Ketchikan is a city in the Ketchikan Gateway Borough, United States, the southeasternmost city in Alaska. With a population at the 2010 census of 8,050, it is the fifth-most populous city in the state, tenth-most populous community when census-designated places are included; the surrounding borough, encompassing suburbs both north and south of the city along the Tongass Highway, plus small rural settlements accessible by water, registered a population of 13,477 in that same census. Estimates put the 2017 population at 13,754 people. Incorporated on August 25, 1900, Ketchikan is the earliest extant incorporated city in Alaska, because consolidation or unification elsewhere in Alaska resulted in dissolution of those communities' city governments. Ketchikan is located on Revillagigedo Island, so named in 1793 by Captain George Vancouver. Ketchikan is named after Ketchikan Creek, which flows through the town, emptying into the Tongass Narrows a short distance southeast of its downtown. "Ketchikan" comes from the Tlingit name for the creek, Kitschk-hin, the meaning of, unclear.
It may mean "the river belonging to Kitschk". In modern Tlingit this name is rendered as Kichx̱áan. Ketchikan Creek served as a summer fish camp for Tlingit natives for untold years before the town was established by Mike Martin in 1885, he was sent to the area by an Oregon canning company to assess prospects. He established the saltery Clark & Martin and a general store with Nova Scotia native George Clark, foreman at a cannery that burned down. Ketchikan has the world's largest collection of standing totem poles, found throughout the city and at four major locations: Saxman Totem Park, Totem Bight State Park, Potlatch Park, the Totem Heritage Center. Most of the totems at Saxman Totem Park and Totem Bight State Park are recarvings of older poles, a practice that began during the Roosevelt Administration through the Civilian Conservation Corps; the Totem Heritage Center displays preserved 19th-century poles rescued from abandoned village sites near Ketchikan. Ketchikan's GPS geographic coordinates are latitude 55.342 and longitude -131.648.
The city is located in southernmost Southeast Alaska on Revillagigedo Island, 700 miles northwest of Seattle, Washington, 235 miles southeast of Juneau, 88 miles northwest of Prince Rupert, B. C. Canada, it is surrounded by the Tongass National Forest, managed by the United States Forest Service from its headquarters in the Ketchikan Federal Building downtown, to the south by the Tongass Narrows, a narrow east-west saltwater channel, part of the Inside Passage. Due to its steep and forested terrain, Ketchikan is long and narrow with much of the built-up area being located along, or no more than a few city blocks from, the waterfront. Elevations of inhabited areas range from just above sea level to about 300 feet. Deer Mountain, a 3,001-foot peak, rises east of the city's downtown area. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.9 square miles. 4.4 square miles of it is land and 1.5 square miles of it is water. The ½-mile wide channel called the Tongass Narrows separates Ketchikan from Gravina Island, where Ketchikan International Airport is located.
Ketchikan has a mild maritime or oceanic climate, characterized by heavy cloud cover and high humidity through much of the year and abundant rainfall throughout the year. This location's climate is classified as, likened to the cities of Aberdeen and Inverness in northern Scotland and Stavanger and adjacent coastal areas, such as Askøy, in Western Norway, though with much more rain, earning it the nickname of the "Rain Capital of Alaska". Winters are cool but milder than its latitude alone may suggest: January has a 24-hour average of 33.6 °F with an average daytime high of 38.9 °F and overnight low of 28.6 °F. Summers are mild, as August's temperature averages 58.4 °F with an average daytime high of 65.2 °F and overnight low of 51.6 °F. Rainfall averages 153 inches per year, falling more in autumn and winter. On average, the growing season lasts about 6.3 months or 191 days, extending from about April 19 to about October 27. The climate is so moderated that Tallahassee, Florida has recorded an all-time record minimum—−2 °F in February 1899—lower than that of Ketchikan, although Tallahassee averages around 22 °F warmer over the year.
