The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
University of Southern California
The University of Southern California is a private research university in Los Angeles, California. Founded in 1880, it is the oldest private research university in California. For the 2018–19 academic year, there were 20,000 students enrolled in four-year undergraduate programs. USC has 27,500 graduate and professional students in a number of different programs, including business, engineering, social work, occupational therapy and medicine, it is the largest private employer in the city of Los Angeles, generates $8 billion in economic impact on Los Angeles and California. USC is the birthplace of the Domain Name System. Other technologies invented at USC include DNA computing, dynamic programming, image compression, VoIP, antivirus software. USC's alumni include a total of 11 Rhodes Scholars and 12 Marshall Scholars; as of October 2018, nine Nobel laureates, six MacArthur Fellows, one Turing Award winner have been affiliated with the university. USC sponsors a variety of intercollegiate sports and competes in the National Collegiate Athletic Association as a member of the Pac-12 Conference.
Members of USC's sports teams, the Trojans, have won 104 NCAA team championships, ranking them third in the United States, 399 NCAA individual championships, ranking them second in the United States. Trojan athletes have won 288 medals at the Olympic Games, more than any other university in the United States. In 1969, it joined the Association of American Universities. USC has had a total of 521 football players drafted to the National Football League, the second-highest number of drafted players in the country; the University of Southern California was founded following the efforts of Judge Robert M. Widney, who helped secure donations from several key figures in early Los Angeles history: a Protestant nurseryman, Ozro Childs, an Irish Catholic former-Governor, John Gately Downey, a German Jewish banker, Isaias W. Hellman; the three donated 308 lots of land to establish the campus and provided the necessary seed money for the construction of the first buildings. Operated in affiliation with the Methodist Church, the school mandated from the start that "no student would be denied admission because of race."
The university is no longer affiliated with any church, having severed formal ties in 1952. When USC opened in 1880, tuition was $15.00 per term and students were not allowed to leave town without the knowledge and consent of the university president. The school had an enrollment of 53 students and a faculty of 10; the city lacked paved streets, electric lights, a reliable fire alarm system. Its first graduating class in 1884 was a class of three—two males and female valedictorian Minnie C. Miltimore; the colors of USC are cardinal and gold, which were approved by USC's third president, the Reverend George W. White, in 1896. In 1958, the shade of gold, more of an orange color, was changed to a more yellow shade; the letterman's awards were the first to make the change. USC students and athletes are known as Trojans, epitomized by the Trojan Shrine, nicknamed "Tommy Trojan", near the center of campus; until 1912, USC students were known as Fighting Methodists or Wesleyans, though neither name was approved by the university.
During a fateful track and field meet with Stanford University, the USC team was beaten early and conclusively. After only the first few events, it seemed implausible USC would win. After this contest, Los Angeles Times sportswriter Owen Bird reported the USC athletes "fought on like the Trojans of antiquity", the president of the university at the time, George F. Bovard, approved the name officially. During World War II, USC was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. USC is responsible for $8 billion in economic output in Los Angeles County. On May 1, 2014, USC was named as one of many higher education institutions under investigation by the Office of Civil Rights for potential Title IX violations by Barack Obama's White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault. USC is under a concurrent Title IX investigation for potential anti-male bias in disciplinary proceedings, as well as denial of counseling resources to male students, as of 8 March 2016.
In 2017, the university came into the national spotlight when the Los Angeles Times published information about Carmen A. Puliafito, the dean of USC's medical school. After accusations of drug use, he resigned from his position as dean in 2016 and was fired from the school the following year after the news stories were published, his medical license was subsequently suspended pending a decision. The following year, the Los Angeles Times broke another story about USC focusing on George Tyndall, a gynecologist accused of abusing 52 patients at USC; the reports span from 1990 to 2016 and include using racist and sexual language, conducting exams without gloves and taking pictures of his patients' genitals. Inside Higher Ed noted that there have been "other incidents in which the university is perceived to have failed to act on misconduct by powerful officials" when it reported that the university's president, C. L. Max Nikias, is resigning. Tyndall was fired in 2017 after reaching a settlement with the university.
