Fotheringhay is a village and civil parish in Northamptonshire, six kilometres north-east of Oundle and around 16 kilometres west of Peterborough. It is most noted for being the site of Fotheringhay Castle, razed in 1627. There is nothing left of the castle to be seen today other than the motte on which it was built that provides excellent views of the River Nene; the Nene Way long distance footpath runs through the village. As the home of the great Yorkist line, the village was, for a considerable part of the 15th and 16th centuries, of national standing; the death of Richard III at Bosworth Field altered its history irrevocably. As the historian John Nicholls stated, "Fotheringhay has been distinguished beyond any other place in Britain, except the Capital, by the aggravated misfortunes of Royalty."At the time of the 2001 census, the parish's population was 123 people, reducing to 119 at the 2011 census. The first written mention of a settlement here was in 1060, the Domesday Book lists the site as'Fodringeia'.
John Leland wrote this as'Foderingeye' or "Fodering inclosure", referring to the section of the forest, segregated for the purpose of producing hay. During the medieval period the village was variously mentioned as Foderingey, Foderinghay and Fotheringhaye. Access to the village was via a ford of the Nene adjacent to the former castle site; the first bridge built was ordered by Elizabeth I in 1573. The present bridge was built by George Portwood of Stamford in 1722 under the orders of the Earl of Nottingham proprietor of the estate. In medieval times, it hosted a weekly market, held between at least the start of the fourteenth century and around the mid-fifteenth century, was the site of an annual fair beginning on the eve of the feast of St Michael. Sixteenth-century Fotheringhay, as observed by Leland, consisted a single street of around 40 houses and a population of around 300. In the 17th century the population dropped when the castle was destroyed. By 1811 it had risen to a peak of around 310 but has fallen since.
The present population is 125. The village was home to a renowned grammar school, believed to have been formed as the continuation of the collegiate church and founded by Edward VI. Notable former residents include Walter de Foderingey, the first principal of Balliol College, Oxford in 1282; the lordship of the town and the castle passed through many hands through the years. From the Earl of Newport, the lordship passed to George Savile, 1st Marquess of Halifax, thence to his son, William Savile, the second Marquis, who died without issue; the manor and castle were sold by his father-in-law, Daniel Finch, 2nd Earl of Nottingham, to Hewer Edgeley Hewer. Hewer himself died without issue on 6 November 1728, when it passed to Hewer's heirs, the Blackborne family. In 1797 Samuel Pepys's great-great-nephew Samuel Pepys Cockerell sold the estate of Rev. Abraham Blackborne in Fotheringhay; the lordship of the manor and castle came to the Belsey family. After the manor came into the possession of Edward III he passed it to his son Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, founder of the Yorkist line.
The castle became the home of the Dukes of York. Richard III was born there in 1452, his father, Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York was re-buried at the nearby church in 1476. Duke Richard's wife, Cecily Neville, Duchess of York, was interred in the same tomb; the tomb opposite contains the body of Edward, the 2nd Duke of York, killed at the Battle of Agincourt. Fotheringhay is where Mary, Queen of Scots, was tried and beheaded in 1587, her body lay there for some months before its burial at Peterborough Cathedral and its final burial in Westminster Abbey. Although it is said that James I destroyed the castle because his mother was killed there, the facts are rather more prosaic. Local legend has it; the work on the present church was begun by Edward III who built a college as a cloister on the church's southern side. After completion in around 1430, a parish church of similar style was added to the western end of the collegiate church with work beginning in 1434, it is the parish church. The large present church is named in honour of St Mary and All Saints, has a distinctive tall tower dominating the local skyline.