Further east and away from moderating maritime influence, winters on these parallels in inland North America are much colder. The record high temperature in Ketchikan was 89 °F on June 20, 1958, August 14, 1977; the record low temperature was −1 °F on December 15, 1964, January 5, 1965. On January 14, 2018 Ketchikan recorded a high temperature of 67°F, the highest recorded temperature in Alaska in the month of January; the wettest year was 1949 with 202.55 inches and the driest year was 1995 with 88.45 inches. The most rainfall in one month was 42.69 inches during October 1974 and the most rainfall in 24 hours was 8.71 inches on October 11, 1977. The most snowfall in one month was 45.1 inches in January 1971. Ketchikan first appeared on the 1890 U. S. Census as the unincorporated village of "Kichikan." Of its 40 residents, 26 were
Federal Aviation Administration
The Federal Aviation Administration is a governmental body of the United States with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation in that nation as well as over its surrounding international waters. Its powers include the construction and operation of airports, air traffic management, the certification of personnel and aircraft, the protection of U. S. assets during the launch or re-entry of commercial space vehicles. Powers over neighboring international waters were delegated to the FAA by authority of the International Civil Aviation Organization. Created in August 1958, the FAA replaced the former Civil Aeronautics Administration and became an agency within the US Department of Transportation; the FAA's roles include: Regulating U. S. commercial space transportation Regulating air navigation facilities' geometric and flight inspection standards Encouraging and developing civil aeronautics, including new aviation technology Issuing, suspending, or revoking pilot certificates Regulating civil aviation to promote transportation safety in the United States through local offices called Flight Standards District Offices Developing and operating a system of air traffic control and navigation for both civil and military aircraft Researching and developing the National Airspace System and civil aeronautics Developing and carrying out programs to control aircraft noise and other environmental effects of civil aviation The FAA is divided into four "lines of business".
Each LOB has a specific role within the FAA. Airports: plans and develops projects involving airports, overseeing their construction and operations. Ensures compliance with federal regulations. Air Traffic Organization: primary duty is to safely and efficiently move air traffic within the National Airspace System. ATO employees manage air traffic facilities including Airport Traffic Control Towers and Terminal Radar Approach Control Facilities. See Airway Operational Support. Aviation Safety: Responsible for aeronautical certification of personnel and aircraft, including pilots and mechanics. Commercial Space Transportation: ensures protection of U. S. assets during the launch or reentry of commercial space vehicles. The FAA is headquartered in Washington, D. C. as well as the William J. Hughes Technical Center in Atlantic City, New Jersey, the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center in Oklahoma City and its nine regional offices: Alaskan Region – Anchorage, Alaska Northwest Mountain – Seattle, Washington Western Pacific – Los Angeles, California Southwest – Fort Worth, Texas Central – Kansas City, Missouri Great Lakes – Chicago, Illinois Southern – Atlanta, Georgia Eastern – New York, New York New England – Boston, Massachusetts The Air Commerce Act of May 20, 1926, is the cornerstone of the federal government's regulation of civil aviation.
This landmark legislation was passed at the urging of the aviation industry, whose leaders believed the airplane could not reach its full commercial potential without federal action to improve and maintain safety standards. The Act charged the Secretary of Commerce with fostering air commerce and enforcing air traffic rules, licensing pilots, certifying aircraft, establishing airways, operating and maintaining aids to air navigation; the newly created Aeronautics Branch, operating under the Department of Commerce assumed primary responsibility for aviation oversight. In fulfilling its civil aviation responsibilities, the Department of Commerce concentrated on such functions as safety regulations and the certification of pilots and aircraft, it took over the building and operation of the nation's system of lighted airways, a task initiated by the Post Office Department. The Department of Commerce improved aeronautical radio communications—before the founding of the Federal Communications Commission in 1934, which handles most such matters today—and introduced radio beacons as an effective aid to air navigation.