The school did not report him to state medical authorities or law enforcement at the time, though the LAPD is now investigatin
USC Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism
The USC Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism comprises a School of Communication and a School of Journalism at the University of Southern California. Starting July 2017, the school’s Dean is Willow Bay, succeeding Ernest J. Wilson III; the graduate program in Communications is ranked first according to the QS World University Rankings. The Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism was established in 1971 through the support of Jewish United States Ambassador Walter H. Annenberg; the USC Department of Communication Arts and Sciences and the School of Journalism became part of USC Annenberg in 1994. School of Communication: The USC Annenberg School of Communication is the school's center for general communications, it offers degrees from undergraduate to doctorates. Its current director is Sarah Banet-Weiser, who took over from Larry Gross in 2014, it offers the following degrees: B. A. M. A. Ph. D.. School of Journalism Annenberg's School of Journalism's director is Willow Bay, who joined in 2014.
It offers the following degrees: Degrees offered: B. A. M. A.. The Annenberg Networks Network: social network studies and computational social science; the Annenberg Research Network on International Communication: research on international communication issues. The Johnson Communication Leadership Center provides undergraduate scholarships and conducts research on the role of African-Americans in the media; the Center on Communication Leadership & Policy sponsors research and organizes courses and symposia. The center's director is the former dean of USC Annenberg Geoffrey Cowan; the Center for the Digital Future "communication technology and mass media, their impact on individuals and nations. Includes the research project: Surveying the Digital Future The USC U. S.-China Institute: public discussion of the U. S.-China relationship through policy-relevant research and undergraduate training, professional development programs for teachers and officials. It produces public events, documentary films, magazines.
It was established in 2006 by USC President C. L. "Max" Nikias. In fall 2011, it became part of the USC Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism,The USC Center on Public Diplomacy, in partnership with the USC College's School of International Relations: government and non-state actors engagement with foreign audiences. Includes the: U. S. Canada Fulbright Chair in Public Diplomacy The Haptics Lab: integrating the sense of touch into human/computer interactions, is supported by the Integrated Media Systems Center, a National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center; the Metamorphosis Project: the transformations of urban community under the forces of globalization, new communication technologies and population diversity. The Norman Lear Cente: convergence of entertainment and society; the Strategic Public Relations Center: the study and value of public relations. The Annenberg Innovation Lab The USC Annenberg Institute of Sports, Media & Society Knight Digital Media Center USC Annenberg/California Endowment Health Journalism Fellowships USC Annenberg/Getty Arts Journalism Program Institute for Justice and Journalism NEA Arts Journalism Institute in Theater and Musical Theater Everett M. Rogers Award for Achievement in Entertainment Education Selden Ring Award for Investigative Reporting USC Annenberg Walter Cronkite Award for Excellence in Television Political Journalism USC Annenberg Health Journalism Fellowships, one for California journalists and one opened nationally at Center for Health Journalism funded by The California Endowment International Journal of Communication, Editors: Manuel Castells, Larry Gross Online Journalism Review, Editor: Robert Niles Students are active with USC's student-run newspaper, the Daily Trojan.
USC Annenberg is home to student chapters of the Radio-Television News Directors Association and Public Relations Student Society of America. Students run an in-house public relations agency that works with non-profit and small business clients. Annenberg TV News airs Monday through Thursday at 6 p.m. on Trojan Vision. Students are responsible for reporting local and international news and producing the newscast live on air. USC Annenberg's career development office provides services to USC Annenberg students and alumni. Resources include a digital three-camera broadcast studio, a television newsroom, a digital lab equipped with Adobe Premiere nonlinear video editing systems, four computer classrooms and the Experiential Learning Center. Fourteen classrooms feature. Professional media and research software applications are installed on more than 200 computers available for student use. USC Annenberg offers study-abroad opportunities for undergraduate students in Amsterdam, Buenos Aires, Hong Kong, London and Sydney.