The church is Perpendicular in style and although only the nave and octagonal tower remain of the original building it is still in the best style of its period. The church contains a notable 15th-century painted pulpit donated by Edward IV. Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York, killed at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, his wife, Cecily Neville as well as his son Edmund, Earl of Rutland, who with Richard himself, fell at the Battle of Wakefield in 1460, are buried in the church. After the choir of the church was destroyed in the 16th century, Elizabeth I ordered the removal of the smashed York tombs and created the present monuments to the third Duke and his wife around the altar; the birthday of Richard III is commemorated annually by the Richard III Society by the placing of white roses in the church. Pictures of Fotheringhay Map sources for Fotheringhay
George Manners, 11th Baron de Ros
George Manners, 11th Baron de Ros of Helmsley was an English peer. George Manners, born about 1470, was the son of Sir Robert Manners of Etal and Eleanor de Ros or Roos, eldest daughter of Thomas de Ros, 9th Baron de Ros, Philippa Tiptoft, daughter of John Tiptoft, 1st Baron Tiptoft and Powis, he had two sisters: Edward Manners. Elizabeth Manners, who married Sir William Fairfax of Steeton, Justice of the Common Pleas and heir of Sir Guy Fairfax of Steeton, Chief Justice of Lancaster, by Margaret, daughter of Sir William Ryther. A descendant of this marriage was the Parliamentary commander, Thomas Fairfax, 3rd Lord Fairfax of Cameron, who on 20 June 1637 married Anne Vere, daughter of Horace Vere, 1st Baron Vere of Tilbury, Mary Tracy, their daughter, Mary Fairfax, married George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, whose mother, was the daughter of Francis Manners, 6th Earl of Rutland. Cecily Manners, who married Thomas Fairfax. Manners was enrolled at Lincoln's Inn on 12 May 1490. In 1508 he was coheir to Edmund de Ros, 10th Baron de Ros.
In 1492 it had been determined that Edmund de Ros was unable to administer his own affairs, he was placed in the custody of his brother-in-law, Sir Thomas Lovell, husband of Manners' aunt, Isabel Lovell. Edmund de Ros died 23 October 1508, was buried in the parish church at Elsing in Enfield, Middlesex. In about 1509 Manners was sole heir to Isabel Lovell. Manners was with Thomas Howard Earl of Surrey, in the Scottish campaign of 1497, was knighted by him on or before 30 September of that year, he was in attendance in 1500. In November 1501 he was among those, he was nominated to the Order of the Garter on 27 April 1510. In 1513 Manners campaigned in France, he was a commander at the siege of Thérouanne, was present at the siege of Tournai. He fell ill about the time Tournai surrendered on 23 September 1513. Manners died 27 October 1513, either at Holywell in Shoreditch, he may have been first buried at Holywell, his body removed to St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. His effigy is in the Rutland Chapel.
His widow, died 21 April 1526, was buried at St. George's, Windsor. Manners owned a medieval manuscript copy of a chanson de geste, Les Voeux du Paon, by Jacques de Longuyon, now Spencer Collection MS 009 in the New York Public Library. Manners wrote his name on a flyleaf of folio i verso, which may be viewed online. Manners married, about 1490, Anne St Leger and heiress of Thomas St. Leger by Anne of York, Duchess of Exeter, the second child and eldest surviving daughter of Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York, Cecily Neville, daughter of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland. Anne of York was the elder sister of King Edward IV. George Manners and Anne St Leger had five sons and six daughters: Thomas Manners, 1st Earl of Rutland, who married Eleanor Paston, credited with saying to Anne of Cleves,'Madam there must be more to it than that, or it will be long before we have a Duke of York which all this realm much desireth', their son, Henry Manners, 2nd Earl of Rutland, married Margaret Neville, daughter of Ralph Neville, 4th Earl of Westmorland by Katherine Stafford.
Oliver Manners. Anthony Manners. Sir Richard Manners. John Manners. Anne Manners, who married Sir Henry Capell. Eleanor Manners, who married John Bourchier, 2nd Earl of Bath. Elizabeth Manners, who married Thomas Sandys, 2nd Baron Sandys. Katherine Manners known as Catherine Manners, who married Sir Robert Constable. Cecily Manners. Margaret Manners, who married firstly, Sir Henry Strangeways, secondly, Robert Heneage, his monument, consisting of a grand chest tomb with sculpted effigies of himself and his wife, survives in the Rutland Chantry forming the north transept of St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. The base of the monument and the stained glass windows display much heraldry of the Manners and St Leger families. Cokayne, George Edward; the Complete Peerage, edited by Geoffrey H. White. XI. London: St. Catherine Press. Pp. 105–8. Richardson, Douglas. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham. I. Salt Lake City. ISBN 1449966373 Richardson, Douglas. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham.