The Aeronautics Branch was renamed the Bureau of Air Commerce in 1934 to reflect its enhanced status within the Department. As commercial flying increased, the Bureau encouraged a group of airlines to establish the first three centers for providing air traffic control along the airways. In 1936, the Bureau itself began to expand the ATC system; the pioneer air traffic controllers used maps and mental calculations to ensure the safe separation of aircraft traveling along designated routes between cities. In 1938, the Civil Aeronautics Act transferred the federal civil aviation responsibilities from the Commerce Department to a new independent agency, the Civil Aeronautics Authority; the legislation expanded the government's role by giving the CAA the authority and the power to regulate airline fares and to determine the routes that air carriers would serve. President Franklin D. Roosevelt split the authority into two agencies in 1940: the Civil Aeronautics Administration and the Civil Aeronautics Board.
CAA was responsible for ATC, airman and aircraft certification, safety enforcement, airway development. CAB was entrusted with safety regulation, accident investigation, economic regulation of the airlines; the CAA was part of the Department of Commerce. The CAB was an independent federal agency. On the eve of America's entry into World War II, CAA began to extend its ATC responsibilities to takeoff and landing operations at airports; this expanded role became permanent after the war. The application of radar to ATC helped controllers in their drive to keep abreast of the postwar boom in commercial air transportation. In 1946, Congress gave CAA the added task of administering the federal-aid airport program, the first peacetime program of financial assistance aimed exclusivel
Ketchikan International Airport
Ketchikan International Airport is a state-owned, public-use airport located one nautical mile west of the central business district of Ketchikan, a city in Ketchikan Gateway Borough in Alaska that has no direct road access to the outside world or to the airport. The airport is located on Gravina Island, just west of Ketchikan on the other side of the Tongass Narrows. Passengers must take a seven-minute ferry ride across the water to get to the airport from the town; as per Federal Aviation Administration records, the airport had 108,837 passenger boardings in calendar year 2008, 96,996 enplanements in 2009, 100,138 in 2010. It is included in the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2015-2019, which categorized it as a primary commercial service airport based on 103,136 enplanements in 2012. Around the World War II era until the early 1970s, longer range land plane air service to Ketchikan including flights to Seattle were operated via an old military airfield located 20 air miles to the south on Annette Island.
Aircraft operated into the Annette Island Airport for flights in the local southeast Alaska area included the Grumman Goose and Catalina PBY with these amphibian aircraft being utilized to link the airport with the Ketchikan Harbor Seaplane Base. Longer range flights serving Annette Island were operated with Douglas DC-4 prop aircraft flown by Pan American World Airways during the 1940s followed by Douglas DC-6 and Boeing 377 Stratocruiser aircraft. Other service into the Annette Island Airport included Lockheed Constellation propliners flown by Pacific Northern Airlines during the 1950s and Boeing 707 jetliners flown by Pan Am in the early 1960s. In addition, Annette Island was served with Boeing 720 jetliners operated by Pacific Northern and successor Western Airlines during the 1960s. Alaska Airlines operated into Annette Island Airport prior to moving its jet service to Ketchikan International Airport with the opening of this new airfield; the current airport was dedicated on the following day.
The airport opening was the culmination of an effort by local residents, a 1965 study by the Alaska State Division of Aviation, another study in 1967 choosing the current site on Gravina Island, land clearing in 1969. One of the first airlines to serve the new airport was Alaska Airlines which inaugurated the first jet service from Seattle to Ketchikan International Airport on August 4, 1973 with a Boeing 720 jetliner. Alaska Air operated Boeing 727-100, 727-200 and 737-200 jetliners into the airport before switching to model Boeing 737 jets. Alaska Airlines has flown from the airport for over 40 years and operated Grumman Goose and Super Catalina amphibian aircraft into the seaplane base serving Ketchikan prior to the opening of the airfield in 1973. Other airlines that operated jet service into the airport in the past included Wien Air Alaska and MarkAir with both air carriers flying Boeing 737 jets as well as Western Airlines operating Boeing 727-200 jetliners. Ketchikan International Airport covers an area of 2,600 acres at an elevation of 92 feet above mean sea level.
