Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Yale University Art Gallery
The Yale University Art Gallery houses a significant and encyclopedic collection of art in several buildings on the campus of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. Although it embraces all cultures and periods, the gallery emphasizes early Italian painting, African sculpture, modern art; the Yale University Art Gallery is the oldest university art museum in the western hemisphere. The gallery was founded in 1832, when patriot-artist, John Trumbull, donated more than 100 paintings of the American Revolution to Yale College and designed the original Picture Gallery; this building, on the university's Old Campus, was razed in 1901. The gallery's main building was built in 1953, was among the first designed by Louis Kahn, who taught architecture at Yale. A complete renovation, which returned many spaces to Kahn's original vision, was completed in December 2006, by Polshek Partnership Architects; the older Tuscan romanesque portion was built in 1928, was designed by Egerton Swartwout. The Gallery reopened on December 12, 2012, after a 14-year renovation and expansion project at a cost of $135 million.
The expanded space totals 69,975 sq ft. The museum is a member of the North American Reciprocal Museums program. On the second floor was a valuable collection of paintings by John Trumbull of historical events. Among them were his well-known paintings of the Battle of Bunker Hill, Death of Montgomery before Quebec, Surrender of Lord Cornwallis, Declaration of Independence, etc. Trumbull gave the paintings to Yale in consideration of an annuity of $1,000 and subject to the condition that he and his wife should be forever buried beneath the pictures; the Gallery's encyclopedic collections number more than 200,000 objects ranging in date from ancient times to the present day. The permanent collection includes: African Art: over 1000 objects in wood, metal and ceramic. American Decorative Arts: about 18,000 objects in silver, wood and textile with an emphasis on the colonial and early federal periods. American Paintings and Sculpture: over 2,500 paintings, 500 sculptures, 300 miniatures from before the mid-twentieth century including paintings by Benjamin West, John Singleton Copley, Albert Bierstadt, Frederic Church, Frederic Remington, Thomas Eakins, Winslow Homer, George Bellows, John Singer Sargent, Edwin Austin Abbey, Arthur Dove, Elizabeth Goodridge, Edward Hopper, sculptures by Hezekiah Augur, Hiram Powers, Horatio Greenough, William Henry Rinehart, Chauncey Ives, Alexander Archipenko, Alexander Calder.
Ancient Art: over 13,000 objects from the Near East, Greece and Rome dating from the Neolithic to the early Byzantine. Art of the Ancient Americas: Mayan and Olmec figurines and sculptures. Asian Art Coins and Medals Early European Art Modern and Contemporary Art: including paintings and sculpture by Josef Albers, Edgar Degas, Marcel Duchamp, Alberto Giacometti, Jean Metzinger, Joan Miró, Piet Mondrian, Pablo Picasso, Mark Rothko, Roy Lichtenstein. Prints and PhotographsIn 2005, the museum announced that it had acquired 1,465 gelatin silver prints by the influential American landscape photographer, Robert Adams. In 2009, the museum mounted an exhibition of its extensive collection of Picasso paintings and drawings, in collaboration with the Nasher Museum of Art at Duke University. For the first time, portions of the Yale University Library's, Gertrude Stein writing archives were displayed next to relevant drawings from Picasso; as an affiliate of Yale University, the gallery maintains a robust roster of education programs for university students, New Haven schools, the general public.
One such program is the Gallery Guide program, founded in 1998, which trains undergraduate students to lead tours at the museum. The Yale Art Gallery charges no admission. Official website
Whitney Museum of American Art
The Whitney Museum of American Art, known informally as the "Whitney", is an art museum in Manhattan. It was founded in 1930 by Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, a wealthy and prominent American socialite and art patron after whom it is named; the Whitney focuses on 20th- and 21st-century American art. Its permanent collection comprises more than 23,000 paintings, drawings, photographs, films and artifacts of new media by more than 3,400 artists, it places particular emphasis on exhibiting the work of living artists as well as maintaining an extensive permanent collection of important pieces from the first half of the last century. The museum's Annual and Biennial exhibitions have long been a venue for younger and lesser-known artists whose work is showcased there. From 1966 to 2014, the Whitney was at 945 Madison Avenue on Manhattan's Upper East Side; the museum closed in October 2014 to relocate to a new building designed by Renzo Piano at 99 Gansevoort Street in the West Village/Meatpacking District neighborhoods of Lower Manhattan.
Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, the museum's namesake and founder, was a well-regarded sculptor as well as a serious art collector. As a patron of the arts, she had achieved some success with the Whitney Studio Club, a New York–based exhibition space she created in 1918 to promote the works of avant-garde and unrecognized American artists. Whitney favored the radical art of the American artists of the Ashcan School such as John French Sloan, George Luks and Everett Shinn, as well as others such as Edward Hopper, Stuart Davis, Charles Demuth, Charles Sheeler, Max Weber. With the aid of her assistant, Juliana R. Force, Whitney collected nearly 700 works of American art. In 1929, she offered to donate over 500 to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, but the museum declined the gift. This, along with the apparent preference for European modernism at the opened Museum of Modern Art, led Whitney to start her own museum for American art, in 1929. Whitney Library archives from 1928 reveal that during this time the Studio Club used the gallery space of Wilhelmina Weber Furlong of the Art Students League to exhibit traveling shows featuring modernist work.
In 1931, architect Noel L. Miller converted three row houses on West 8th Street in Greenwich Village—one of which, 8 West 8th Street had been the location of the Studio Club—to be the museum's home as well as a residence for Whitney. Force became the museum's first director, under her guidance it concentrated on displaying the works of new and contemporary American artists. In 1954, the museum left its original location and moved to a small structure on 54th Street connected to and behind the Museum of Modern Art on 53rd Street. On April 15, 1958, a fire on MOMA's second floor that killed one person forced the evacuation of paintings and staff on MOMA's upper floors to the Whitney. Among the paintings evacuated was A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte, on loan from the Art Institute of Chicago. In 1961, the Whitney began seeking a site for a larger building. In 1966 it settled at the southeast corner of Madison Avenue and 75th Street on Manhattan's Upper East Side; the building and built 1963–1966 by Marcel Breuer and Hamilton P. Smith in a distinctively modern style, is distinguished from the neighboring townhouses by its staircase façade made of granite stones and its external upside-down windows.
In 1967, Mauricio Lasansky showed The Nazi Drawings. The exhibition traveled to the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York, where it appeared with shows by Louise Nevelson and Andrew Wyeth as the first exhibits in the new museum; the institution grappled with space problems for decades. From 1973 to 1983 the Whitney operated its first branch at 55 Water Street, a building owned by Harold Uris, who gave the museum a lease for $1 a year. In 1983 Philip Morris International installed a Whitney branch in the lobby of its Park Avenue headquarters. In 1981 the museum opened an exhibition space in Stamford, housed at Champion International. In the late 1980s, the Whitney entered into arrangements with Park Tower Realty, I. B. M. and The Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States, setting up satellite museums with rotating exhibitions in their buildings' lobbies. Each museum had its own director, with all plans approved by a Whitney committee; the institution attempted to expand its landmark building in 1978, commissioning UK architects Derek Walker and Norman Foster to design a tall tower alongside it, the first of several proposals from leading architects.
But each time the effort was abandoned, because of either both. To secure additional space for the museum's collections, then-director Thomas N. Armstrong III developed plans for a 10-story, $37.5 million addition to the main building. The proposed addition, designed by Michael Graves and announced in 1985, drew immediate opposition. Graves had proposed demolishing the flanking brownstones down to the East 74th Street corner for a complementary addition; the project lost the support of the museum's trustees, the plans were dropped in 1989. Between 1995 and 1998, the building underwent a expansion by Richard Gluckman. In 2001, Rem Koolhaas was commissioned to submit two designs for a $200 million expansion; those plans were dropped in 2003. New York restaurateur Danny Meyer opened Untitled, a restaurant in the museum, in March 2011; the space was designed by the Rockwell Group. The Whitney developed a new main building, designed by Renzo Piano, in the West Village and Meatpacking District in lower Manhattan.
The new museum, at the intersection of Gansevoort and Washington Streets, was bu
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library, the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology; the purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources. BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS.
BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply. Open access in Norway Om Bibsys
Krannert Art Museum
The Krannert Art Museum is an art museum located at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in Champaign, United States. It has 48,000 square feet of space devoted to all periods of art, dating from ancient Egypt to contemporary photography; the museum's collection of more than 10,000 objects includes specializations in 20th-century art, Asian art, pre-Columbian art works from the Andes. In 2012, the Krannert Art Museum opened a newly redesigned gallery of African art entitled Encounters: The Arts of Africa. In addition to permanent exhibitions, the museum features 12 to 15 exhibitions each year from traveling national and international museum collections as well as exhibitions of professional artists and student work; the museum was designed by architect Ambrose Richardson in a style reminiscent of the late work of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. An addition to the museum was completed in 1988; this addition, the Kinkead Pavilion, was the creation of Larry Booth and Associates. The building incorporates contemporary Egyptian art decorative elements in an overall post-modernist design.