III. Salt Lake City. ISBN 144996639X Images from manuscript of Les Voeux du Paon owned by George Manners, New York Public Library Description of Manners copy of Les Voeux du Paon at Digital Scriptorium
Battle of Wakefield
The Battle of Wakefield took place in Sandal Magna near Wakefield in northern England, on 30 December 1460. It was a major battle of the Wars of the Roses; the opposing forces were an army led by nobles loyal to the captive King Henry VI of the House of Lancaster and his Queen Margaret of Anjou on one side, the army of Richard, Duke of York, the rival claimant to the throne, on the other. For several years before the battle, the Duke of York had become opposed to the weak King Henry's court. After Henry became his prisoner, he lacked sufficient support. Instead, in an agreement known as the Act of Accord, he was made Henry's heir to the throne, displacing from the succession Henry's and Margaret's 7-year-old son Edward, Prince of Wales. Margaret of Anjou and several prominent nobles were irreconcilably opposed to this accord, massed their armies in the north. Richard of York found he was outnumbered. Although he occupied Sandal Castle, York sortied from the castle on 30 December, his reasons for doing so have been variously ascribed to deception by the Lancastrian armies, or treachery by some nobles and Lancastrian officers who York thought were his allies, or simple rashness or miscalculation by York.
The Duke of York was killed and his army was destroyed, many of the prominent Yorkist leaders and their family members died in the battle or were captured and executed. King Henry VI ascended the throne in 1422, he grew up to be an ineffective king, prone to spells of mental illness. There were bitter divisions among the officials and councillors who governed in Henry's name over the conduct of the Hundred Years' War with France. By the early 1450s, the most important rivalry was that between Richard, Duke of York, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset. York argued for a more vigorous prosecution of the war, to recover territories lost to the French, while Somerset belonged to the party which tried to secure peace by making concessions. York had been Lieutenant in France for several years and resented being supplanted in that office by Somerset, who had failed to defend Normandy against French armies. York was not only the wealthiest magnate in the land, but was descended through both his parents from King Edward III, leading to calls that he be recognised as successor to the childless King Henry.
His rival, belonged to the Beaufort family, who were distant cousins of King Henry. Illegitimate, the Beauforts had been made legitimate by an Act of Parliament but were barred from the line of succession to the throne. However, there was always the possibility that this could be circumvented and the Beaufort line produced King Henry VII and the Tudor dynasty. York was appointed Lieutenant of Ireland exiling him from court, while Somerset increased his influence over the King. In 1452, York marched on London in an attempt to force Henry to dismiss Somerset from the government, but at this stage he lacked support and was forced to swear not to take arms against the King at Old St Paul's Cathedral. In 1453, Henry VI suffered a complete mental breakdown; the Great Council of peers appointed York Lord Protector and he governed the country responsibly, but Henry recovered his sanity after eighteen months and restored Somerset to favour. During Henry's madness his Queen, Margaret of Anjou, had given birth to a son, which dashed York's hopes of becoming king if Henry died.
Fearing arrest for treason and his most prominent allies, the Nevilles resorted to armed force in 1455. At the First Battle of St Albans, many of York's and Salisbury's rivals and enemies were killed, including Somerset, the Earl of Northumberland and Lord Clifford. After the battle, York reaffirmed his loyalty to King Henry, found abandoned in a shop in the town, he was reappointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Margaret of Anjou suspected York of wishing to supplant her infant son, Edward, as Henry's successor, the heirs of the Lancastrian nobles who were killed at St Albans remained at deadly feud with York. After an uneasy peace during which attempts at reconciliation failed, hostilities broke out again in 1459. Richard of York once again feared indictment for rebellion by a Great Council dominated by his opponents, he and the Nevilles concentrated their forces near York's stronghold at Ludlow Castle in the Welsh Marches but at the confrontation with the royal army which became known as the Battle of Ludford, some of Warwick's contingent from the garrison of Calais, led by experienced captain Andrew Trollope, defected overnight.
