Brattahlíð anglicised as Brattahlid, was Erik the Red's estate in the Eastern Settlement Viking colony he established in south-western Greenland toward the end of the 10th century. The present settlement of Qassiarsuk 5 km southwest from the Narsarsuaq settlement, is now located in its place; the site is located about 96 km from the ocean, at the head of the Tunulliarfik Fjord, hence sheltered from ocean storms. Erik and his descendants lived there until about the mid-15th century; the name Brattahlíð means "the steep slope". At Brattahlíð stood the first European church in the Americas: Þjóðhildarkirkja. A recent reconstruction of this chapel now stands at a distance from the actual site, along with a replica of a Norse longhouse. At the site of the main church, built after the Norse were converted to Christianity, investigators have found melted fragments of bell-metal, foundation stones of it and other buildings remained into the 20th century, as did the remnants of a possible forge; this church measured 12.5 by 4.5 m. and had two entrances, with what was evidently a hearth in the middle.
Fire destroyed it. The church a 14th-century structure, may have stood on the ruins of an earlier church; the churchyard has tombstones, with a cross cut on one of them. On another stand engraved the runes for "Ingibjørg's Grave". Today, stones mark the church's outline, though people placed them there in recent years. One farm building nearby measured 53 with stone walls about 1.5 m thick. Inside, it had a flagstone floor. Flat stones — or, in one case, the shoulder-blade of a whale — formed the stalls; some of these buildings still stood in 1953, contemporaneous with the Bluie West One airfield at Narsarsuaq, but today they exist as depressions in the ground. Brattahlíð still has some of the best farmland in Greenland, owing to its location at the inner end of Eriksfjord, which protects it from the cold foggy weather and arctic waters of the outer coast, it has a small store. More extensive facilities exist in Narsarsuaq across the fjord. Brattahlíð hosted the first Greenlandic Þing, based on the Icelandic Althing.
Its exact location remains unknown. The exact causes of the disappearance of the Norse settlements toward the end of the 15th century remain unverified, but resulted from a combination of the Little Ice Age's cooling temperatures, soil erosion, abandonment by Norway, more convenient ways for Europeans to procure furs and a mercantile eclipsing by the Hanseatic League, competition from the Inuit moving southward. Qassiarsuk about the present settlement on the location Garðar, a bishopric seat founded in the 12th century close to Brattahlíð Diamond, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed ISBN 0-670-03337-5 Ingstad, Land under the Pole Star Jones, The Norse Atlantic Saga ISBN 0-19-215886-4 "Brattahlid, Norse Greenland", Earth Observatory Picture of the Day, NASA. An Old Captivity by Nevil Shute is a fictional account of an early aerial investigation of the old Norse settlement at Brattalid and of Leif Ericson's journey to North America in c 1000 AD
Frederick Albert Cook was an American explorer and ethnographer, noted for his claim of having reached the North Pole on April 21, 1908. This was nearly a year before Robert Peary, who reached the North Pole on April 6, 1909. Both men's accounts were disputed for several years, his expedition did discover Meighen Island, the only discovery of an island in the North American Arctic by a United States expedition. In December 1909, after reviewing Cook's limited records, a commission of the University of Copenhagen ruled his claim unproven. In 1911, Cook published a memoir of his expedition, his account of reaching Mount McKinley's summit has been discredited. Cook's birthplace is listed as Callicoon, New York, but he was born in Hortonville, New York in the Town of Delaware in Sullivan County, his parents were recent German immigrants who anglicized their name by adopting a phonetic version of their surname. He attended local schools before college, he graduated from Columbia University and did medical studies at New York University Medical School, receiving his doctorate in 1890.