It has one asphalt paved runway designated 11/29. In 2004, a new taxiway "Bravo" was added to facilitate taxiing to the end of the used runway 11. Before that taxiway, some smaller planes were allowed to use taxiway "Alpha" to take off and land because it was not worthwhile to backtaxi on the actual runway. In addition this allows the airport's system of taxiways to be used by more than one plane at once. More the airport is applying to construct another runway on a different heading, better suited to handle the infamous crosswinds, sometimes up to 90 knots; these winds have been known to blow approaching planes out across Tongass Narrows in certain conditions. For the 12-month period ending January 31, 2018, the airport had 15,959 aircraft operations, an average of 44 per day: 61% air taxi, 33% scheduled commercial, 5% general aviation, <1% military. At that time there were five aircraft based at this airport: 3 single-engine, 1 multi-engine, 1 jet; because the international airport is on a sparsely populated island separated from Ketchikan, a ferry connects the airport to the city.
The ferry leaves from alternately Gravina Island or Revillagigedo Island every fifteen minutes and crosses Tongass Narrows with passengers and freight. The attempt to replace this ferry with a bridge became the object of national attention in 2005 that labeled the bridge the "bridge to nowhere." The ferry is one of three ferries. Ketchikan Alaska Ferry Services There is no road access between the airport. A proposed bridge, referred to by its detractors as the "bridge to nowhere" despite its linking the city and its airport, has been designed with an estimated cost of $398 million. After protracted attention to the cost of the bridge, the U. S. federal government reversed its decision to fund the bridge in 2007. The money was transferred to the state of Alaska to determine the use of the funds. Alaska Airlines flies 737-800 jetliners. Delta flies their flights under the Delta Connection banner and are operated by SkyWest Airlines who flies Embraer ERJ-175 regional jets into the airport. Alaska Airlines' flights includes Boeing 737-400 passenger/cargo Combi aircraft as well as all-cargo Boeing 737-400 jet freighter service.
Alaska Airlines operates Boeing 737-400 jet fre
The Boeing 707 is a mid-sized, long-range, narrow-body, four-engine jet airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes from 1958 to 1979. Versions of the aircraft have a capacity from 140 to 219 passengers and a range of 2,500 to 5,750 nautical miles. Developed as Boeing's first jet airliner, the 707 is a swept-wing design with podded engines. Although it was not the first jetliner in service, the 707 was the first to be commercially successful. Dominating passenger air transport in the 1960s and remaining common through the 1970s, the 707 is credited with ushering in the Jet Age, it established Boeing as one of the largest manufacturers of passenger aircraft, led to the series of airliners with "7x7" designations. The 720, 727, 737, 757 share elements of the 707's fuselage design; the 707 was developed from the Boeing 367-80, a prototype jet first flown in 1954. A larger fuselage cross-section and other modifications resulted in the initial-production 707-120, powered by Pratt & Whitney JT3C turbojet engines, which first flew on December 20, 1957.
Pan American World Airways began regular 707 service on October 26, 1958. Derivatives included the shortened long-range 707-138 and the stretched 707-320, both of which entered service in 1959. A smaller short-range variant, the 720, was introduced in 1960; the 707-420, a version of the stretched 707 with Rolls-Royce Conway turbofans, debuted in 1960, while Pratt & Whitney JT3D turbofans debuted on the 707-120B and 707-320B models in 1961 and 1962, respectively. The 707 has been used on domestic and transatlantic flights, for cargo and military applications. A convertible passenger-freighter model, the 707-320C, entered service in 1963, passenger 707s have been modified to freighter configurations. Military derivatives include the E-3 Sentry airborne reconnaissance aircraft and the C-137 Stratoliner VIP transports. Boeing delivered 1,011 airliners including the smaller 720 series. During and after World War II, Boeing was known for its military aircraft; the company had produced innovative and important bombers, from the B-17 Flying Fortress and B-29 Superfortress, to the jet-powered B-47 Stratojet and B-52 Stratofortress.