York and the Nevilles fled. The next day, the outnumbered and leaderless Yorkist army surrendered. York went to Ireland, where he had unchallenged support, while Salisbury and York's eldest son Edward, Earl of March made their way to Calais, where Warwick was Constable, they narrowly forestalled the new Duke of Somerset. Lancastrian attempts to reassert their authority over Ireland and Calais failed, but York and his supporters were declared traitors and attainted; the victorious Lancastrians became reviled for the manner in which their army had looted the town of Ludlow after the Yorkist surrender at Ludford Bridge, the repressive acts of a compliant Parliament of Devils which caused many uncommitted peers to fear for their own property and titles. The country remained in disorder. In 1460, the Nevilles invaded England through a foothold the
Armorial of the House of Plantagenet
The House of Plantagenet was the first armigerous royal dynasty of England. The arms of this noble royal, Gules, three lions passant guardant or, termed colloquially "the arms of England" signifying the "arms of the royal house of England", were first adopted by King Richard the Lionheart, son of King Henry II of England, son of Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou; the various cadet branches descended from this family bore differenced versions of the arms of England. The heiresses of Norfolk and Kent transmitted the Plantagenet arms to non-Plantagenet families: Henry VI of England granted differenced versions of the Plantagenet arms to his maternal half-brothers; this was an extraordinary grant. Royal arms of England House of Plantagenet Issue of Edward III of England House of Lancaster House of York House of Beaufort War of the Roses Citations Bibliography Ailes, The Origins of The Royal Arms of England, Reading: Graduate Center for Medieval Studies, University of Reading, ISBN 0704907763 Baynes, T.
S.. R. eds. "Heraldry", Encyclopædia Britannica, 11, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 689 Brooke-Little, J. P. FSA, Boutell's Heraldry, London: Frederick Warne LTD, ISBN 0-7232-2096-4 Burke, Burke's genealogical and heraldic history of peerage and knightage, New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, p. 207. "Portrait of William Somerset, 3rd Earl of Worcester", Wikimedia Commons, 13 July 2018 Fox-Davies, Complete Guide to Heraldry, New York: Bonanza Books, ISBN 1602390010 Gurney, E. Henry, Reference handbook for readers and teachers of English history, Boston: Ginn & Company, p. 55 Louda, Jiří. ISBN 0517545586 Pinches, John Harvey. R. B. "Somerset, third earl of Worcester", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/26015
Buckingham's rebellion was a failed but significant uprising, or collection of uprisings, of October 1483 in England and parts of Wales against Richard III of England. To the extent that these local risings had a central coordination, the plot revolved around Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, who had become disaffected from Richard, had backing from the exiled Henry Tudor and his mother Margaret Beaufort. Rebels took arms against the king, they included many loyalists of Edward V, others, Yorkist supporters of his father Edward IV. Seven ships from Brittany carrying over 500 Breton soldiers, Henry Tudor, many of his supporters were to have risen against Richard III. A gale prevented this planned landing from being carried out, in England a premature uprising in Kent forewarned Richard that Buckingham had changed sides; when his brother King Edward IV died in April 1483, Richard of Gloucester was named Lord Protector of the realm for Edward's son and successor, the 12-year-old Edward V.
As the young king travelled to London from Ludlow, Richard met and escorted him to lodgings in the Tower of London, where Edward V's own brother Richard of Shrewsbury joined him shortly afterwards. Arrangements were made for Edward's coronation on 22 June 1483. On 25 June, an assembly of commoners endorsed the claims; the following day, Richard III began his reign, he was crowned on 6 July 1483. The young princes were not seen in public after August, accusations circulated that the boys had been murdered on Richard's orders, giving rise to the legend of the Princes in the Tower. In late September 1483, a conspiracy arose among a number of disaffected gentry, many of whom had been supporters of Edward IV and the "whole Yorkist establishment"; the conspiracy was nominally led by Richard's former ally and first cousin once removed Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, although it had begun as a Woodville-Beaufort conspiracy. Indeed, Davies has suggested that it was "only the subsequent parliamentary attainder that placed Buckingham at the centre of events", in order to blame a single disaffected magnate motivated by greed, rather than "the embarrassing truth" that those opposing Richard were "overwhelmingly Edwardian loyalists".
It is possible that they planned to depose Richard III and place Edward V back on the throne, that when rumours arose that Edward and his brother were dead, Buckingham proposed that Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond should return from exile, take the throne and marry Elizabeth of York, elder sister of the Tower Princes. The Lancastrian claim to the throne had descended to Henry Tudor on the death of Henry VI and his son Edward of Westminster in 1471. Henry's father, Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond, had been a half-brother of Henry VI, but Henry's claim to royalty was through his mother, Margaret Beaufort, she was descended from John Beaufort, a son of John of Gaunt and thus a grandson of Edward III. John Beaufort had been illegitimate at birth, though legitimised by the marriage of his parents, it had been a condition of the legitimation that the Beaufort descendants forfeited their rights to the crown. Henry had spent much of his childhood under siege in exile in Brittany. After 1471, Edward IV had preferred to belittle Henry's pretensions to the crown, made only sporadic attempts to secure him.
However his mother, Margaret Beaufort, had been twice remarried, first to Buckingham's uncle, to Thomas, Lord Stanley, one of Edward's principal officers, continually promoted her son's rights. Buckingham's precise motivation has been called "obscure"; the traditional naming of the rebellion after him has been labelled a misnomer, with John Morton and Reginald Bray more plausible leaders. Henry, in exile in Brittany, enjoyed the support of the Breton treasurer Pierre Landais, who hoped Buckingham's victory would cement an alliance between Brittany and England; some of Henry Tudor's ships ran into a storm and were forced to return to Brittany or Normandy, while Henry himself anchored off Plymouth for a week before learning of Buckingham's failure. For his part, Buckingham raised a substantial force from his estates in Wales and the Marches. Buckingham's army was troubled by the same storm and deserted when Richard's forces came against them. Richard in the field defeated the rising in a few weeks.
Buckingham tried to escape in disguise, but was either turned in by a retainer for the bounty Richard had put on his head, or was discovered in hiding with him. He was beheaded in Salisbury, near the Bull's Head Inn, on 2 November, his widow, Catherine Woodville married Jasper Tudor, the uncle of Henry Tudor, in the process of organising another rebellion. In military terms it was a complete failure, it did, deepen the opinion of many towards Richard as king, its effect over the next few months was to drive a number of leading figures into Henry Tudor's camp. Five hundred Englishmen slipped through the King's net and found their way to Rennes, the capital of Brittany, where in desperation or fresh expectation they forged an alliance with the Earl of Richmond; the failure of Buckingham's revolt was not the end of the plots against Richard, who could never again feel secure, who suffered the loss of his wife in March 1485 and eleven-year-old son in April 1484, putting the future of the Yorkist dynasty in doubt.
Cecily Neville, Duchess of York
Cecily Neville was an English noblewoman, the wife of Richard, Duke of York, the mother of two kings of England, Edward IV and Richard III. Cecily Neville was known as "the Rose of Raby", because she was born at Raby Castle in Durham, "Proud Cis", because of her pride and a temper that went with it, although she was known for her piety, she herself signed her name "Cecylle". Her husband, the Duke of York, was the leading contender for the throne of England from the House of York during the period of the War of the Roses until his death in 1460, their son Edward assumed the throne as Edward IV in 1461, after the deposition of King Henry VI of the House of Lancaster. The Duchess of York thus narrowly missed becoming queen consort of England. Cecily Neville was a daughter of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland, her paternal grandparents were John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby, Maud Percy, daughter of Henry de Percy, 2nd Baron Percy. Her maternal grandparents were John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, his third wife Katherine Swynford.