Graduate journalism and public relations students may complete summer internships in Cape Town, Hong Kong and London, public diplomacy students have the opportunity to complete summer internships abroad. USC Annenberg offers a joint MA/MSc graduate degree program in global communication
Alvand "Alvin" Salehi is an American technologist and policymaker. He is the co-founder of Code.gov. Salehi was raised in Orange County, California, he graduated from the University of Southern California with a Juris Doctorate, a master's degree in management, a bachelor's degree in political science, a bachelor's degree in journalism. Salehi joined the White House in 2015 as a technology advisor in the Office of the US CIO. Under the Obama Administration, he led the development of the nation's first-ever Federal Source Code Policy, published on August 8, 2016; the policy cuts wasteful taxpayer spending on software acquisitions by mandating that government-funded software be shared across all federal agencies. It requires that a portion of government code be released to the public as open source software to maximize the economic benefits associated with code sharing and reuse; the draft of the Federal Source Code Policy was recorded as one of the most commented White House policies in history.
On November 3, 2016, Salehi launched Code.gov with US CIO Tony Scott. Since Code.gov has become the nation's primary platform for sharing and improving government code, boasting a large collection of reusable software projects from dozens of federal agencies and organizations. Notable examples include a reusable Facebook Messenger bot built by the Executive Office of the President, a comprehensive web analytics tool built by GSA, an intuitive tracking application built by the Pentagon for a NATO mission in Afghanistan—all of which Salehi has discussed in keynote presentations around the country. On July 13, 2017, Salehi was appointed by Harvard University to serve as a research affiliate at the law school's Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society, his research focuses on the impact of open source software on code security, economic efficiency, technological innovation. Prior to joining the White House, Salehi helped "lead the State Department’s efforts to expand Internet access to Africa and improve global market access for US technology companies.
He served at the Advanced Research Projects Agency, which invests in transformative, cutting-edge technologies on behalf of the federal government." In November 2017, Salehi was named to Forbes 30 Under 30. Forbes recognized Salehi for his tech policy work for the architecture of the Federal Source Code Policy and launching the US government's Code.gov platform. In November 2018, Salehi was included in Apolitical's list of the World's 100 Most Influential Young People in Government, he was listed in the top 20 alongside Congresswoman Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and Congresswoman Elise Stefanik. In April 2018, Salehi was appointed as a Millennium Fellow at the Atlantic Council. Since joining, he has met with Syrian refugees and political leaders in Turkey and Greece to discuss pathways toward resolving the refugee crisis in Europe and the Middle East. Additionally, he has taken an active role in determining how technology can be used most to resolve humanitarian crises, calling for increased cross-country collaboration and global crowdsourcing as a means to identifying solutions quickly.
In July 2018, Salehi spoke at the NATO Summit in Brussels, stating that “sharing and collaboration is the key to remaining competitive in the digital age.” On May 2, 2016, Salehi made headlines in the Washington Post for stopping a robbery near the White House. According to the article, Salehi was en route to a meeting when he saw a man violently wrestle a woman to the ground and steal her purse. Salehi charged at the man, forcing him to retreat and run toward the fence surrounding the White House; the man jumped into the complex in an attempt to escape. As Secret Service officers made their arrest, Salehi retrieved the purse and handed it back to the woman
News is information about current events. This may be provided through many different media: word of mouth, postal systems, electronic communication, or through the testimony of observers and witnesses to events. Common topics for news reports include war, politics, health, the environment, business and entertainment, as well as athletic events, quirky or unusual events. Government proclamations, concerning royal ceremonies, taxes, public health, criminals, have been dubbed news since ancient times. Humans exhibit a nearly universal desire to learn and share news, which they satisfy by talking to each other and sharing information. Technological and social developments driven by government communication and espionage networks, have increased the speed with which news can spread, as well as influenced its content; the genre of news as we know it today is associated with the newspaper, which originated in China as a court bulletin and spread, with paper and printing press, to Europe. The English word "news" developed in the 14th century as a special use of the plural form of "new".
In Middle English, the equivalent word was newes, like the German Neues. Similar developments are found in the Slavic languages the Czech and Slovak noviny, the cognate Polish nowiny, the Bulgarian novini, Russian novosti – and in the Celtic languages: the Welsh newyddion and the Cornish nowodhow. Jessica Garretson Finch is credited with coining the phrase "current events" while teaching at Barnard College in the 1890s; as its name implies, "news" connotes the presentation of new information. The newness of news gives it an uncertain quality which distinguishes it from the more careful investigations of history or other scholarly disciplines. Whereas historians tend to view events as causally related manifestations of underlying processes, news stories tend to describe events in isolation, to exclude discussion of the relationships between them. News conspicuously describes the world in the present or immediate past when the most important aspects of a news story have occurred long in the past—or are expected to occur in the future.
To make the news, an ongoing process must have some "peg", an event in time which anchors it to the present moment. Relatedly, news addresses aspects of reality which seem unusual, deviant, or out of the ordinary. Hence the famous dictum that "Dog Bites Man" is not news. Another corollary of the newness of news is that, as new technology enables new media to disseminate news more quickly,'slower' forms of communication may move away from'news' towards'analysis'. According to some theories, "news" is. Journalism, broadly understood along the same lines, is the act or occupation of collecting and providing news. From a commercial perspective, news is one input, along with paper necessary to prepare a final product for distribution. A news agency supplies this resource "wholesale" and publishers enhance it for retail. Most purveyors of news value impartiality and objectivity, despite the inherent difficulty of reporting without political bias. Perception of these values has changed over time as sensationalized'tabloid journalism' has risen in popularity.
Michael Schudson has argued that before the era of World War I and the concomitant rise of propaganda, journalists were not aware of the concept of bias in reporting, let alone correcting for it. News is sometimes said to portray the truth, but this relationship is elusive and qualified. Paradoxically, another property attributed to news is sensationalism, the disproportionate focus on, exaggeration of, emotive stories for public consumption; this news is not unrelated to gossip, the human practice of sharing information about other humans of mutual interest. A common sensational topic is violence. Newsworthiness is defined as a subject having sufficient relevance to the public or a special audience to warrant press attention or coverage. Journalists apply news values to identify a news story. News values determine how much attention a news story is given by a media outlet, the attention it is given by its audience or readers. In some countries and at some points in history, what news media and the public have considered "newsworthy" has met different definitions, such as the notion of news values.
Many news values seem to be common across cultures. People seem to be interested in news to the extent which it has a big impact, describes conflicts, happens nearby, involves well-known people, deviates from the norms of everyday happenings. War is a common news topic because it involves unknown events that could pose personal danger. Evidence suggests that cultures around the world have found a place for people to share stories about interesting new information. Among Zulus, Mongolians and American Southerners, anthropologists have documented the practice of questioning travelers for news as a matter of priority. Sufficiently important news would be repeated and and could spread by word of mouth over a large geographic area; as printing presses came into use in Europe, news for the general public travelled orally via monks, town criers, etc. The news is transmitted in public gathering places, such as the Greek forum and the Roman baths. Starting in England, coffeehouses served as important sites for the spread of news after telecommunications became available.
The history of the coffee houses is traced from Arab countries, introduced in England in 16th century. In th
Trojan Vision is a student television station at the University of Southern California through the School of Cinematic Arts. Established in 1997, Trojan Vision broadcasts 24/7 from the Robert Zemeckis Center for Digital Arts to the University Park Campus on Channel 8.1 and online through their website. Programming is made available to the greater Los Angeles community on local channel LA36. Students can volunteer at Trojan Vision or earn credit through the USC School of Cinematic Arts course CTPR-409 "Practicum in Television Production." In 2017 Trojan Vision celebrated its 20th year on the air. Trojan Vision has featured a wide variety of shows since its launch in 1997. Balance - Health and wellness show Below The Line - Highlights crew positions in the film & television industry CU@USC - A live interview show featuring guests from a variety of backgrounds. Broadcasts live at 6:30pm on weeknights. Delish - Food show Mind Games - The only game show produced for TV8 On The Spot - Improv BUT SERIOUSLY.