The museum has over 132,000 visitors annually and supports scholarship through the Fred and Donna Giertz Education Center. Major collections of the museum include the Trees Collection of European and American Painting, Moore Collection of European and American Decorative Arts, the Olsen Collection of pre-Columbian Art, examples of 20th-century art; the museum is a unit within the University of Illinois College of Applied Arts. The museum is named for benefactors Herman C. Krannert and his wife Ellnora Krannert in recognition of Ellnora's interest in the arts. Official website Krannert Art Museum and Kinkead Pavilion on LocalWiki
Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts
The Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts at Harvard University, in Cambridge, Massachusetts is the only building designed by Le Corbusier in the United States, one of only two in the Americas. Le Corbusier designed it with the collaboration of Chilean architect Guillermo Jullian de la Fuente at his 35 rue de Sèvres studio, he had worked in Le Corbusier's atelier and had been instrumental in winning him the commission. The building was completed in 1962. During the mid-1950s, the idea of creating a place for the visual arts at Harvard began to take shape. A new department dedicated to the visual arts was created, the need for a building to house the new department arose. A budget was set for $1.3 million, the proposal was included in a Harvard fundraising program. The project elicited a response from Harvard alumnus Alfred St. Vrain Carpenter and his wife Helen Bundy Carpenter; the couple, whose son Harlow had just attended the Harvard Graduate School of Design, donated $1.5 million for the proposed design center.
The donation propelled the project forward, the Committee for the Practice of Visual Arts began to look for an architect to undertake the project. The committee had recommended that the building be designed by "a first rate American architect" who would be in the company of Charles Bulfinch and Walter Gropius, among others. However, José Luis Sert, at the time Dean of the Graduate School of Design and chairman of the committee suggested that his friend and previous collaborator, Le Corbusier, be asked to design the building. Delayed due to scheduling and payment conflicts, Le Corbusier accepted and made his first of two visits to Cambridge in 1959. After much debate, a site was chosen between Quincy and Prescott Streets, abiding by the original proposal for the building; the allotted space was quite small, so the completed building presents itself as a compact cylindrical mass bisected by an S-shaped ramp on the third floor. Le Corbusier's earliest design showed a much more pronounced ramp that further separated the two parts of the central mass.
However, the early design created the problem of too much disruption of the central mass. This problem auditorium reconciled by using a pinwheel effect so that in the executed design, the two halves meet at a vertical core that houses an elevator; the concrete ramp stands atop a few pilotis. The landing at the top of the ramp is located in the core of the building and leads to various studios and exhibition spaces seen through glass windows and doors, providing views into the building's instructional and displaying functions without interrupting the activities in progress; the exterior of the Carpenter Center presents itself differently from different angles. From Prescott Street looking toward the curved studio space, one can see the brise-soleil that are placed perpendicular to the direction of the central portion of the ramp, making only their narrow ends visible from the street; the Quincy Street view, reveals ondulatoires on this studio's exterior curve, which interfere with the building's curve less than the brise-soleil do on the opposite side.
On the ramp from Quincy street just before entering the building, one sees grids of square and rectangles of the windows, brise-soleils, studio spaces, rather than the curves of the two halves of the building. During his career, Le Corbusier developed a set of architectural principles that dictated his technique, which he called "the Five Points of a New Architecture" and were most evident in his Villa Savoye; the five points are: Pilotis – Replacement of supporting walls by a grid of reinforced concrete columns that bears the structural load is the basis of the new aesthetic. The free designing of the ground plan—the absence of supporting walls—means the house is unrestrained in its internal use; the free design of the façade—separating the exterior of the building from its structural function—sets the façade free from structural constraints. The horizontal window, which cuts the façade along its entire length, lights rooms equally. Roof gardens or the fifth façade on a flat roof can serve a domestic purpose while providing essential protection to the concrete roof.