The company's civil aviation department lagged far behind Douglas and other competitors, the only noteworthy airliners being the Boeing 314 Clipper and 307 Stratoliner. During 1949–1950, Boeing embarked on studies for a new jet transport, realizing that any design must be aimed at both the military and civilian markets. At the time, aerial refueling was becoming a standard technique for military aircraft, with over 800 KC-97 Stratofreighters on order. With the advent of the Jet Age, a new tanker was required to meet the USAF's fleet of jet-powered bombers. Boeing studied numerous wing and engine layouts for its new transport/tanker, some of which were based on the B-47 and C-97, before settling on the 367−80 quadjet prototype aircraft; the "Dash 80" took less than two years from project launch in 1952 to rollout on May 14, 1954 first flew on July 15, 1954. It was powered by the Pratt & Whitney JT3C turbojet engine, the civilian version of the J57 used on many military aircraft of the day, including the F-100 Super Sabre fighter and the B-52 bomber.
The prototype was a proof-of-concept aircraft for both civilian use. The United States Air Force was the first customer, using it as the basis for the KC-135 Stratotanker aerial refueling platform. Whether the passenger 707 would be profitable was far from certain. At the time, Boeing was generating nearly all of its revenue from military contracts: Its last passenger transport, the Boeing 377 Stratocruiser, had netted the company a $15 million loss before it was purchased by the Air Force as the KC-97 Stratofreighter. In a demonstration flight over Lake Washington outside Seattle, on August 7, 1955, test pilot Tex Johnston performed a barrel roll in the 367-80 prototype; the 132 in wide fuselage of the Dash 80 was large enough for four-abreast seating like the Stratocruiser. Answering customers' demands and under Douglas competition, Boeing soon realized this would not provide a viable payload, so it widened the fuselage to 144 in to allow five-abreast seating and use of the KC-135's tooling.
Douglas Aircraft had launched its DC-8 with a fuselage width of 147 in. The airlines liked the extra space and six-abreast seating, so Boeing increased the 707's width again to compete, this time to 148 in; the first flight of the first-production 707-120 took place on December 20, 1957, FAA certification followed on September 18, 1958. Both test pilots Joseph John "Tym" Tymczyszyn and James R. Gannett were awarded the first Iven C. Kincheloe Award for the test flights that led to certification. A number of changes were incorporated into the production models from the prototype. A Krueger flap was installed along the leading edge between the inner and outer engines on early 707-120 and −320 models; the initial standard model was the 707-120 with JT3C turbojet engines. Qantas ordered a shorter-bodied version called the 707-138, a −120 with six fuselage frames removed, three in front of the wings, three aft; the frames in the 707 were each 20 in apart, so this resulted in a net shortening of 10 ft to 134 ft 6 in.
Because the maximum takeoff weight remained the same as that of the −120, the −138 was able to fly the longer routes that Qantas needed. Braniff International Airways ordered the higher-thrust version with Pratt & Whitney JT4A engines, the 707-220; the final major derivative was the 707-320, which fea
The Douglas DC-4 is a four-engine propeller-driven airliner developed by the Douglas Aircraft Company. Military versions of the plane, the C-54 and R5D, served during World War II, in the Berlin Airlift and into the 1960s. From 1945, many civil airlines operated the DC-4 worldwide. Following proving flights by United Airlines of the DC-4E it became obvious that the 52-seat airliner was too large to operate economically and the partner airlines recommended a long list of changes required to the design. Douglas took the new requirement and produced a new design, the DC-4A, with a simpler unpressurised fuselage, R-2000 Twin Wasp engines and a single fin and rudder. With the entry of the United States into World War II, in June 1941 the War Department took over the provision orders for the airlines and allocated them to the United States Army Air Forces with the designation C-54 Skymaster; the first, a C-54, flew from Clover Field in Santa Monica, California on 14 February 1942. To meet military requirements the first production aircraft had four additional auxiliary fuel tanks in the main cabin which reduced the passenger seats to 26.
The following batch of aircraft were designated C-54A and were built with a stronger floor, cargo door with a hoist and winch. The first C-54A was delivered in February 1943. With the introduction of the C-54B in March 1944, the outer wings were changed to hold integral fuel tanks allowing two of the cabin tanks to be removed; the C-54C was a hybrid for Presidential use, it had a C-54A fuselage with four cabin fuel tanks and the C-54B wings with built-in tanks to achieve maximum range. The most common variant was the C-54D, which entered service in August 1944, a C-54B with more powerful R-2000-11 engines. With the C-54E the last two cabin fuel tanks were moved to the wings which allowed more freight or 44 passenger seats. A total of 1,163 C-54/R5Ds were built for the United States military between 1942 and January 1946. A variant, equipped to fly over 40% faster, was built in Canada postwar as the Canadair North Star; the DC-4/C-54 proved a popular and reliable type, 1245 being built between May 1942 and August 1947, including 79 postwar DC-4s.