John of Gaunt was the third surviving son of King Edward III of Philippa of Hainault. She was the aunt of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, one of the leading peers and military commanders of his generation, a grand-aunt of queen consort Anne Neville who married her son Richard III, a great-great-grand-aunt of queen consort Catherine Parr, sixth wife of her great-grandson, King Henry VIII. In 1424, when Cecily was nine years old, she was betrothed by her father to his thirteen-year-old ward, Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York. Ralph Neville died in October 1425, bequeathing the wardship of Richard to Joan Beaufort. Cecily and Richard were married by October 1429, their first child, Anne of York, was born in August 1439 in Northamptonshire. When Richard became a king's lieutenant and governor general of France in 1441 and moved to Rouen, Cecily moved with him, their son Henry died soon after. Their next son, the future King Edward IV, was born in Rouen on 28 April 1442 and baptised in a small side chapel.
He would be accused of illegitimacy by his cousin, Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, by his own brother, Duke of Clarence, a common method of discrediting political enemies. George and Warwick were in dispute with Edward at the time and seeking to overthrow him as king; the claims would be dismissed. Nonetheless, some modern historians give serious consideration to the question, use Edward's date of birth as supporting evidence: assuming Edward was not premature, Richard of York would have been several days' march from Cecily at the time of conception and the baby's baptism was a simple and private affair, unlike that of his younger brother Edmund, Earl of Rutland, public and lavish); this is countered by other historians, who point out that Cecily's husband could by the military conventions of the time, have returned to Rouen, where Cecily was living at the time, while baptism conventions of the time meant that a low-key baptism would be more due to Richard of York's low political standing at the time and fears for the baby's survival.
If the difference in baptisms was to be taken as a disavowal of an otherwise acknowledged and cherished heir, it would not only be a humiliation of a wife Richard otherwise valued before and after Edward's birth, but a personal and political humiliation. In any case, Richard acknowledged the baby as his own. Around 1454, when Richard began to resent the influence of Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset, Cecily spoke with Queen consort Margaret of Anjou on his behalf; when Henry VI suffered a nervous breakdown in the year, Richard of York established himself as a Protector. After the outbreak of the Wars of the Roses in 1455, Cecily remained at their home, Ludlow Castle after Richard fled to Ireland and Continental Europe. At the same time, she surreptitiously worked for the cause of the House of York; when a parliament began to debate the fate of the Duke of York and his supporters in November 1459, Cecily travelled to London to plead for her husband. One contemporary commentator stated that she had reputedly convinced the king to promise a pardon if the duke would appear in the parliament in eight days.
This effort failed, Richard's lands were confiscated, but Cecily managed to gain an annual grant of £600 to support herself and her children. After the Yorkist victory at the Battle of Northampton in July 1460, Cecily moved to London with her children and lived with the lawyer John Paston, she carried the royal arms before Richard in triumph in London in September. When the Duke of York and his heirs were recognised as Henry VI's successors in the Act of Accord, Cecily became a queen-in-waiting and received a copy of the English chronicle from the chronicler John Hardyng, but in the Battle of Wakefield on 30 December 1460, the Lancastrians won a decisive victory. The Duke of York, his second son Edmund, Earl of Rutland, Cecily's brother Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury, were among the casualties. Cecily sent her two youngest sons and Richard, to the court of Philip III, Duke of Burgundy; this forced Philip to ally with the Yorkists. Cecily's eldest son Edward continued the fight against the Lancastrians.
When Cecily moved to Baynard's Castle in London, it became the Yorkist headquarters, after Edward defeated the Lancastrians and ascended the throne, she was honored as the mother of the king. During the beginning of Edward's reign, Cecily appeared beside him and maintained her
Richard III of England
Richard III was King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1483 until his death. He was the last king of the last of the Plantagenet dynasty, his defeat and death at the Battle of Bosworth Field, the last decisive battle of the Wars of the Roses, marked the end of the Middle Ages in England. He is the protagonist of Richard III, one of William Shakespeare's history plays; when his brother Edward IV died in April 1483, Richard was named Lord Protector of the realm for Edward's eldest son and successor, the 12-year-old Edward V. Arrangements were made for Edward's coronation on 22 June 1483. Before the king could be crowned, the marriage of his parents was declared bigamous and therefore invalid. Now illegitimate, their children were barred from inheriting the throne. On 25 June, an assembly of Lords and commoners endorsed a declaration to this effect and proclaimed Richard as the rightful king, he was crowned on 6 July 1483. The young princes and his younger brother Richard, Duke of York, were not seen in public after August and accusations circulated that they had been murdered on Richard's orders.
There were two major rebellions against Richard during his reign. In October 1483, an unsuccessful revolt was led by staunch allies of Edward IV and Richard's former ally, Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham. In August 1485, Henry Tudor and his uncle, Jasper Tudor landed in southern Wales with a contingent of French troops and marched through Pembrokeshire, recruiting soldiers. Henry's forces defeated Richard's army near the Leicestershire town of Market Bosworth. Richard was slain. Henry Tudor ascended the throne as Henry VII. Richard's corpse was buried without pomp, his original tomb monument is believed to have been removed during the English Reformation, his remains were lost, as they were believed to have been thrown into the River Soar. In 2012, an archaeological excavation was commissioned by the Richard III Society on the site occupied by Greyfriars Priory Church; the University of Leicester identified the skeleton found in the excavation as that of Richard III as a result of radiocarbon dating, comparison with contemporary reports of his appearance, comparison of his mitochondrial DNA with that of two matrilineal descendants of Richard III's eldest sister, Anne of York.
He was reburied in Leicester Cathedral on 26 March 2015. Richard was born on 2 October 1452 at Fotheringhay Castle in Northamptonshire, the twelfth of 13 children of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville, his childhood coincided with the beginning of what has traditionally been labelled the'Wars of the Roses', a period of political instability and periodic open civil war in England during the second half of the fifteenth century, between the Yorkists, who supported Richard's father, opposed the regime of Henry VI and his wife, Margaret of Anjou, the Lancastrians, who were loyal to the crown. When his father and the Nevilles were forced to flee to Ludlow in 1459, Richard and his older brother, George were placed in the custody of the Duchess of Buckingham, the Archbishop of Canterbury; when his father and elder brother Edmund, Earl of Rutland, were killed at the Battle of Wakefield on 30 December 1460, Richard and George were sent by their mother to the Low Countries. They returned to England following the defeat of the Lancastrians at the Battle of Towton.
They participated in the coronation of Richard's eldest brother as King Edward IV on 28 June 1461, when Richard was named Duke of Gloucester and made both a Knight of the Garter and a Knight of the Bath. Edward appointed him the sole Commissioner of Array for the Western Counties in 1464, when he was 11. By the age of 17, he had an independent command. Richard spent several years during his childhood at Middleham Castle in Wensleydale, under the tutelage of his cousin the Earl of Warwick known as the Kingmaker because of his role in the Wars of the Roses. Warwick supervised Richard's training as a knight: in the autumn of 1465 Edward IV granted Warwick £1000 for the expenses of his younger brother's tutelage. With some interruptions, Richard stayed at Middleham either from late 1461 until early 1465, when he was 12 or from 1465 until his coming of age in 1468, when he turned 16. While at Warwick's estate, it is that he met both Francis Lovell, who would be his firm supporter in his life, Warwick's younger daughter, his future wife Anne Neville.
It is possible that at this early stage Warwick was considering the king's brothers as strategic matches for his daughters and Anne: young aristocrats were sent to be raised in the households of their intended future partners, as had been the case for the young dukes' father, Richard of York. As the relationship between the king and Warwick became strained, Edward IV opposed the match. During Warwick's lifetime, George was the only royal brother to marry one of his daughters, the eldest, Isabel, on 12 July 1469, without the king's permission. George joined his father-in-law's revolt against the king, while Richard remained loyal to Edward though rumour coupled Richard's name with Anne Neville until August 1469. Richard and Edward were forced to flee to Burgundy in October 1470 after Warwick defected to the side of the former Lancastrian queen Margaret of Anjou. In 1468, Richard's sister Margaret had married Charles the Bold, the Duke of Burgundy, the brothers could expect a welcome there. Edward was restored to the throne in the spring 1471, following the battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury, both of which the eighteen-year-old Richard played a crucial role.
During his adolescence