Because the Carpenter Center was to be his only building in America, Le Corbusier felt it should be a synthesis of his architectural principles and therefore incorporated his Five Points into its design. The building now houses the department of Visual and Environmental Studies of the University, is the venue for screenings by the Harvard Film Archive. Le Corbusier never saw the building, he was invited to the opening ceremony, but he declined the invitation on account of his poor health. The French artist Pierre Huyghe explored the creation of the building in his 2004 work This Is Not A Time For Dreaming". Le Corbusier became well known as being a major influence for the urban renewal projects that replaced Scollay Square with Boston City Hall Plaza and the West End of Boston. National Register of Historic Places listings in Cambridge, Massachusetts Photographs Harvard Film Archive Department of Visual and Environmental Studies Research on the Carpenter Center Photographs of the Carpenter Center
John Milton Cage Jr. was an American composer, music theorist and philosopher. A pioneer of indeterminacy in music, electroacoustic music, non-standard use of musical instruments, Cage was one of the leading figures of the post-war avant-garde. Critics have lauded him as one of the most influential composers of the 20th century, he was instrumental in the development of modern dance through his association with choreographer Merce Cunningham, Cage's romantic partner for most of their lives. Cage is best known for his 1952 composition 4′33″, performed in the absence of deliberate sound; the content of the composition is not "four minutes and 33 seconds of silence," as is assumed, but rather the sounds of the environment heard by the audience during performance. The work's challenge to assumed definitions about musicianship and musical experience made it a popular and controversial topic both in musicology and the broader aesthetics of art and performance. Cage was a pioneer of the prepared piano, for which he wrote numerous dance-related works and a few concert pieces.
The best known of these is Interludes. His teachers included Henry Cowell and Arnold Schoenberg, both known for their radical innovations in music, but Cage's major influences lay in various East and South Asian cultures. Through his studies of Indian philosophy and Zen Buddhism in the late 1940s, Cage came to the idea of aleatoric or chance-controlled music, which he started composing in 1951; the I Ching, an ancient Chinese classic text on changing events, became Cage's standard composition tool for the rest of his life. In a 1957 lecture, Experimental Music, he described music as "a purposeless play", "an affirmation of life – not an attempt to bring order out of chaos nor to suggest improvements in creation, but a way of waking up to the life we're living". Cage was born September 1912, at Good Samaritan Hospital in downtown Los Angeles, his father, John Milton Cage Sr. was an inventor, his mother, Lucretia Harvey, worked intermittently as a journalist for the Los Angeles Times. The family's roots were American: in a 1976 interview, Cage mentioned that George Washington was assisted by an ancestor named John Cage in the task of surveying the Colony of Virginia.
Cage described his mother as a woman with "a sense of society", "never happy", while his father is best characterized by his inventions: sometimes idealistic, such as a diesel-fueled submarine that gave off exhaust bubbles, the senior Cage being uninterested in an undetectable submarine. John Milton Sr. taught his son that "if someone says'can't' that shows you what to do." In 1944 -- 45 Cage wrote two small character pieces dedicated to his parents: Dad. The latter is a short lively piece that ends abruptly, while "Crete" is a longer melodic contrapuntal work. Cage's first experiences with music were from private piano teachers in the Greater Los Angeles area and several relatives his aunt Phoebe Harvey James who introduced him to the piano music of the 19th century, he received first piano lessons when he was in the fourth grade at school, but although he liked music, he expressed more interest in sight reading than in developing virtuoso piano technique, was not thinking of composition. During high school, one of his music teachers was Fannie Charles Dillon.
By 1928, Cage was convinced that he wanted to be a writer. He graduated that year from Los Angeles High School as a valedictorian, having in the spring given a prize-winning speech at the Hollywood Bowl proposing a day of quiet for all Americans. "By being hushed and silent, he said,'we should have the opportunity to hear what other people think'," anticipating 4′33″ by more than thirty years. Cage enrolled at Pomona College in Claremont as a theology major in 1928. Crossing disciplines again, though, he encountered at Pomona the work of artist Marcel Duchamp via professor José Pijoan, of writer James Joyce via Don Sample, of philosopher Ananda Coomaraswamy and of Cowell. In 1930 he dropped out, having come to believe that "college was of no use to a writer" after an incident described in the 1991 autobiographical statement: I was shocked at college to see one hundred of my classmates in the library all reading copies of the same book. Instead of doing as they did, I went into the stacks and read the first book written by an author whose name began with Z.
I received the highest grade in the class. That convinced me. I left. Cage persuaded his parents that a trip to Europe would be more beneficial to a future writer than college studies, he subsequently sailed to Le Havre, where he took a train to Paris. Cage stayed in Europe for some 18 months. First he studied Gothic and Greek architecture, but decided he was not interested enough in architecture to dedicate his life to it, he took up painting and music. It was in Europe that, encouraged by his teacher Lazare Lévy, he first heard the music of contemporary composers and got to know the music of Johann Sebastian Bach, which he had not experienced before. After several months in Paris, Cage's enthusiasm for America was revived after he read Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass – he wante