Capacity building is the process by which individuals and organizations obtain and retain the skills, tools and other resources needed to do their jobs competently or to a greater capacity. Capacity building and capacity development are used interchangeably. Community capacity building is a conceptual approach to social, behavioral change and leads to infrastructure development, it focuses on understanding the obstacles that inhibit people, international organizations and non-governmental organizations from realizing their development goals and enhancing the abilities that will allow them to achieve measurable and sustainable results. The term community capacity building emerged in the lexicon of international development during the 1990s. Today, "community capacity building" is included in the programs of most international organizations that work in development, such as the World Bank, the United Nations and non-governmental organizations like Oxfam International. Wide use of the term has resulted in controversy over its true meaning.
Community capacity building refers to strengthening the skills and abilities of people and communities in small businesses and local grassroots movements so they can achieve their goals and overcome the causes of their exclusion and suffering. Organizational capacity building is used by NGOs & Governments to guide their internal development and activities. Many organizations interpret community capacity building in their own ways and focus on it rather than promoting two-way development in developing nations. Fundraising, training centers, exposure visit and documentation support, on the job training, learning centers and consultants are all some forms of capacity building. To prevent international aid for development from becoming perpetual dependency, developing nations are adopting strategies provided by the organizations in the form of capacity building; the United Nations Development Programme was one of the forerunners in developing an understanding of community capacity building or development.
Since the early 70s the UNDP offered guidance for its staff and governments on what was considered "institution building". The UNISDR defines capacity development in the DRR domain as "the process by which people and society systematically stimulate and develop their capability over time to achieve social and economic goals, including through improvement of knowledge, skills and institutions – within a wider social and cultural enabling environment."In 1991, the term evolved to be "community capacity building". The UNDP defines capacity building as a long-term continual process of development that involves all stakeholders. Capacity building uses a country's human, technological and institutional and resource capabilities; the goal of capacity building is to tackle problems related to policy and methods of development, while considering the potential and needs of the people of the country concerned. The UNDP outlines that capacity building takes place on an individual level, an institutional level and the societal level.
Individual level – Community capacity-building on an individual level requires the development of conditions that allow individual participants to build and enhance knowledge and skills. It calls for the establishment of conditions that will allow individuals to engage in the "process of learning and adapting to change". Institutional level – Community capacity building on an institutional level should involve aiding institutions in developing countries, it should not involve creating new institutions, rather modernizing existing institutions and supporting them in forming sound policies, organizational structures, effective methods of management and revenue control. Societal level – Community capacity building at the societal level should support the establishment of a more "interactive public administration that learns from its actions and from feedback it receives from the population at large." Community capacity building must be used to develop public administrators that are responsive and accountable.
Non Training Level- providing enabling environment to the trained staff to perform at his optimum level. Holding similar views to the UNDP about systems nature of capacity, Wakely believed that thinking about capacity building as training or human resource development was too limiting and that there needed to be a shift from that mindset, he believed increasing the capacity of the individual was not enough to contribute to the advancement of sustainable development alone, needed to be paired with a supportive institutional and organizational environment. The three aspects of capacity building that Wakely believed essential to creating better cities are human resource development, organizational development, institutional development. Human resource development defined as "the process of equipping people with the understanding and skills, access to the information and knowledge to perform effectively", is where Wakely believes too much emphasis and efforts are focused here. Organizational development involves the processes of how things get done within an organization and requires examining how and why an organization does something and what could be improved.
Institutional development is the "legal and regulatory changes" that must be made in order for organizations to enhance their capacities. Community capacity building is defined as the "process of developing and strengthening the skills, abili
Annenberg Community Beach House
The Annenberg Community Beach House at Santa Monica State Beach is a public beach facility built on the location of a now-demolished 110-room mansion, built for Marion Davies by William Randolph Hearst. The mansion's original pool was restored by the Annenberg Foundation and opened to the public on a fee-for-entry basis in 2009; the pool has a marble deck. One of the mansion's original guest houses still exists and is used for events. New facilities include a pool house with changing areas and a second floor view deck, a new event house, a splash pad, beach volleyball and tennis courts, a children's play area, public restrooms, beach rentals, a cafe, it got to be as big as the White House. Bigger, maybe. Just like you build with little blocks, he added on, but little blocks wouldn't have cost the money. Built in 1929, Ocean House—later called the Beach House—was a hot spot on Santa Monica's Gold Coast in the 1930s and 1940s, as William Randolph Hearst and Marion Davies entertained Hollywood's elite at Davies' 5-acre estate.
