Annie Get Your Gun is a musical with lyrics and music by Irving Berlin and a book by Dorothy Fields and her brother Herbert Fields. The story is a fictionalized version of the life of Annie Oakley, a sharpshooter who starred in Buffalo Bill's Wild West, her romance with sharpshooter Frank E. Butler; the 1946 Broadway production was a hit, the musical had long runs in both New York and London, spawning revivals, a 1950 film version and television versions. Songs that became hits include "There's No Business Like Show Business", "Doin' What Comes Natur'lly", "You Can't Get a Man with a Gun", "They Say It's Wonderful", "Anything You Can Do." Dorothy Fields had the idea for a musical about Annie Oakley, to star Ethel Merman. Producer Mike Todd turned the project down, so Fields approached a new producing team, Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II. After the success of their first musical collaboration, Oklahoma!, Rodgers and Hammerstein had decided to become producers of both their own theatrical ventures and those by other authors.
They asked Jerome Kern to compose the music. Kern, composing for movie musicals in Hollywood, returned to New York on November 2, 1945 to begin work on the score to Annie Get Your Gun, but three days he collapsed on the street due to a cerebral hemorrhage. Kern was hospitalized, he died on November 11, 1945; the producers and Fields asked Irving Berlin to write the musical's score. Berlin declined to write the score, worrying that he would be unable to write songs to fit specific scenes in "a situation show." Hammerstein persuaded him to study the script and try writing some songs based on it, within days, Berlin returned with the songs "Doin' What Comes Naturally", "You Can't Get a Man With a Gun", "There's No Business Like Show Business". Berlin's songs suited the story and Ethel Merman's abilities, he composed the rest of the score to Annie Get Your Gun; the show's eventual hit song, "There's No Business Like Show Business," was left out of the show because Berlin mistakenly got the impression that Richard Rodgers did not like it.
In imitation of the structure of Oklahoma! A secondary romance between two of the members of the Wild West Show was added to the musical during its development. According to some sources, the role of Annie was offered to Mary Martin, who turned it down. On opening night, she was represented by Richard Halliday. Upon his return home following the premiere, he informed her, "You're going to kill yourself!" When time came to send out the post-Broadway national tour and Merman was unwilling to do it, Martin jumped at the chance, going on the road for two years and belting out the songs, which had the effect of lowering her voice from its normal lyric-coloratura range to mezzo-soprano-alto. For the 1999 revival, Peter Stone revised the libretto, eliminating what were considered insensitive references to American Indians, including the songs "Colonel Buffalo Bill" and "I'm An Indian Too". Stone said, "The big challenge is taking a book, wonderfully crafted for its time and make it wonderfully crafted for our time...
It was insensitive...to Indians.... But it had to be dealt with in a way, heartfelt and not obvious... In this case, it was with the permission of the heirs. They're pleased with it." Stone altered the structure of the musical, beginning it with "There's No Business Like Show Business" and presenting the musical as a "show within a show". When the traveling Buffalo Bill's Wild West show visits Cincinnati, Frank Butler, the show's handsome, womanizing star, challenges anyone in town to a shooting match. Foster Wilson, a local hotel owner, doesn't appreciate the Wild West show taking over his hotel, so Frank gives him a side bet of one hundred dollars on the match. Annie Oakley enters and shoots a bird off Dolly Tate's hat, explains her simple backwoods ways to Wilson with the help of her siblings; when Wilson learns she's a brilliant shot, he enters her in the shooting match against Frank Butler. While waiting for the match to start, Annie meets Frank Butler and is smitten with him, not knowing he will be her opponent.
When she asks Frank if he likes her, Frank explains that the girl he wants will "wear satin... and smell of cologne". The rough and naive Annie comically laments that "You Can't Get a Man with a Gun." At the shooting match, Annie finds out that Frank is the "big swollen-headed stiff" from the Wild West show. She wins the contest, Buffalo Bill and Charlie Davenport, the show's manager, invite Annie to join the Wild West Show. Annie agrees because she loves Frank though she has no idea what "show business" is. Frank and Buffalo Bill explain that "There's No Business Like Show Business." Over the course of working together, Frank becomes enamored of the plain-spoken, tomboyish Annie and, as they travel to Minneapolis, Minnesota on a train, he explains to her what "love" is. Buffalo Bill and Charlie discover that their rival, Pawnee Bill's Far East Show, will be playing in Saint Paul, Minnesota while the Wild West show plays in nearby Minneapolis, they ask Annie to do a special shooting stunt on a motorcycle to draw Pawnee Bill's business away.
Annie agrees. She sings her siblings to sleep with the "Moonshine Lullaby." As Annie and Frank
First African Baptist Church and Parsonage is an significant church building and an associated parsonage located in the United States on West Jefferson Avenue in Georgetown, Kentucky. In 1842, First Baptist Church moved from their West Jefferson location to a site closer to Georgetown College on College and Hamilton Streets; the church's previous building and property were leased to local black Baptists so a new congregation for blacks could be formed. The current building was constructed in 1870; the buildings were added to the U. S. National Register of Historic Places in 1984; the First Baptist Church congregation in Georgetown, Kentucky was organized in 1811, its first meeting house erected on West Jefferson Street in 1815. In 1842 Howard Malcom, the pastor of the church and president of Georgetown College, urged the relocation of the church to a site near the college; the congregation moved from their West Jefferson location to a site on Hamilton Streets. The building at the original site was leased to black congregation.
