lengthy extracts in his diary. Authors he read include the poet Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock and writers associated with the Enlightenment, such as Christian Garve and Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, his studies at the Gymnasium were concluded with his Abiturrede entitled "The abortive state of art and scholarship in Turkey". At the age of eighteen, Hegel entered the Tübinger Stift, where he had as roommates the poet and philosopher Friedrich Hölderlin and the philosopher-to-be Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling. Sharing a dislike for what they regarded as the restrictive environment of the Seminary, the three became close friends and mutually influenced each other's ideas. All admired Hellenic civilization and Hegel additionally steeped himself in Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Lessing during this time.
They watched the unfolding of the French Revolution with shared enthusiasm. Schelling and Hölderlin immersed themselves in theoretical debates on Kantian philosophy, from which Hegel remained aloof. Hegel at this time envisaged his future as that of a Popularphilosoph, i.e. a "man of letters" who serves to make the abstruse ideas of philosophers accessible to a wider public. Although the violence of the Reign of Terror in 1793 dampened Hegel's hopes, he continued to identify with the moderate Girondin faction and never lost his commitment to the principles of 1789, which he would express by drinking a toast to the storming of the Bastille every fourteenth of July. Having received his theological certificate from the Tübingen Seminary, Hegel became Hofmeister to an aristocratic family in Bern. During this period, he composed the text which has become known as the Life of Jesus and a book-length manuscript titled "The Positivity of the Christian Religion", his relations with his employers becoming strained, Hegel accepted an offer mediated by Hölderlin to take up a similar position with a wine merchant's family in Frankfurt, to which he relocated in 1797.
Here, Hölderlin exerted an important influence on Hegel's thought. While in Frankfurt, Hegel composed the essay "Fragments on Religion and Love". In 1799, he wrote another essay entitled "The Spirit of Christianity and Its Fate", unpublished during his lifetime. In 1797, the unpublished and unsigned manuscript of "The Oldest Systematic Program of German Idealism" was written, it was written in Hegel's hand, but thought to have been authored by either Hegel, Schelling, Hölderlin, or an unknown fourth person. In 1801, Hegel came to Jena with the encouragement of his old friend Schelling, who held the position of Extraordinary Professor at the University there. Hegel secured a position at the University as a Privatdozent after submitting the inaugural dissertation De Orbitis Planetarum, in
Barnard College is a private women's liberal arts college located in Manhattan, New York City. Founded in 1889 by Annie Nathan Meyer, who named it after Columbia University's 10th president, Frederick Barnard, it is one of the oldest women's colleges in the world; the acceptance rate of the Class of 2023 was 11.3%, the most selective and diverse class in the college's 129-year history. The college was founded as a response to Columbia's refusal to admit women into their institution. Despite Barnard being and financially separate from Columbia University, it issues US$5.0 million annually to maintain itself as an affiliate college of the university. Students share pre-selected classes, Greek life, sports teams and more with Columbia University. Barnard offers Bachelor of Arts degree programs in about 50 areas of study. Students may pursue elements of their education at greater Columbia University, the Juilliard School, the Manhattan School of Music, The Jewish Theological Seminary, which are based in New York City.
Its 4-acre campus is located in the Upper Manhattan neighborhood of Morningside Heights, stretching along Broadway between 116th and 120th Streets. It is directly near several other academic institutions; the college is a member of the Seven Sisters, an association of seven prominent women's liberal arts colleges. For its first 229 years Columbia College of Columbia University admitted only men for undergraduate study. Barnard College was founded in 1889 as a response to Columbia's refusal to admit women into its institution; the college was named after Frederick Augustus Porter Barnard, a deaf American educator and mathematician who served as the tenth president of Columbia from 1864 to 1889. He advocated equal educational privileges for men and women, preferably in a coeducational setting, began proposing in 1879 that Columbia admit women; the board of trustees rejected Barnard's suggestion, but in 1883 agreed to create a detailed syllabus of study for women. While they could not attend Columbia classes, those who passed examinations based on the syllabus would receive a degree.
The first such woman graduate received her bachelor's degree in 1887. A former student of the program, Annie Meyer, other prominent New York women persuaded the board in 1889 to create a women's college connected to Columbia. Barnard College's original 1889 home was a rented brownstone at 343 Madison Avenue, where a faculty of six offered instruction to 14 students in the School of Arts, as well as to 22 "specials", who lacked the entrance requirements in Greek and so enrolled in science; when Columbia University announced in 1892 its impending move to Morningside Heights, Barnard built a new campus on 119th-120th Streets with gifts from Mary E. Brinckerhoff, Elizabeth Milbank Anderson and Martha Fiske. Milbank and Fiske Halls, built in 1897–1898, were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2003. Ella Weed supervised the college in its first four years; as the college grew it needed additional space, in 1903 it received the three blocks south of 119th Street from Anderson who had purchased a former portion of the Bloomingdale Asylum site from the New York Hospital.
By the mid-20th century Barnard had succeeded in its original goal of providing a top tier education to women. Between 1920 and 1974, only the much larger Hunter College and University of California, Berkeley produced more women graduates who received doctorate degrees. Students' Hall, now known as Barnard Hall, was built in 1916. Brooks and Hewitt Halls were built in 1926 -- 1927, respectively, they were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2003. Jessica Finch is credited with coining the phrase, "current events," while teaching at Barnard College in the 1890s. Bachelor of Arts degree in about 50 areas of study is offered to Barnard graduates. Joint programs for the Bachelor of Science and other degrees exist with Columbia University, Juilliard School, The Jewish Theological Seminary; the six most popular majors at the college are English, political science, economics and biology. The liberal arts requirements are called the Nine Ways of Knowing. Students must take one year of one laboratory science, study a single foreign language for four semesters, complete one 3-credit course in each of the following categories: reason and value, social analysis, historical studies, cultures in comparison and deductive reasoning and visual and performing arts.
The use of AP or IB credit to fulfill these requirements is limited, but Nine Ways of Knowing courses may overlap with major or minor requirements. In addition to the Nine Ways of Knowing, students must complete a first-year seminar, a first-year English course, one semester of physical education; the Nine Ways of Knowing was replaced with Foundations in 2016. Students must take the First Year Experience which includes two semesters of seminars, complete Distributional Requirements within many subjects, six Modes of Thinking courses. Admissions to Barnard is considered selective by U. S. News & World Report, it is the most selective women's college in the nation. The class of 2021's admission rate was 14.8% of the 7,716 applicants, the lowest acceptance rate in the institution's history. The early-decision admission rate for the class of 2020 was 47.7%, out of 787 applications. The median SAT Combined was 2080, with median subscores of 700 in Math, in 705 Critical Reading, 720 in Writing; the Median ACT score was 32.
The average GPA of the class of 2021 was 96.13 on a 100-point scale
Luigi Pirandello was an Italian dramatist, novelist and short story writer whose greatest contributions were his plays. He was awarded the 1934 Nobel Prize in Literature for "his magical power to turn psychological analysis into good theatre." Pirandello's works include novels, hundreds of short stories, about 40 plays, some of which are written in Sicilian. Pirandello's tragic farces are seen as forerunners of the Theatre of the Absurd. Pirandello was born into an upper-class family in the village of u Càvusu, a poor suburb of Girgenti, his father, belonged to a wealthy family involved in the sulphur industry, his mother, Caterina Ricci Gramitto, was of a well-to-do background, descending from a family of the bourgeois professional class of Agrigento. Both families, the Pirandellos and the Ricci Gramittos, were ferociously anti-Bourbon and participated in the struggle for unification and democracy. Stefano participated in the famous Expedition of the Thousand following Garibaldi all the way to the battle of Aspromonte, Caterina, who had hardly reached the age of thirteen, was forced to accompany her father to Malta, where he had been sent into exile by the Bourbon monarchy.
But the open participation in the Garibaldian cause and the strong sense of idealism of those early years were transformed, above all in Caterina, into an angry and bitter disappointment with the new reality created by the unification. Pirandello would assimilate this sense of betrayal and resentment and express it in several of his poems and in his novel The Old and the Young, it is probable that this climate of disillusion inculcated in the young Luigi the sense of disproportion between ideals and reality, recognizable in his essay on humorism. Pirandello received his elementary education at home but was much more fascinated by the fables and legends, somewhere between popular and magic, that his elderly servant Maria Stella used to recount to him than by anything scholastic or academic. By the age of twelve he had written his first tragedy. At the insistence of his father, he was registered at a technical school but switched to the study of the humanities at the ginnasio, something which had always attracted him.
In 1880, the Pirandello family moved to Palermo. It was here, in the capital of Sicily, he began reading omnivorously, above all, on 19th-century Italian poets such as Giosuè Carducci and Arturo Graf. He started writing his first poems and fell in love with his cousin Lina. During this period the first signs of serious contrast between Luigi and his father began to develop; as a reaction to the ever-increasing distrust and disharmony that Luigi was developing toward his father, a man of a robust physique and crude manners, his attachment to his mother would continue growing to the point of profound veneration. This expressed itself, after her death, in the moving pages of the novella Colloqui con i personaggi in 1915, his romantic feelings for his cousin looked upon with disfavour, were taken seriously by Lina's family. They demanded that Luigi abandon his studies and dedicate himself to the sulphur business so that he could marry her. In 1886, during a vacation from school, Luigi went to visit the sulphur mines of Porto Empedocle and started working with his father.
This experience was essential to him and would provide the basis for such stories as Il Fumo, Ciàula scopre la Luna as well as some of the descriptions and background in the novel The Old and the Young. The marriage, which seemed imminent, was postponed. Pirandello registered at the University of Palermo in the departments of Law and of Letters; the campus at Palermo, above all the Department of Law, was the centre in those years of the vast movement which would evolve into the Fasci Siciliani. Although Pirandello was not an active member of this movement, he had close ties of friendship with its leading ideologists: Rosario Garibaldi Bosco, Enrico La Loggia, Giuseppe De Felice Giuffrida and Francesco De Luca. In 1887, having definitively chosen the Department of Letters, he moved to Rome in order to continue his studies, but the encounter with the city, centre of the struggle for unification to which the families of his parents had participated with generous enthusiasm, was disappointing and nothing close to what he had expected.
"When I arrived in Rome it was raining hard, it was night time and I felt like my heart was being crushed, but I laughed like a man in the throes of desperation."Pirandello, an sensitive moralist had a chance to see for himself the irreducible decadence of the so-called heroes of the Risorgimento in the person of his uncle Rocco, now a greying and exhausted functionary of the prefecture who provided him with temporary lodgings in Rome. The "desperate laugh", the only manifestation of revenge for the disappointment undergone, inspired the bitter verses of his first collection of poems, Mal Giocondo, but not all was negative. "Oh the dramatic theatre! I will conquer it. I cannot enter into one without experiencing a strange sensation, an excitement of the blood through all my veins..." Because of a conflict with a Latin professor, he was forced to leave the University of Rome and went to Bonn with a letter of presentation from one of his other professors. T
City University of New York
The City University of New York is the public university system of New York City, the largest urban university system in the United States. CUNY and the State University of New York are separate and independent university systems, despite the fact that both public institutions receive funding from New York State. CUNY, however, is located in only New York City, while SUNY is located in the entire state, including New York City. CUNY was founded in 1847 and comprises 25 institutions: eleven senior colleges, seven community colleges, one undergraduate honors college, seven post-graduate institutions; the University enrolls more than 275,000 students, counts thirteen Nobel Prize winners and twenty-four MacArthur Fellows among its alumni. CUNY is the third-largest university system in the United States, in terms of enrollment, behind the State University of New York, the California State University system. More than 274,000-degree-credit students and professional education students are enrolled at campuses located in all five New York City boroughs.
The university has one of the most diverse student bodies in the United States, with students hailing from 208 countries, but from New York City. The black and Hispanic undergraduate populations each comprise more than a quarter of the student body, Asian undergraduates make up 18 percent. Fifty-eight percent are female, 28 percent are 25 or older; the following table is'sortable'. CUNY employs over 10,000 adjunct faculty members. Faculty and staff are represented by the Professional Staff Congress, a labor union and chapter of the American Federation of Teachers. André Aciman, recipient of Whitting Award for emerging writers, Lambda Literary Award winner for his novel Call Me By Your Name Chantal Akerman, film director, Distinguished Lecturer, City College of New York Meena Alexander and writer, Distinguished Professor at the Graduate Center and Hunter College Talal Asad, Distinguished Professor at the Graduate Center William Bialek, Graduate Center Edwin G. Burrows and writer, Pulitzer Prize Winner, Distinguished Professor of History at Brooklyn College Ta-Nehisi Coates, writer and activist, CUNY Graduate School of Journalism Billy Collins, poet, U.
S. Poet Laureate, Lehman College Blanche Wiesen Cook, Distinguished Professor at John Jay College of Criminal Justice and Graduate Center John Corigliano, Graduate Center Michael Cunningham, Pulitzer Prize winner, Distinguished Professor at Brooklyn College Roy DeCarava and photographer, Hunter College Carolyn Eisele, Hunter College Ruth Wilson Gilmore, Professor, Graduate Center Allen Ginsberg, Distinguished Professor at Brooklyn College Kimiko Hahn, winner of PEN/Voelcker Award for Poetry, Queens College David Harvey, Graduate Center bell hooks, educator and critic, Distinguished Professor at City College of New York Tyehimba Jess, winner of the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry, College of Staten Island KC Johnson (born, Professor of History, known for his work exposing the facts about the Duke lacrosse case Michio Kaku, City College Jane Katz, Olympian swimmer, John Jay College of Criminal Justice Alfred Kazin and critic, Distinguished Professor at Hunter College and Graduate Center Saul Kripke, Graduate Center Irving Kristol, City College Paul Krugman, Distinguished Professor, Graduate Center Peter Kwong, filmmaker, Distinguished Professor of Asian American studies and Urban Affairs and Planning Professor at Hunter College, professor of sociology at Graduate Center Ben Lerner, MacArthur Fellow, Brooklyn College Audre Lorde and activist, City College, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Distinguished Thomas Hunter Chair at Hunter College Cate Marvin, Guggenheim Fellowship winner, College of Staten Island John Matteson and writer, Pulitzer Prize winner, John Jay College of Criminal Justice Stanley Milgram, social psychologist, Graduate Center June Nash, Distinguished Professor Emerita, Graduate Center Itzhak Perlman, Brooklyn College Frances Fox Piven, political scientist and educator, Graduate Center Graham Priest, Graduate Center Adrienne Rich and activist, City College of New York David M. Rosenthal, Graduate Center Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. historian and social critic, Graduate Center Flora Rheta Schreiber, John Jay College of Criminal Justice Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, literary critic, Distinguished Professor at the Graduate Center Betty Shabazz and activist, Medgar Evers College Dennis Sullivan, Graduate Center Katherine Verdery, Julien J. Studley and Distinguished Professor, Graduate Center Michele Wallace, Professor Emeritus of English, Women's Studies and Film Studies at the City College of New York and the Graduate Center Mike Wallace and writer, Distinguished Professor of History at John Jay College of Criminal Justice and Graduate Center Elie Wiesel, political activist, Distinguished Professor of Judaic Studies at City College Andrea Alu and physicist, Einstein Professor of Physics at CUNY Graduate Center CUNY was created in 1961, by New York State legislation, signed into law by Governor Nelson Rockefeller.
The legislation integrated existing institutions and a new graduate school into a coordinated system of higher education for the city, under the control of the "Board of Higher Education of the City of New York", created by New York State legisla
University of Naples Federico II
The University of Naples Federico II is a university in Naples, Italy. Founded in 1224, it is the oldest public non-sectarian university in the world, is now organized into 13 faculties, it was Europe's first university dedicated to training secular administrative staff, one of the oldest academic institutions in continuous operation. Federico II is the third University in Italy by number of students enrolled, but despite its huge size it is still one of the best universities in Italy, being notable for research; as of 2016 it is the only generalist Italian university in the Times higher education reputation, which considers the best 200 best universities in the world. The university is named after its founder Frederick II. In October 2016 the University hosted the first Apple IOS Developer Academy and in 2018 the Cisco Digital Transformation Lab; the University of Naples Federico II was founded by emperor of the Holy Roman Empire Frederick II on 5 June 1224. It is the world's oldest state-supported institution of research.
One of the most famous students was philosopher Thomas Aquinas. Fredrick II had specific objectives when he founded the university in Naples: first, to train administrative and skilled bureaucratic professionals for the curia regis, as well as preparing lawyers and judges who would help the sovereign to draft laws and administer justice. Second, he wanted to facilitate the cultural development of promising young students and scholars, avoiding any unnecessary and expensive trips abroad: by creating a State University, Emperor Frederick avoided having young students during his reign complete their training at the University of Bologna, in a city, hostile to the imperial power; the University of Naples was arguably the first to be formed from scratch by a higher authority, not based upon an already-existing private school. Although its claim to be the first state-sponsored university can be challenged by Palencia, Naples was the first chartered one; the artificiality of its creation posed great difficulties in attracting students.
Those years were further complicated by the long existence, in nearby Salerno, of Europe's most prestigious medical faculty, the Schola Medica Salernitana. The fledgling faculty of medicine at Naples had little hope of competing with it, in 1231 the right of examination was surrendered to Salerno; the establishment of new faculties of theology and law under papal sponsorship in Rome in 1245 further drained Naples of students, as Rome was a more attractive location. In an effort to revitalize the dwindling university, in 1253, all the remaining schools of the university of Naples moved to Salerno, in the hope of creating a single viable university for the south, but that experiment failed and the university moved back to Naples in 1258. The Angevin reforms after 1266 and the subsequent decline of Salerno gave the University of Naples a new lease on life and put it on a stable, sustainable track; the university has 13 faculties: Agriculture Architecture Biotechnology Economics Engineering Law Letters and philosophy Mathematical and natural sciences Medicine and surgery Pharmacy Political sciences Sociology Veterinary medicine Among those who have attended the University of Naples Federico II are Italian presidents Enrico De Nicola, Giovanni Leone and Giorgio Napolitano.
Several professors from various disciplines are among the top Italian Scientists by H-index. According to the 2016 QS World University Rankings by subject the University of Federico II ranks in the following ranges respectively: 51–100 for civil engineering, 101–150 for mechanical engineering and pharmacology, agriculture and forestry and physics and astronomy, 151–200 for law and legal studies and chemical engineering, 201–250 for electrical and electronic engineering, mathematics and econometrics, 251–300 for biological sciences, computer science and chemistry. In November 2018 Expertscape recognized it as No. 10 in the world for expertise in Celiac Disease. ESDP-Network List of Italian universities List of medieval universities Naples Botanical Garden of Naples Orto Botanico di Portici BioGeM University of Naples Federico II Website Girolamo Arnaldi, Studio di Napoli in Enciclopedia Federiciana, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana, 2005
St. John's University (New York City)
St. John's University is a private Catholic university in New York City. Founded and run by the Congregation of the Mission in 1870, the school was located in the neighborhood of Bedford–Stuyvesant in the borough of Brooklyn. In the 1950s, the school was relocated to its current site at Utopia Parkway in Queens. St. John's has campuses in Staten Island and Manhattan in New York City and overseas in Rome, Italy. In addition, the university has a Long Island Graduate Center in Hauppauge, along with academic locations in Paris and Limerick, Ireland; the university is named after Saint John the Baptist. St. John's is organized into six graduate schools. In 2016, the university had 4,647 graduate students. St. John's offers more than 100 bachelor and doctoral degree programs as well as professional certificates. St. John's University was founded in 1870, by the Vincentian Fathers of the Roman Catholic Church in response to an invitation by the first Bishop of Brooklyn, John Loughlin, to provide the underprivileged youth of the city with an intellectual and moral education.
St. John's Vincentian values stem from the ideals and works of St Vincent de Paul, the patron saint of Christian charity. Following the Vincentian tradition, the university seeks to provide an education that encourages greater involvement in social justice and service; the Vincentian Center for Church and Society, located on the university's Queens campus serves as "a clearinghouse for and developer of Vincentian information, poverty research, social justice resources, as an academic/cultural programming Center."The English translation of the Greek on the original seal of the University is "a lamp burning and shining" or "a lamp shining brightly" a reference to St. John the Baptist. St. John's University was founded as the College of St. John the Baptist at 75 Lewis Avenue, in Bedford-Stuyvesant, Brooklyn. Ground was broken for St. John's College Hall, the university's first building, on May 28, 1868; the cornerstone was laid on July 25, 1869. The building was opened for educational purposes on September 5, 1870.
Beginning with the law school in 1925, St. John's started founding other schools and it became a university in 1933. In April 1936, St. John's bought the Hillcrest Golf Club's 100 acres of land for about $500,000, with the intention of moving the school to the new site. Under the terms of the sale, the golf club continued to operate on the site for a few years. On February 11, 1954, St. John's broke ground on a new campus in Queens, on the former site of the Hillcrest Golf Club. During the official groundbreaking ceremony, the shovel used was the same shovel that had broken ground on the original campus in 1868; the following year, the original school of the university, St. John's College, moved from Bedford-Stuyvesant to the new campus; the high school, now St. John's Prep, took over its former buildings and moved to its present location in the Hillcrest-Jamaica sections in Queens. Over the next two decades, the other schools of the university, which were located at a separate campus at 96 Schermerhorn Street in Downtown Brooklyn, moved out to the new campus in Queens.
The last of the schools to relocate to Queens moved there in 1972, bringing an end to the Downtown Brooklyn campus of the university. In 1959, the university established a Freedom Institute to provide lectures and programs that would focus, in the words of university president Rev. John A. Flynn, focus "attention on the dangers of communism threatening free institutions here and abroad," with Arpad F. Kovacs of the St. John's history department as its director; the university hired the noted historian Paul Kwan-Tsien Sih to establish an Institute of Asian Studies in 1959, set up a Center for African Studies under the directorship of the economic geographer Hugh C. Brooks; the university received praise from Time Magazine in 1962 for being a Catholic university that accepted Jews with low household income. St. John's was the defendant in a lawsuit by Donald Scheiber for discrimination after being removed because he was Jewish; the court ruled against St. John's University in this lawsuit. Time ranked St. John's as "good−small" on a list of the nation's Catholic universities in 1962.
The St. John's University strike of 1966-1967 was a protest by faculty at the university which began on January 4, 1966, ended in June 1967; the strike began after 31 faculty members were dismissed in the fall of 1965 without due process, dismissals which some felt were a violation of the professors' academic freedom. The tension of that year was noted in Time Magazine stating, "cademically, has never ranked high among Catholic schools; the strike ended without any reinstatements, but led to the widespread unionization of public college faculty in the New York City area. In 1970 arbitrators ruled. On January 27, 1971, the New York State Board of Regents approved the consolidation of the university with the former Notre Dame College a private women's college and the Staten Island campus of St. John's University became a reality. Classes began in the fall of 1971, combining the original Notre Dame College with the former Brooklyn campus of St. John's, offering undergraduate degrees in liberal arts and education.