Several remain in service as of 2014. One current operator is Buffalo Airways of Northwest Territories. Douglas continued to develop the type during the war in preparation for a return to airline use when peace returned; the type's sales prospects were affected when 500 wartime ex military C-54s and R5Ds came onto the civil market, many being converted to DC-4 standard by Douglas. DC-4s were a favorite of charter airlines such as Great Lakes Airlines, North American Airlines, Universal Airlines and Transocean Airlines. In the 1950s Transocean was the largest civil C-54/DC-4 operator. Douglas produced 79 new-build DC-4s between January 1946 and August 9, 1947, the last example being delivered to South African Airways. Pressurization was an option. A total of 330 DC-4s and C-54s were used in the Berlin Airlift. Purchasers of new-build DC-4s included Pan American Airways, National Airlines, Northwest Airlines and Western Airlines in the USA, KLM Royal Dutch Air Lines, Scandinavian Airlines System, Iberia Airlines of Spain, Air France, Sabena Belgian World Airlines, Cubana de Aviación, Aerolíneas Argentinas, Aeropostal of Venezuela and South African Airways overseas.
Several airlines used new-build DC-4s to start scheduled transatlantic flights between Latin America and Europe. Among the earliest were Aerolíneas Argentinas, Aeropostal of Venezuela, Iberia Airlines of Spain, Cubana de Aviación. Basic prices for a new DC-4 in 1946-7 was around £140,000-£160,000. In 1960 used DC-4s were available for around £80,000. DC-4 Main production airliner, postwar. Canadair North Star Canadian production of a Rolls-Royce Merlin – powered variant, plus a single Pratt & Whitney R-2800 – powered aircraft. Aviation Traders Carvair British cargo and car ferry adaptation. Few DC-4s remain in service today; the last two passenger DC-4s operating worldwide are based in South Africa. They fly with old South African Airways colors, they are ZS-AUB "Outeniqua" and ZS-BMH "Lebombo" and are owned by the South African Airways Museum Society and operated by Skyclass Aviation, a company specializing in classic and VIP charters to exotic destinations in Africa. A 1944-built DC-4 is being restored in New South Wales, Australia.
Buffalo Airways in Canada's Northwest Territories owns eleven DC-4s. A 1945-built DC-4 c/n 27370 is operating as a flying museum of the Berlin Airlift. Called the "Spirit of Freedom", it has been touring the world for nearly 20 years. Alaska Air Fuel operates two DC4s out of Palmer, Alaska. One ex-Buffalo DC4 is fitted with spray bars on top of the wings and is based in Florida on standby for oil pollution control. General characteristics Crew: four Capacity: 40 to 80 passengers Length: 93 ft 10 in Wingspan: 117 ft 6 in Height: 27 ft 6 in Wing area: 1,460ft² Empty weight: 43,300 lb Loaded weight: 63,500 lb Max. Takeoff weight: 73,000 lb Powerplant: 4 × Pratt & Whitney R-2000 radial engine, 1,450 hp eachPerformance Maximum speed: 280 mph Cruise speed: 227 mph/197kts Range: 4,250 mi Service ceiling: 22,300 ft Wing loading: 43.5 lb/ft² Power/mass: 10.9 lb/hp
The Boeing 720 is a four-engine narrow-body short- to medium-range passenger jet airliner. Developed by Boeing in the late 1950s from the Boeing 707, the 720 has a shorter fuselage and a shorter range; the 720 first flew in November 1959 and the model entered service with launch customer United Airlines in July 1960. Two primary versions of the aircraft were built; the original 720 with Pratt & Whitney JT3C turbojet engines entered service in 1960, while the improved 720B with Pratt & Whitney JT3D turbofans entered service in 1961. Some 720s were converted to 720B specification. Although only 154 were built, the Boeing 720 and 720B were profitable due to the low research and development costs, being modified versions of the 707-120, they were replaced by the Boeing 727. The 720 is the only Boeing jet airliner not to follow the company's "7x7" naming formula. Boeing announced its plans to develop a new version of the 707 in July 1957, it was developed from the 707-120 to provide for short- to medium-range flights from shorter runways.