Cook married Libby Forbes in 1889. She died two years later. In 1902, on his 37th birthday, he married Marie Fidele Hunt, they had two daughters together. After more than two decades of marriage, they divorced in 1923. Cook was the surgeon on Robert Peary's Arctic expedition of 1891–1892, on the Belgian Antarctic Expedition of 1897–1899, he contributed to saving the lives of its crew members when their ship—the Belgica—was ice-bound during the winter, as they had not prepared for such an event. It became the first expedition to winter in the Antarctic region. To prevent scurvy, Cook went hunting to keep the crew supplied with fresh meat. In 1897, Cook twice visited Tierra del Fuego, they studied the Yahgan peoples, with whom Bridges had worked for two decades. During this time, he had prepared a manuscript on their language's grammar and a dictionary of more than 30,000 words. Cook borrowed the manuscript for reference but failed to return it before Bridges' death in 1898. Several years he tried to publish the dictionary as his own.
In 1903, Cook led an expedition to Mount McKinley. He made a second journey in 1906, after which he claimed to have achieved the first summit of its peak with one other expedition crew member. Other members, including Belmore Browne, whom Cook had left on the lower mountain but expressed doubt. Cook's claims were not publicly challenged until 1909 when the dispute with Peary over the North Pole claim erupted, with Peary's supporters claiming Cook's McKinley ascent was fraudulent. Unlike Hudson Stuck in 1913, Cook had not taken photographs from atop McKinley, his alleged photo of the summit was found to have been taken on a small outcrop on a ridge beside the Ruth Glacier, 19 miles away. In late 1909, Ed Barrill, Cook's sole companion during the 1906 climb, signed an affidavit saying that they had not reached the summit. In the late 20th century, historians found that he had been paid by Peary supporters to deny Cook's claim. Up until a month before, Barrill had asserted that he and Cook had reached the summit.
His 1909 affidavit included a map locating what became called Fake Peak, featured in Cook's "summit" photo, showing that he and Cook had turned back at the Gateway. Climber Bradford Washburn has gathered data, repeated the climbs, taken new photos to evaluate Cook's 1906 claim. Between 1956 and 1995, Washburn and Brian Okonek identified the locations of most of the photographs Cook took during his 1906 Denali foray and took new photos at the same spots. In 1997 Bryce identified the locations of the remaining photographs, including Cook's "summit" photograph. Washburn showed that none of Cook's 1906 photos was taken past the "Gateway", 12 horizontal bee-line miles from Denali and 3 miles below its top. An expedition by the Mazama Club in 1910 reported that Cook's map departed abruptly from the landscape at a point when the summit was still 10 miles distant. Critics of Cook's claims have compared Cook's map of his alleged 1906 route with the landscape of the last 10 miles. Cook's descriptions of the summit ridge are variously claimed to bear no resemblance to the mountain and to have been verified by many subsequent climbers.
In the 1970s, climber Hans Waale found a route. Three decades in 2005 and 2006, this route was climbed by a group of Russian mountaineers. No evidence of Cook's purported journey between the "Gateway" and the summit has been found, his claim to have reached the summit is not supported by his photos' vistas, his two sketch maps' markers, peak-numberings for points attained. Neither his recorded compass bearings, barometer readings, route-map, nor camp trash support his claim of reaching the summit. However, samples of all such evidence have been found short of the Gateway. After the Mount Denali expedition, Cook returned to the Arctic in 1907, he planned to attempt to reach the North Pole, although he did not announce his intention until August 1907, when he was in the Arctic. He left Annoatok, a small settlement in the north of Greenland, in February 1908. Cook claimed that he reached the pole on April 21, 1908, after traveling north from Axel Heiberg Island, taking with him only two Inuit men and Etukishook.