- news satire show covering international issues Sound Stage - live music program The Breakdown - live sketch and fictional news The SCoop - entertainment news and talk show The Morning Brew - Trojan Vision's signature morning show. The show features interviews with faculty, students and alumni; the Water Cooler - Sports talk. Friday afternoons at 2:30 pm. Trojan Arcade - Gaming Showcase Since its start, Trojan Vision has featured a wide array of programming; the following list features some of the many shows. Although none of these shows are still in production, some of them may still continue to air on TV8 in repeats. Annenberg TV News - A live 30 minute news program broadcast live Monday to Thursday at 6:00pm produced by students of the Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism. Birnkrant 616 - This sitcom followed the lives of USC students as they deal with life and the bumbling World War II Nazis that live next door. Campus Basement - New in 2013, Campus Basement is a scripted sketch comedy show that airs every Friday at 11:00 AM.
Common Ground - A multicam sitcom produced by CNTV 484 & CNTV 435 Students. Common Sense - A game show asking'common sense' questions to students; the Daily SCene - An hour-long breakfast show that featured entertainment updates, local Los Angeles culture spotlights, more, that aired live at 11:00am on weekdays in the Fall semester of 2010. Doing it for Reel - A film show. DormGourmet - A cooking show that taught college students how to cook, one person at a time. Exposed! - Featured the hidden, not so hidden, talents of USC professors and staff. God Help Us! - A multicam sitcom produced by CNTV CNTV 435 Students. Impact - A newsmagazine program presented by students of the Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism. In Real Time - A 30-minute documentary show that took an in-depth look at various subjects; the Kinda Late Show - Airing live on Sunday nights at 10:00pm, this variety show featured sketch comedy, musical guests and more. Life in the Dorms - A mockumentary sitcom about the lives of students living in USC's New-North dorm building.
The Live Show on KXSC Radio - A unique partnership between Trojan Vision and USC’ student-run radio station KXSC Radio, The Live Show was a combination of a live musical performance from local L. A. bands at Tommy’s Place and exclusive interviews in the KXSC Radio station. Mister McSuper - Only one episode was produced of this sitcom, telling the story of a unemployed superhero. MySelf - This sitcom told the story of a student and his clone. NewsMakers - Trojan Vision's news satire, NewsMakers featured a mix of in-studio segments and field reports. "It's not the facts, it's the news." On the Ball - Focused on the Women's Professional Soccer league in the United States. Showcase - Featured films of past and present made by USC students and analysis from hosts and the films' creators. New episodes air weeknights at 7:00pm. Sports SCense - Provided viewers with an in-depth look at football and other sports. Take 5 - A pop culture and entertainment show that took a look at the latest news and movie reviews, covering everything entertainment.
Trojan Chef - This cooking show was an unofficial student version of the popular Iron Chef franchise. Trojan Huddle - Airing live on Thursday evenings at 8:00pm, Trojan Huddle gave a close-up look at USC Trojans football. Trojan Timeout - Featured USC's world of sports. Trojan Triumph - This competition show featured USC's undiscovered talents from the worlds of singing and acting. UnderGRAD - A situational comedy about undergraduate students. Visual Frequency - Music television from a student perspective. Trojan Vision’s primary broadcast studio, Studio B, is located at the Robert Zemeckis Center for Digital Arts. Studio B is equipped with four professional video cameras:; the studio has Strand lighting control and teleprompters. The video control room includes a BlackMagic Design ATEM video switcher; the audio room contains a MIDI keyboard, a sampler, a Yamaha O2R mixer with integrated effects. These rooms export their signals to TV8 Master Control where they are recorded on video servers, broadcast live in HD on the campus cable TV system and streamed online.
In addition to Studio B, Trojan Vision has access to other stages in the Zemeckis Center. These include a 30x30 insert stage, a 30x40 stage with standing sets, two 40x50 stages that can be combined, forming a 40x100 sound stage. During Summer 2012 Trojan Vision attained exclusive access to Studio C. For field use, Trojan Vision uses other cameras. Trojan Vision operates a single-mode fiber optic network, enabling it to do live TV broadcasts from many locations on the USC campus, including the USC Annenberg School for Comm
Journalism refers to the production and distribution of reports on recent events. The word journalism applies to the occupation, as well as citizen journalists using methods of gathering information and using literary techniques. Journalistic media include print, radio, and, in the past, newsreels. Concepts of the appropriate role for journalism vary between countries. In some nations, the news media are controlled by government intervention and are not independent. In others, the news media are independent of the government but instead operate as private industry motivated by profit. In addition to the varying nature of how media organizations are run and funded, countries may have differing implementations of laws handling the freedom of speech and libel cases; the advent of the Internet and smartphones has brought significant changes to the media landscape in recent years. This has created a shift in the consumption of print media channels, as people consume news through e-readers and other personal electronic devices, as opposed to the more traditional formats of newspapers, magazines, or television news channels.
News organizations are challenged to monetize their digital wing, as well as improvise on the context in which they publish in print. Newspapers have seen print revenues sink at a faster pace than the rate of growth for digital revenues. Journalistic conventions vary by country. In the United States, journalism is produced by individuals. Bloggers are but not always, journalists; the Federal Trade Commission requires that bloggers who write about products received as promotional gifts to disclose that they received the products for free. This is intended to protect consumers. In the US, many credible news organizations are incorporated entities. Many credible news organizations, or their employees belong to and abide by the ethics of professional organizations such as the American Society of News Editors, the Society of Professional Journalists, Investigative Reporters & Editors, Inc. or the Online News Association. Many news organizations have their own codes of ethics that guide journalists' professional publications.
For instance, The New York Times code of standards and ethics is considered rigorous. When crafting news stories, regardless of the medium and bias are issues of concern to journalists; some stories are intended to represent the author's own opinion. In a print newspaper, information is organized into sections and the distinction between opinionated and neutral stories is clear. Online, many of these distinctions break down. Readers should pay careful attention to headings and other design elements to ensure that they understand the journalist's intent. Opinion pieces are written by regular columnists or appear in a section titled "Op-ed", while feature stories, breaking news, hard news stories make efforts to remove opinion from the copy. According to Robert McChesney, healthy journalism in a democratic country must provide an opinion of people in power and who wish to be in power, must include a range of opinions and must regard the informational needs of all people. Many debates center on whether journalists are "supposed" to be "objective" and "neutral".
Additionally, the ability to render a subject's complex and fluid narrative with sufficient accuracy is sometimes challenged by the time available to spend with subjects, the affordances or constraints of the medium used to tell the story, the evolving nature of people's identities. There are several forms of journalism with diverse audiences. Thus, journalism is said to serve the role of a "fourth estate", acting as a watchdog on the workings of the government. A single publication contains many forms of journalism, each of which may be presented in different formats; each section of a newspaper, magazine, or website may cater to a different audience. Some forms include: Access journalism – journalists who self-censor and voluntarily cease speaking about issues that might embarrass their hosts, guests, or powerful politicians or businesspersons. Advocacy journalism – writing to advocate particular viewpoints or influence the opinions of the audience. Broadcast journalism – written or spoken journalism for radio or television.
Citizen journalism – participatory journalism. Data journalism – the practice of finding stories in numbers, using numbers to tell stories. Data journalists may use data to support their reporting, they may report about uses and misuses of data. The US news organization ProPublica is known as a pioneer of data journalism. Drone journalism – use of drones to capture journalistic footage. Gonzo journalism – first championed by Hunter S. Thompson, gonzo journalism is a "highly personal style of reporting". Interactive journalism – a type of online journalism, presented on the web Investigative journalism – in-depth reporting that uncovers social problems. Leads to major social problems being resolved. Photojournalism – the practice of telling true stories through images Sensor journalism – the use of sensors to support journalistic inquiry. Tabloid journalism – writing, light-hearted and entertaining. Considered less legitimate than mainstream journalism. Yellow journalism – writing which emphasizes exaggerated claims or rumors.
The rise of social media ha