G. W. Dupee, a slave, was the first official pastor of the black congregation. Reuben Lee was pastor when the current building was constructed in 1870; the church building has a Gothic Revival style. The original twin doors to accommodate women and men separately entering have been closed on the front facade and replaced with "a single centered entrance highlighted by three lancet arches." National Register of Historic Places listings in Kentucky
Gregory A. Boyd is an American theologian and author. Boyd is Senior Pastor of Woodland Hills Church in St. Paul and President of Reknew.org. He is one of the leading spokesmen in the growing Neo-Anabaptism movement, based in the tradition of Anabaptism and advocates Christian pacifism and a non-violent understanding of God. Boyd has long been known as a leading advocate of open theism. In addition, he is known for his writings on the relationship between Christianity and politics, including his best-selling book The Myth of a Christian Nation, written after The New York Times published a front-page cover article on Boyd's criticism of the Christian right. In 2010, Boyd was listed as one of the twenty most influential living Christian scholars. In addition to The New York Times, Boyd has made appearances on CNN, NPR, the BBC, The Charlie Rose Show. Boyd became an atheist as a teenager. In 1974, at the age of 16, he converted to Oneness Pentecostalism, but began questioning the movement's teachings.
In late 1979, he became an orthodox Christian. After earning a bachelor's degree in Philosophy from the University of Minnesota he attended Yale Divinity School, graduating cum laude with a Master of Divinity degree in 1982, he attended Princeton Theological Seminary, earning a PhD in 1987, graduating magna cum laude. While at Princeton he was a classmate of Bart Ehrman and a student of Bruce Metzger. Boyd was Professor of Theology at Bethel University for sixteen years, he resigned after there was a dispute between himself and some of the professors there over his open theism advocacy. Greg Boyd now teaches at Bethel University on an adjunct basis. In 1992 Boyd co-founded Woodland Hills Church. Boyd's Princeton dissertation was a critique of the process theology of Charles Hartshorne. Here, he attempts to construct a philosophical theology that retains the positive features of a process worldview, while avoiding its unorthodox implications. Boyd is a former Oneness Pentecostal, wrote the book Oneness Pentecostals and the Trinity, critiquing the movement's anti-trinitarian view of God and other doctrines.
Boyd is known as one of the leading supporters of open theism, which he explores in the book God of the Possible. In essence, open theism is the view that the future is open, therefore known to God as a realm of possibilities. Proponents of the conservative or traditional view of God within the Baptist General Conference, such as John Piper, tried unsuccessfully to have the rules of the denomination changed to exclude Boyd and other open theists, he is known for his award-winning book Letters from a Skeptic. This book is a collection of letters written by Boyd and his father Edward, an atheist at the time. Through the course of their correspondence, Boyd addressed many of the perennial intellectual challenges to the Christian faith, which led to his father's conversion. Boyd was featured in a front-page New York Times profile in July 2006, after losing 20% of his congregation because he refused to lend his public support to conservative political causes and directly challenged the politicized nature of American evangelical Christianity.
In his view, the Kingdom of God always looks like Jesus Christ. Jesus did not seek to maintain control or power over others, but instead sought to self-sacrificially serve and love them. Therefore, according to Boyd, the gospel cannot be associated with any particular political or nationalistic ideology; the congregational loss stemmed from his 2004 sermon series called "The Cross and the Sword." As a result of the sermon series he authored the book The Myth of a Christian Nation: How the Quest for Political Power Is Destroying the Church, in which he argues that a commitment to non-violence and to loving one's enemies lies at the heart of the teachings of Jesus. Boyd further discussed these views in the CNN documentary God's Warriors, which aired in August 2007. In a more recent book, The Myth of a Christian Religion: Losing Your Religion for the Beauty of a Revolution, he presents his understanding of what the Kingdom of God is. In 2012, Woodland Hills Church began exploring Anabaptism and the possibility of affiliating with Mennonite Church USA and the Brethren in Christ.
Boyd stated that "we've been kind of growing in this direction since the church started, without knowing what Anabaptism was." During the exploration, leadership asked the congregation to read Stuart Murray's The Naked Anabaptist, the church has met with Anabaptist groups. Boyd is known for his academic work on the topics of Satan, the problem of evil, spiritual warfare, the demonic, he is authoring a series of books, titled Satan and Evil, two volumes of which have been published: God at War: The Bible and Spiritual Conflict and Satan and the Problem of Evil: Constructing a Trinitarian Warfare Theodicy. In between numerous other projects, he has been at work on the next installment of this series, tentatively titled The Myth of the Blueprint, now planned as a two-volume work with 1,000 pages to each volume. Boyd is a contributor to the 2012 book Understanding Spiritual Warfare: Four Views. Related to this, Boyd supports the Christus Victor model of the atonement, he is a notable figure in New Testament scholarship and the Quest for the Historical Jesus.
He is critical of liberal scholarship as typified by the Jesus Seminar as well as the individual work of scholars like John Dominic Crossan and Burton Mack. He has participated in numerous public debates, most notably with friend Robert M. Price an