On the journey south, he claimed to have been cut off from his intended route to Annoatok by open water. Living off lo
Faroese people or Faroe Islanders are a North Germanic ethnic group and nation native to the Faroe Islands. The Faroese are of mixed Gaelic origins. About 21,000 Faroese live in neighbouring countries in Denmark and Norway. Most Faroese are citizens of the Kingdom of Denmark, in which the Faroe Islands are a constituent nation; the Faroese language is one of the North Germanic languages and is related to Icelandic and to western Norwegian varieties. The first known colonists were Gaelic Monks who arrived in the 6th century. From the ninth century onwards the Norse-Gaels came and brought Norse culture and language to the islands. Little is known about this period. A single source mentions the Icelandic Færeyinga saga, it was written sometime around 1200 and explains events taking place 300 years prior. According to the saga, many Norsemen objected to the Norwegian king's unification politics and thus fled to other countries, including the newfound places in the west. Historians have understood since the time of the Færeyinga saga that the Viking Grímur Kamban was the first settler in the Faroes.
The Norwegians must have known about the isles before leaving Norway. If Grímur Kamban had settled sometime earlier, this could explain the Norwegians knowing about them. Another, more logical explanation might be that the Norwegians came to know about the islands by the Gaels of Scotland and Ireland. While Grímur is an Old Norse first name, Kamban indicates a Celtic origin, thus he could have been a man from Ireland, Scotland or Isle of Man, where the Vikings had settlements. Some place names from the oldest settlements on the Faroes suggest that some of the settlers came from the Scottish islands and the British coast. Recent DNA analyses have revealed; the studies show. List of Faroese people Demographics of the Faroe Islands Culture of the Faroe Islands Flag of the Faroe Islands Faroese Dane
Qoornoq is an uninhabited fishing village in the Sermersooq municipality in southwestern Greenland. The area was known to have been inhabited by the ancient pre-Inuit, Paleo-Eskimo people of the Saqqaq culture as far back as 2200 BC, it still contains archaeological ruins of ancient Norse buildings. The site was excavated in 1952 and the remains of an old Norse farm and ancient tools were discovered; the outside walls of the farm contain several Inuit houses. The last permanent resident left in 1972. Descendents of former residents come to their houses in the summer by boat. Qoornoq once had a railway used for transporting fish; the railway was used in the 1950s, with a small diesel-hydraulic locomotive hauling flat wagons full of fish. The line closed shortly. Qoornoq is located on the northeastern coast of the Qoornuup Qeqertarsua Island in the Nuup Kangerlua fjord, to the northeast of Nuuk, the capital of Greenland
Ritenbenck, Ritenbenk or Ritenbench is a former settlement on Appat Island in the Qaasuitsup municipality in northwestern Greenland. The island is located in the Uummannaq Fjord. Ritenbenck was founded in 1755 by the General Trade Company; the name was an anagram of the GTC's then-chairman Christian August Berckentin. Qaqortuatsiaq, an abandoned marble quarry on the same island
Sandnæs anglicized as Sandnes, was the largest Norse farmstead in the Western Settlement of medieval Greenland. With the Norwegian city of Sandnes, its name meant "Sandy Headland" in Old Norse, it was abandoned by the late 14th century. It was located at the site known as Kilaarsarfik today, at the head of the Ameralla Fjord south of modern Nuuk's peninsula; the farm was well-placed and possessed a large pasturage enabling its proprietors to raise cattle, compared with goats and sheep at the other Western Settlement farms. It included the area's church. However, the conditions throughout the site's existence were filthy; the site has been excavated, proving among other things that the Vikings continued to trade with the American mainland after Leif Ericson's failed colonization attempt. An arrowhead from the Point Revenge culture of native Americans in Labrador has been found in the graveyard at Sandnæs. There is evidence of iron extraction at the site
Akunnat is a former community in southern Greenland on the island of Akonemiok or Qeqertarsuatsiaat, 3 miles from the trading post of Fisher's Inlet. The settlement was founded as the Moravian mission of Lichtenfels by Matthias Stach, the brothers Jens and Peter Haven, four Inuit families in 1748, 1754, 1757, or 1758. Following the first conversions in 1760 or 1761, the population of the settlement rose to around 300; the mission was surrendered to the Lutheran Church of Denmark in 1900