Actress Colleen Moore is reported to have called Ocean House "the biggest house on the beach—the beach between San Diego and Vancouver". Built from designs by Julia Morgan, the complex consisted of five opulently furnished Georgian Revival buildings, including a three-story 110-room mansion where Hearst and Davies lived; the four guest houses were used by Davies' family, 32 servants. There were tennis courts, a 110-foot heated saltwater swimming pool lined with Italian marble, spanned at the center by a Venetian marble bridge; the final cost of Ocean House was $7 million—$3 million for construction and $4 million for furnishings. In 1947, Davies sold the estate for $600,000 to hotelier Joseph Drown, who operated it as a luxury hotel and limited-membership beach club. Over the opposition of neighbors Darryl F. Zanuck and Harold Lloyd, the mansion was demolished in 1956; the estate was developed into a parking lot. The Sand & Sea Club continued until the City of Santa Monica took over operation of the site in 1989.
It was run as a public facility open to event rental and filming until the 1994 Northridge earthquake damaged all structures on site. After the earthquake, the City of Santa Monica conducted an extensive community process to re-envision the role of the site as an important community gathering space; the resulting reuse plan called for a facility with a'light touch' on its surroundings and one that would encourage a diverse group of users. The project sat on hold. In 2005, the Annenberg Foundation, at the recommendation of Wallis Annenberg, made a generous financial commitment to realize the City's vision and preserve the site for public use; the Annenberg Community Beach House at Santa Monica State Beach opened to the public on April 25, 2009, representing a unique partnership between the Annenberg Foundation, California State Parks and the City of Santa Monica. The total construction costs were $30 million. Local residents succeeded in forcing the city to limit its hours of operation. Developed as a design-build partnership between Frederick Fisher and Partners Architects and Charles Pankow Builders, the Annenberg Community Beach House was conceived as a series of indoor/outdoor recreation and event spaces, both formal and informal, woven through the site.
The primary organizing device is a concrete wall that serves a backbone to the disparate elements of the project and as a sound buffer to the adjacent highway. The wall is subtly stained with green stripes to suggest beach awnings; the new buildings and landscape elements of the project were designed to create a public gateway to the beach, an icon for the site's history and a framework for many kinds of community uses, returning the site to its former status as a landmark for the City and southern California. The new entry to the facility exists at its southern end with public parking and public transportation drop off areas. A high trellis frames the entrance on a boardwalk that runs the length of the site, parallel to the water, at the line of the mean high tide when the estate was developed. After the Santa Monica Pier was built, the mean high tide line has shifted to enlarge the beach by four hundred feet; this boardwalk is an index of the gradual changes in nature and is a link to each of the four main areas of the site: the Entrance, the Pool and Pool House, the Event House, the Guest House.
The entrance is flanked by the pre-existing "Back on the Beach" restaurant and public restrooms and showers on one side and the reception and lifeguard building on the other. A shaded children’s play area and restaurant take-out window are just past the entrance on the beach; the historic pool and deck area, with restored tile mosaics and stone paving, is within a landscaped enclosure below the beach level. Facing the pool is a freestanding white colonnade that defines the location and scale of the mansion’s façade; the footprint of the huge structure is delineated on the parking lot behind the Pool House. Behind the colonnade, a series of 14 concrete pillars, each 30 feet high, is the new Pool House with changing rooms and built-in cabana areas lined with wood stained in colors taken from the pool tile. On the second floor is a glass-enclosed event room and open terrace that overlooks the pool, with views along the coast from the Santa Monica Pier to the Santa Monica Mountains and back to Palisades Park Midway along the boardwalk, at the center line of the old mansion, a second boardwalk facilitates accessibility across the deep beach to the water’s edge.
Continuing north, the boardwalk passes beach volleyball courts that maintain the game's presence on the site where it was inv
A visitor center or centre, visitor information center, tourist information center, is a physical location that provides tourist information to visitors. A visitor center may be: A visitor center at a specific attraction or place of interest, such as a landmark, national park, national forest, or state park, providing information and in-depth educational exhibits and artifact displays. A film or other media display is used. If the site has permit requirements or guided tours, the visitor center is the place where these are coordinated. A tourist information center, providing visitors to a location with information on the area's attractions, lodgings and other items relevant to tourism; these centers are operated at the airport or other port of entry, by the local government or chamber of commerce. A visitor center is called an information center. A corporate visitor center, provides visitors with an accessible window into the corporation. Visitor centers used to provide basic information about the place, corporation or event they are celebrating, acting more as the entry way to a place.
The role of the visitor center has been evolving over the past 10 years to become more of an experience and to tell the story of the place or brand it represents. Many have become experiences in their own right. In the United Kingdom, there is a nationwide network of Tourist Information Centres run by the British Tourist Authority, represented online by the VisitBritain website and public relations organisation. Other TICs are run by local authorities or through private organisations such as local shops in association with BTA. In England, VisitEngland promotes domestic tourism. In Wales, the Welsh Government supports TICs through Visit Wales. In Scotland, the Scottish Government supports VisitScotland, the official tourist organisation of Scotland, which operates Tourist Information Centres across Scotland. In Poland there are special tables giving free information about tourist attractions. Offices are situated in interesting places in popular tourists' destinations and tables stay near monuments and important culture In North America, a welcome center is a rest area with a visitor center, located after the entrance from one state or province to another state or province or in some cases another country along an Interstate Highway or other freeway.
These information centers are operated by the state. The first example opened on 4 May 1935, next to US 12 in New Buffalo, near the Indiana state line. Many United States cities, such as Houston and Boca Raton, Florida, as well as counties and other areas smaller than states operate welcome centers, though with less facilities than state centers have. In Ontario, there are 11 Ontario Travel Information Centres located along 400-series highways. Peru features Iperú, Tourist Information and Assistance, a free service that provides tourist information for domestic and foreign travelers, the information covers destinations, recommended routes and licensed tourism companies in Peru, it provides assistance on various procedures or where tourists have problems of various kinds. Iperú receives suggestions for destinations and tourism companies operating in Peru. Iperú, Tourist Information and Assistance has a nationwide network represented online by the Peru.travel website, the 24/7 line 5748000, 31 local offices in 13 regions in all over Peru: Lima-Callao, Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Arequipa, Puno, Cusco and Iquitos.
The official tourist organization or national tourist board of Peru is PromPerú, a national organization that promotes both tourism and international commerce of this country worldwide. In Australia, most visitor centres are local or state government-run, or in some cases as an association of tourism operators on behalf of the government managed by a board or executive; those that comply with a national accreditation programme use the italic "i" as pictured above. These visitor information centres provide information on the local area, perform services such as accommodation and tour bookings, flight/bus/train/hire car options, act as the first point of contact a visitor has with the town or region. Heritage center Heritage interpretation Interpretation center Nature center United States Capitol Visitor Center Communicating with visitors – 16 tips for visitor centers
Julius Shulman was an American architectural photographer best known for his photograph "Case Study House #22, Los Angeles, 1960. Pierre Koenig, Architect." The house is known as the Stahl House. Shulman's photography spread California Mid-century modern around the world. Through his many books and personal appearances his work ushered in a new appreciation for the movement beginning in the 1990s, his vast library of images resides at the Getty Center in Los Angeles. His contemporaries include Hedrich Blessing Photographers. In 1947, Julius Shulman asked architect Raphael Soriano to build a mid-century steel home and studio in the Hollywood Hills; some of his architectural photographs, like the iconic shots of Frank Lloyd Wright's or Pierre Koenig's remarkable structures, have been published countless times. The brilliance of buildings like those by Charles Eames, as well as those of his close friends, Richard Neutra and Raphael Soriano, was first brought to light by Shulman's photography; the clarity of his work demanded that architectural photography had to be considered as an independent art form.
Each Shulman image unites perception and understanding for the buildings and their place in the landscape. The precise compositions reveal not just the architectural ideas behind a building's surface, but the visions and hopes of an entire age. A sense of humanity is always present in his work when the human figure is absent from the actual photographs. Many of the buildings photographed by Shulman have since been demolished or re-purposed, lending to the popularity of his images. Julius Shulman was born in Brooklyn on October 10, 1910, grew up on a small farm in Connecticut before moving to Los Angeles while still a boy, he attended the University of California, Los Angeles and the University of California and earned pocket money by selling his photographs to fellow students. In 1936 he returned to Los Angeles, where he was enlisted by a friend, working as a draftsman for Neutra, to take photographs of a new, Neutra-designed Kun Residence in Hollywood with his amateur Kodak Vest Pocket camera.
When Neutra saw the pictures, he asked to meet the photographer and proceeded to give him his first assignments which assisted Shulman in launching his career in architectural photography. Shulman opened a studio in Los Angeles in 1950, by that time drawing much of his work from magazines based in New York, he remained in business full-time until the late 1980s. In 2000, Shulman gave up retirement to begin working with business partner Juergen Nogai; the Getty Research Institute held a 2005–2006 exhibition of Shulman's prints entitled "Julius Shulman and the Metropolis". The exhibition included sections entitled "Framing the California Lifestyle," "Promoting the Power of Modern Architecture," "The Tools of an Innovator" and "The Development of a Metropolis"; the exhibition traveled to the Art Institute of Chicago. Julius Shulman and Juergen Nogai have had exhibitions at the Design and Architecture Museum in Frankfurt, Germany, in fall 2005 as well as an exhibition at the Barnsdall Municipal Gallery in Los Angeles 2006, Craig Krull Gallery Bergamot Station, Los Angeles, October 2007, another show in spring 2009.
An exhibition of their work is scheduled in Mannheim, Germany, in 2010. On December 16, 2007, Shulman attended a showing of his architectural photography at the Los Angeles Public Library. Organized by the Getty Research Institute, the exhibit included 150 photographs documenting architectural changes in Los Angeles over the past 80 years; this progression includes the redevelopment of Bunker Hill, the growth of Century City, the avant-garde architectural designs in Los Angeles such as Watts Towers, Grauman's Chinese Theatre and the Getty Villa, as well as the growth of Wilshire Boulevard. The exhibition features the industrial engines at the Port of Los Angeles and the Los Angeles International Airport that helped fuel the growth of Los Angeles. Featured, diverse residential fabric from Echo Park to South Los Angeles; the exhibit spotlighted Shulman's unique role in capturing and promoting innovative, sleek case study houses as well as the contrasting tract housing developments with repeated floor plans.
In February 2008, the Palm Springs Art Museum presented "Julius Shulman: Palm Springs," guest curated by Michael Stern. Containing more than 200 objects, it is the largest Julius Shulman exhibition presented to date. In addition to photographs and renderings and models of many of the buildings Shulman photographed were presented to complement his extensive documentation of a place, so inspirational to him. Rizzoli published the accompanying catalog, "Julius Shulman: Palm Springs." Additionally, a documentary DVD was produced in conjunction with the exhibition "Julius Shulman: Desert Modern." Selected Shulman works were included in the Annenberg Space for Photography's inaugural exhibit, Los Angeles. One of his last commissioned works was of the Space, which opened in March, 2009, with Shulman in attendance. Shulman's last exhibition was scheduled for July 4 to August 8, 2009, but his death one week into the show caused it to be extended by two weeks. Shulman's daughter Judy Shulman McKee—along with Krull, Benedikt Taschen and Wim de Wit—spoke at the Getty Center on Sunday, September 20, 2009 during a memorial to celebrate the life of Julius Shulman.
Huell Howser Productions, in association with KCET/Los Angeles, featured Shulman in Julius Shulman – Palm Springs. Shulman was the subject of a 2008 documentary film, Visual Acoustics: The Modernism of Julius Shulman; the film, directed by Eric Bricker and narrated by Dustin Hoffman, explores Shulman's work. It discusses how Shulman
The Century Plaza Hotel
The Century Plaza Hotel is a landmark 19-story luxury hotel in Los Angeles. Located in Century City, the hotel forms a sweeping crescent design fronting the Avenue of the Stars, adjacent to the twin Century Plaza Towers and the 2000 Avenue of the Stars complex. At the time of its opening in 1966, the Century Plaza Hotel was the highest building in Century City, with views extending all the way to the Pacific Ocean, it was the first hotel to have color televisions in all of its rooms. The hotel closed for renovations in 2016, will reopen in late 2019 operated by Fairmont Hotels and Resorts. In 1961, developer William Zeckendorf and Alcoa bought about 180 acres from 20th Century Fox after the studio had suffered a string of expensive flops, culminating in the box-office disaster Cleopatra; the new owners conceived Century City as "a city within a city" with the arc-shaped, 19-story, 750-room Minoru Yamasaki-designed Century Plaza as the centerpiece of the new city. When the Century Plaza began operating in 1966, its doormen wore red Beefeater costumes.
The hotel was managed by Western International Hotels, which changed its name to Westin Hotels. The hotel's ballrooms became the center for numerous high-profile events, including an opening charity gala in 1966 emceed by Bob Hope, who with singer Andy Williams entertained Ronald and Nancy Reagan and Walt and Lillian Disney. In 1967, 1,300 club-swinging police clashed with about 10,000 Vietnam War demonstrators as President Johnson spoke at a Democratic fundraiser at the hotel. On August 13, 1969, President Richard Nixon hosted a lavish state dinner in the Los Angeles Ballroom to celebrate the Apollo 11 moon landing astronauts. In 1984, the hotel added a 322-room tower on the south portion of the property, adjacent to Olympic Boulevard; the Tower at Century Plaza was marketed as a luxury wing of the hotel and increased capacity to 1,072 rooms. Ronald Reagan by arrangement signed in as the first guest of the just completed Tower, while Century Plaza Vice-President and Managing Director William Quinn greeted him on December 27, 1984.
In 1999 the hotel rededicated its penthouse suite, the entire 32nd floor the Ronald Reagan Suite, attendees including Nancy Reagan. While Reagan was in office, he stayed in the Tower so the media dubbed it his Western White House. President Reagan had celebrated his re-election to a second term as President on the stage of the Los Angeles Ballroom in the original Century Plaza Hotel on November 6, 1984. In 2000, soon after Westin was acquired by Starwood, the Tower was converted into a separate hotel under a more luxurious Starwood brand, The St. Regis Los Angeles; that hotel was sold by the owners of the Century Plaza in 2005 to developers who closed it for conversion to residential use. With its 1980s ceilings too low to meet modern residential demands, the new building was razed to make way for The Century, a high-rise condominium completed in fall 2009. In 2006, after being managed for its entire forty-year history by Westin Hotels, the property was taken over by Hyatt Hotels and renamed Hyatt Regency Century Plaza.
However, the sign above the main entrance reading The Century Plaza was left unchanged. Sunstone Hotel Investors Inc. bought the Hyatt Regency Century Plaza in 2005 for $293 million and spent $22 million upgrading the guest rooms and common areas. On June 1, 2008, Sunstone sold the Hyatt Regency Century Plaza to Next Century Associates for $366.5 million. The sale price of $505,000 per room was one of the highest-paid for a hotel in California. On December 18, 2008, the new owners announced plans to demolish the hotel and build a pair of fifty-story towers in its place. On April 28, 2009, The Century Plaza Hotel was added to The National Trust for Historic Preservation's list of the 11 most endangered historic places in America. In February 2010, the developer announced that it would renovate the historic hotel building and convert some of the floors to condominiums, rather than demolishing and replacing the building as proposed; the hotel closed on March 2016 to begin the $2.5 billion overhaul.
It ceased to be operated by Hyatt at this time. The two towers named Century Plaza South Tower. Designed by Pei Cobb Freed, they will contain a total of 290 condominiums; the original 726-room hotel tower will be rebuilt with 394 much larger guest rooms and 63 condominiums. The hotel's lobby will be opened to create a public space; the hotel will reopen in 2019 as Fairmont Century Plaza Los Angeles, managed by Fairmont Hotels and Resorts. The Century Plaza has played host to various celebrities, foreign dignitaries, presidents; the hotel was the venue for the 1967 Emmy Awards, the 1970 and 1971 Grammy Awards. It was the venue for the 2009 and 2010 Visual Effects Society's prestigious annual awards ceremony; the Century Plaza Hotel is featured in the 2008 video game, Midnight Club: Los Angeles, is mimicked in the 2004 video game, Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas. Century Plaza condominiums official website Seeing-stars.com: Los Angeles Landmarks, Century Plaza Hotel Los Angeles Conservancy: "The Century Plaza Hotel history and its planned demolition" article Los Angeles Times'.com: "Century Plaza as L.
A. Statement"− Story of the making of the Ronald Reagan Suite at the Century Plaza Tower — with photos. Story of the Century Plaza Hotel, Century City — with photos, Fox back lots, hotel's 30th anniversary exhibits
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were