The model was designated 707-020 before being changed to 720 at the input of United Airlines. Compared to the 707-120, it has four fewer frames in front of the wing and one fewer aft: a total length reduction of 8 feet 4 inches; the new model was designed to a lower maximum takeoff weight with a modified wing and a lightened airframe. The wing modifications included Krueger flaps outboard of the outboard engines, lowering take-off and landing speeds—thus shortening runway length requirements—and a thickened inboard leading edge section, with a greater sweep; this modification increased the top speed over the 707-120. It had four Whitney JT3C-7 turbojet engines producing 12,500 lbf each. At one point in the development phase, it was known as the 707-020 717-020, although this was the Boeing model designation of the KC-135 and remained unused for a commercial airliner until it was applied to the MD-95 following Boeing's merger with McDonnell Douglas in 1997; because the aircraft systems were similar to the Boeing 707, no prototype Boeing 720 was built.
The first 720 took its maiden flight on November 23, 1959. The type certificate for the 720 was issued on June 30, 1960, it was first put into service by United Airlines on July 5, 1960. The 720B version of the 720 had JT3D turbofan engines; the JT3D engines had higher thrust. The maximum takeoff weight for the 720B was increased to 234,000 lb; the 720B first took to the skies on October 6, 1960, received certification and entered service with American Airlines in March 1961. As a modification of an existing model, the 720 had minimal research and development costs, which allowed it to be successful despite few sales; the company built 154 Boeing 720s and 720Bs from 1959 to 1967. The 720's wing modification was added on the 707-120B and on 707-120s retrofitted to the B standard; the Boeing 720 is a four-engined low-wing cantilever monoplane. Although it was similar to the Boeing 707, compared with the 707-120, it was 9 ft shorter in length, had a lighter structure through use of lighter forged metal parts and thinner fuselage skins and structures.
The rearmost of the 707's over-wing emergency exits was deleted on each side, which reduced passenger capacity, while two over-wing exits were an option for higher-density configurations. The 720 uses an improved wing based on the 707 wing; the wingspan remained the same as the 707-120. For the 720, the wing was changed between the fuselage and inner engines by adding a wing root glove; this glove reduced the drag of the wing by decambering the root, which reduced the "middle effect", thereby increasing the effective local wing sweep. The wing root glove increased the drag divergence Mach number of the wing by Mach 0.02. Though fitted with turbojet engines, the dominant engine for the Boeing 720 was the Pratt & Whitney JT3D, a turbofan variant of the JT3C with lower fuel consumption and higher thrust. JT3D-engined 720s had a "B" suffix. Like the 707, the 720/720B used engine-driven turbocompressors to supply high-pressure air for cabin pressurization; the engines could not supply sufficient bleed air for this purpose without a serious loss of thrust.
The small air inlets and associated humps are visible just above the main engine inlets on the two inner engine pods of all 720s and 720Bs. The Boeing 720 lacked an auxiliary power unit, relied instead on ground power and pneumatic air to power the aircraft's systems, provide air conditioning, start the engines while on the ground; the normal practice for Boeing 720 aircraft was to start the number three engine first disconnect ground power and air. After start of the first engine, the use of bleed air from that engine could be used to provide necessary air pressure to start the other engines one by one. However, on ground, with ground starting crew at hand, all four engines were started with ground crew help, as this was more reliable and faster; the first aircraft was a production aircraft for United Airlines which flew on November 23, 1959. The type certificate for the 720 was issued on June 30, 1960; the first service of the 720 was by United Airlines on July 5, 1960 on the Los Angeles-Denver-Chicago route.
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo