Clark Art Institute
The Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, commonly referred to as the Clark, is an art museum and research institution located in Williamstown, United States. Its collection consists of European and American paintings, prints, photographs, the Clark, along with the Massachusetts Museum of Contemporary Art and the Williams College Museum of Art, forms a trio of art museums in the Berkshires. The institute serves as a center for research and higher learning and it is home to various research and academic programs, which include the Fellowship Program and the Williams College Graduate Program in the History of Art. The Clark was created by entrepreneur, soldier and prominent art collector Robert Sterling Clark, after numerous adventures in the Far East, Sterling settled in Paris in 1911 and used a considerable fortune inherited from his grandfather to begin amassing a private art collection. Francine joined him in collecting works of art after their marriage in 1919, the Clarks kept their collection largely private, rarely lending out any works.
With the onset of the Cold War and rapid nuclear armament and they wanted to protect their collection from a possible attack on New York City, where they lived and where the expected heir of their collection, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, was located. As such, the Clarks began looking at sites in rural New York and they visited Williamstown, Massachusetts in 1949 and began having conversations with town leaders and the administrators of Williams College and the Williams College Museum of Art. Sterling had ties to the college through his grandfather and father, a charter for the Clark was signed on March 14,1950 and the Institute opened to the public on May 17,1955 under its first director, former silver dealer Peter Guille. The Clark has since become a destination for tourists, art lovers, the original marble gallery building, designed by Daniel Deverell Perry, opened in 1955. The Pietro Belluschi-designed Manton Research Center, housing the library and research programs, was completed in 1973, the Clark embarked on a long-term project in 2001 to improve its campus, enlisting the help of landscape firm Reed Hildebrand and architects Tadao Ando and Annabelle Selldorf.
Reed Hilderbrand redesigned the campus grounds, revamping nearby walking trails, planting 1,000 trees, Tadao Ando designed two additions, the Lunder Center at Stone Hill and the 42, 600-square-foot Clark Center, which opened in 2008 and 2014, respectively. Envisioned as a sanctuary in the woods waiting to be discovered and it is home to the Williamstown Art Conservation Center, the largest regional conservation center in the country. Situated northwest of the Museum Building, the stone, Annabelle Selldorf was commissioned to renovate the campus’ existing structures. In the 1955 original marble building, galleries for American and decorative art were added, in the Manton Research Center, which reopened in 2016, the auditorium and central courtyard were renovated and several galleries and a study center were created. Its renovation marked the completion of the Clark’s all-encompassing expansion project, the Research and Academic Program is the manifestation of the Clark’s original commitment to academic research and scholarly study.
The program began in the late 1990s with the establishment of the Clark Library, the Research and Academic Program awards between ten and sixteen Clark Fellowships a year, ranging in duration from four weeks to ten months. Clark Fellowships allow promising scholars and museum officials opportunities for research outside of their professional obligations, located on the Clark Campus, the program draws on and works closely with the art history resources of both institutions. The interactive nature of the programs reflects the mission of the Clark to advance the public understanding of art’s transformative power
It is one of four contiguous ducal estates in North Nottinghamshire and the house is a grade I listed building. The estate was mentioned in the Domesday Book, where it is recorded as belonging to Hugh FitzBaldric, thomas de Cuckney founded the religious house in 1140. It was an abbey of Premonstratensian canons, dedicated to St James the Great, the abbey was enriched by gifts from the Goushills, D’Eyncourts and other families from Nottinghamshire and it received a considerable grant from King Edward I. In 1393 the abbey came under investigation by King Richard II. With so much wealth at his disposal, the Abbot of Welbeck was an influential man, in 1538, the abbot, Richard Bentley was awarded a pension of £50, and the 17 canons received pensions of between £40 and £4, and, a year. At the Dissolution of the Monasteries, the site was granted by Henry VIII to Richard Whalley and it passed to his son William Cavendish, first Duke of Newcastle, it became the seat of the dukes. Members of the Cavendish family converted it into a house and added a riding house in the 17th century to the design of Robert Smythson.
Only basements and inner walls were retained from the fabric of the old abbey buildings. In the 18th century, it passed through an heiress into the Bentinck family and became the seat of the Earls, the houses Oxford Wing which contained some of the oldest parts of the building, burned down in October 1900 although most of the contents were saved. The wing was rebuilt to the designs of Ernest George by 1905, Archduke Franz Ferdinand accepted an invitation from the 6th Duke of Portland to stay at Welbeck Abbey and arrived with his wife, Sophie, by train at Worksop on 22 November 1913. This was almost a year before his assassination, which triggered the First World War, the Archduke narrowly avoided being killed in a hunting accident during his stay when a loader fell and caused a shotgun to go off within feet of the Archduke and his host. Over the course of the First World War itself, between 1914 and 1919 the kitchen block was used as an army hospital. After the Second World War, Welbeck was leased by the Dukes of Portland to the Ministry of Defence and was operated as Welbeck College, an army training college, until 2005.
Lady Anne Cavendish-Bentinck, the elder daughter of the 7th Duke, lived at Welbeck Woodhouse. William Henry Marcello Parente, son of her sister, Lady Victoria Margaret Cavendish-Bentinck who married Gaetano Parente, Prince of Castel Viscardo. Since the Ministry of Defence moved out in 2005, Welbeck Abbey has been his home, pedestrian access across the Welbeck estate is confined to footpaths forming part of the Robin Hood Way. The first No Direction Home Festival was held at Welbeck Abbey over the weekend of 8 to 10 June 2012, the End of the Road affiliated festival was headlined by Richard Hawley, The Low Anthem and Andrew Bird. In 2016 it was used as the location for the BBCs baking series Bake Off, the 5th Duke of Portland undertook the most substantial building works at Welbeck
Tingrith is a small village and civil parish in Bedfordshire, England. It is located adjacent to the M1 motorway near the village of Toddington. The nearest major town is Luton, located about 10 miles to the southeast, the parish church of St Nicholas dates back to the 13th century and has Tingriths only cemetery. The church can seat up to 200 people, Tingrith has a population of 153 people – a ratio of 78,75 males to females, according to the 2011 census. The living is a rectory in the diocese of Ely, the church is chiefly English. In the past, the most common occupation for males over the age of 20 in Tingrith was agricultural labour, Other popular occupations during this time were, farmers employing labourers, retail and servants. In 1881 agricultural work was very popular in the Tingrith area. Although information for male occupations was well recorded, 50% of female occupations were unknown in 1881, of the female occupations that were recorded in 1881, the most common were for women to work in the domestic services or offices or working with dress.
As 84% of the occupations were labourers or servants in 1831, along with this, in 1831 only 11% of the population were employers or professionals. As seen from the graphs above, today in Tingrith, the most common occupations for males are leading roles and this is closely followed by jobs in skilled trade. This is very different to the most common occupation in 1881, the most common occupation among females is a working professional, this is closely followed by jobs in leading roles, such as managers and senior officials. It is clear that far more women are working today than back in 1881, according to the 2011 census,71. 3% of the population of Tingrith are over the age of 30. The ethnic make up of the area is white,89. 5% of the population in this area are White. The rest of the population are White Irish, White Other, Mixed Ethnic Group- White and Black Caribbean, Mixed ethnic group- other, Asian/Asian British- Indian and Black British- Caribbean. The area had a population around the 1870s of approximately 210 residents.
This rose steadily to todays population of 153 residents, today the percentage of people over the age of 16, with 5 or more GCSE grades A-C is 20%, higher than the national average of 15. 2%. Along with this, the percentage of unemployed in Tingrith is only 1. 7%, in 1831 there were 27 houses in Tingrith but this rose to 46 houses in 1951 and dropped to 42 houses ten years later, in 1961. House prices in Tingrith range from approximately £120,000 up to £765,000, the closest rail stations are Flitwick and Harlington, which are within a 2-mile radius of Tingrith
Goldsmiths Hall is a Grade I building at the junction of Foster Lane and Gresham Street in the City of London. It has served as an office and the headquarters of Londons goldsmith guild. The Company has been based at this location since 1339, the present building being their third hall on the site, little is known about the first hall. The second hall was built circa 1634-36 and restored after the Great Fire of London in 1666, the third and present hall was designed by Philip Hardwick. The hall is entirely detached, and occupies an entire block, despite its great size, it is the second largest livery hall after the Worshipful Company of Plaisterers Plaisterers Hall at One London Wall. Those present at the dinner in 1835 included the Duke of Wellington. In 1941 a bomb exploded in its southwest corner, but amazingly the building survived and was restored after the World War II. From time to time, the Master and Wardens provide for open days to visit Goldsmiths Hall, samuel Pepys viewed the funeral of Sir Thomas Vyner from Goldsmiths Hall.
Pepys wore his best silk suit for the occasion, but the hall was so full of people that he left for Paternoster Square to order a new, ordinary silk suit. The process by members of the hall evaluated and stamped precious metals gave rise to the term hallmarking. Originally, a hallmark was impressed or engraved on ingots of gold and silver to certify their composition, the term is now more commonly used figuratively. The City of London, A Companion Guide
Victoria and Albert Museum
The Victoria and Albert Museum, London, is the worlds largest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 4.5 million objects. It was founded in 1852 and named after Queen Victoria and Prince Albert and these include the Natural History Museum, the Science Museum and the Royal Albert Hall. The museum is a public body sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media. Like other national British museums, entrance to the museum has been free since 2001, the V&A covers 12.5 acres and 145 galleries. Its collection spans 5,000 years of art, from ancient times to the present day, from the cultures of Europe, North America and North Africa. The museum owns the worlds largest collection of sculpture, with the holdings of Italian Renaissance items being the largest outside Italy. The departments of Asia include art from South Asia, Japan, the East Asian collections are among the best in Europe, with particular strengths in ceramics and metalwork, while the Islamic collection is amongst the largest in the Western world.
Overall, it is one of the largest museums in the world, New 17th- and 18th-century European galleries were opened on 9 December 2015. These restored the original Aston Webb interiors and host the European collections 1600–1815, at this stage the collections covered both applied art and science. Several of the exhibits from the Exhibition were purchased to form the nucleus of the collection, by February 1854 discussions were underway to transfer the museum to the current site and it was renamed South Kensington Museum. In 1855 the German architect Gottfried Semper, at the request of Cole, produced a design for the museum, but it was rejected by the Board of Trade as too expensive. The site was occupied by Brompton Park House, this was extended including the first refreshment rooms opened in 1857, the official opening by Queen Victoria was on 22 June 1857. In the following year, late night openings were introduced, made possible by the use of gas lighting, in these early years the practical use of the collection was very much emphasised as opposed to that of High Art at the National Gallery and scholarship at the British Museum.
George Wallis, the first Keeper of Fine Art Collection, passionately promoted the idea of art education through the museum collections. From the 1860s to the 1880s the scientific collections had been moved from the museum site to various improvised galleries to the west of Exhibition Road. In 1893 the Science Museum had effectively come into existence when a director was appointed. The laying of the stone of the Aston Webb building on 17 May 1899 was the last official public appearance by Queen Victoria. It was during this ceremony that the change of name from the South Kensington Museum to the Victoria, the exhibition which the museum organised to celebrate the centennial of the 1899 renaming, A Grand Design, first toured in North America from 1997, returning to London in 1999
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
A silversmith is a craftsman who crafts objects from silver. However most goldsmiths have worked in silver although the reverse may not be the case, Silversmith is the art of turning silver sheet metal into hollow ware and other articles of household silver, church plate or sculpture. It may include the making of jewelry, in the ancient Near East the value of silver to gold being less, allowed a silversmith to produce objects and store these as stock. Ogden states that according to a written by Diocletian in 301 A. D. a silversmith was able to charge 75,100,150,200,250. At that time, guilds of silversmiths formed to arbitrate disputes, protect its members welfare, silversmiths in medieval Europe and England formed guilds and transmitted their tools and techniques to new generations via the apprentice tradition. Silver working guilds often maintained consistency and upheld standards at the expense of innovation, beginning in the 17th century, artisans emigrated to America and experienced fewer restrictions.
As a result, silver working was one of the trades that helped to inaugurate the shift to industrialization in America, the Falasha Clan, or Beta Israel, of Ethiopia were known for their silversmithing skills. Silversmiths saw or cut specific shapes from sterling and fine silver sheet metal and bar stock, as the metal is hammered and worked, it work-hardens. Annealing is the heat-treatment used to make the metal soft again, if metal is work-hardened, and not annealed occasionally, the metal will crack and weaken the work. Silversmiths can use casting techniques to create knobs and feet for the hollowware they are making, after forming and casting, the various pieces may be assembled by soldering and riveting. During most of their history, silversmiths used charcoal or coke fired forges, modern silversmiths commonly use gas burning torches as heat sources. A newer method is laser beam welding, silversmiths may work with copper and brass, especially when making practice pieces, due to those materials being more inexpensive than silver.
Although jewelers work in silver and gold, and many of the techniques for working precious metals overlap, chain-making and gem-setting are common practices of jewelers that are not usually considered aspects of silversmiths. The tradition of making armor was interrupted sometime after the 17th century and goldsmithing, by contrast, have an unbroken tradition going back many millennia. The techniques used to make armor today are an amalgam of silversmith forming techniques, in the western Canadian silversmith tradition, guilds do not exist, mentoring through colleagues becomes a method of professional learning within a community of craftspersons. In the Canadian western tradition, silversmithing is done through hand tooling, there are silversmiths who only make jewellery and there are silversmiths who only make utensils. * still living. ** Garrad & Co. was founded by George Wickes in London in 1722, silverwork and jewelry, a text-book for students and workers in metal Sampson Mordan British Silversmith