Felipe VI of Spain
Felipe VI is the King of Spain. He ascended the throne on 19 June 2014 upon the abdication of his father, King Juan Carlos I, his mother is Queen Sofía, he has two older sisters, Infanta Elena, Duchess of Lugo, Infanta Cristina. When Spanish dictator Francisco Franco chose Juan Carlos as his successor in 1969, Felipe became second in line to the Spanish throne. In 2004, Felipe married TV news journalist Letizia Ortiz with whom he has two daughters and Sofía. In accordance with the Spanish Constitution, as monarch, he is head of state and commander-in-chief of the Spanish Armed Forces, plays a role in promoting relations with Spanish America and the former Spanish East Indies, which are collectively called the "nations of its historical community". Felipe was born at Our Lady of Loreto Clinic in Madrid, the third child and only son of Infante Juan Carlos of Spain and Princess Sofía of Greece and Denmark, he was baptised on 8 February 1968 at the Palace of Zarzuela by the Archbishop of Madrid, Casimiro Morcillo, with water from the Jordan River.
His full baptismal name, Felipe Juan Pablo Alfonso de Todos los Santos, consists of the names of the first Bourbon King of Spain, his grandfathers, his great-grandfather King Alfonso XIII of Spain, de Todos los Santos as is customary among the Bourbons. His godparents were his paternal grandfather Juan and his paternal great-grandmother, Queen Victoria Eugenie of Spain. Shortly after his birth he was styled infante; the ruling dictator Generalísimo Francisco Franco died just more than two months before Felipe's eighth birthday, Felipe's father ascended the throne. In his first official appearance, Felipe attended his father's proclamation as king on 22 November 1975. In 1977, Felipe was formally proclaimed Prince of Asturias. In May, nine-year-old Felipe was made an honorary soldier of the 1st King's Immemorial Infantry Regiment; the occasion was marked on 28 May and was attended by the king, the prime minister and several other ministers in a ceremony at the infantry's barracks. On 1 November the same year, he was ceremoniously paid homage as Prince of Asturias in Covadonga.
In 1981 Felipe received the Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece from his father, the Chief and Sovereign of the Order. On his 18th birthday on 30 January 1986, Felipe swore allegiance to the Constitution and to the King in the Spanish Parliament as required by the constitution accepting his role as successor to the Crown. Felipe attended school at Santa María de los Rosales, which his daughters attend. Felipe attended high school at Lakefield College School in Ontario and studied at the Autonomous University of Madrid, where he graduated with a degree in Law, he completed his academic studies by obtaining a Master of Science in Foreign Service degree from the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University, where he was the roommate of his cousin, Crown Prince Pavlos of Greece. As the heir to the throne, a regulated and structured plan was laid out for Felipe's military training. In August 1985, a Royal Decree named Felipe as officer at the General Military Academy in Zaragoza, he began his military training there in September.
He completed the first phase of his formation in October. In July 1986, he was promoted to Cadet 2nd Lieutenant, he was named as Midshipman. On September 1986, he began his naval training at the Escuela Naval Militar in Pontevedra, joining the Third Brigade. In January 1987, he continued his naval training on board the training ship Juan Sebastián Elcano. In July, he was named as Student Ensign at the Academia General del Aire in Murcia. In September 1987, he began his air force training there. In 1989, he was promoted to lieutenant in the Army, ensign in the Navy, lieutenant in the Air Force. In 1992, he was promoted to captain in the Air Force. In 1993, he was promoted to captain in the Infantry of the Army. Further promotions in 2000 were commandant in the Army, corvette captain in the Navy, commandant in the Air Force. Promotions in 2009 were lieutenant colonel in the Army, frigate captain in the Navy, lieutenant colonel in the Air Force. Since 19 June 2014, after his ascension to the throne, he acquired the rank of Capitán General of all the Spanish armies.
Felipe undertook his constitutional duties assiduously as heir to the throne, hosting many official events in Spain and participating in all events of different sectors and aspects of Spanish public life as required. Since October 1995, Felipe has represented Spain on a series of official visits to the Spanish Autonomous Communities, starting with Valencia, during which he made contact with Spaniards from all walks of life. Felipe has held regular meetings with constitutional bodies and state institutions keeping up-to-date with their activities, he attends meetings of the various bodies of the Central Administration and of the Autonomous Communities as required by his national and international constitutional obligations. Felipe has welcomed as many public and private audiences as possible to maintain Crown interaction in national and international affairs. In particular, he has held meetings with people of his generation who have built successful careers in political, economic and media circles.
As part of his military training, Felipe trained as a military helicopter pilot. On occasions when King Juan Carlos was unable to attend, Felipe presided over the annual presentation of dispatches to officers and non-c
Prince Andrew, Duke of York
Prince Andrew, Duke of York, is a member of the British royal family. He is the third child and second son of Duke of Edinburgh. At the time of his birth, he was second in the line of succession to the British throne, he holds the rank of commander and the honorary rank of Vice Admiral in the Royal Navy, in which he served as an active-duty helicopter pilot and instructor and as the captain of a warship. He saw active service during the Falklands War, flying on multiple missions including anti-surface warfare, Exocet missile decoy, casualty evacuation. In 1986, Prince Andrew married Sarah Ferguson; as well as carrying out various official engagements, he served as Britain's Special Representative for International Trade and Investment until July 2011. Prince Andrew was born in the Belgian Suite of Buckingham Palace on 19 February 1960, the third child and second son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, he was baptised in the Palace's Music Room on 8 April 1960 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Geoffrey Fisher.
He is the namesake of his paternal grandfather, Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark, who died 16 years before he was born. Prince Andrew was the first child born to a reigning monarch since the birth in 1857 of Queen Victoria's youngest child, Princess Beatrice; as with his older siblings, Andrew was looked after by a governess, responsible for his early education at Buckingham Palace. He was sent to Heatherdown School near Ascot in Berkshire. In September 1973, he entered Gordonstoun, in northern Scotland, which his father and elder brother had attended before him. While there, he spent six months—from January to June 1977—participating in an exchange programme to Lakefield College School in Canada, he left Gordonstoun in July two years with A-Levels in English, history and political science. He instead entered the Britannia Royal Naval College at Dartmouth; the Royal Household announced in November 1978 that Prince Andrew would join the Royal Navy the following year. In December he underwent various sporting tests and examinations at the Aircrew Selection Centre, at RAF Biggin Hill, along with further tests and interviews at HMS Daedalus, interviews at the Admiralty Interview Board, HMS Sultan.
During March and April 1979, the prince was enrolled at the Royal Naval College Flight, undergoing pilot training, until he was accepted as a trainee helicopter pilot and signed on for 12 years from 11 May 1979. On 1 September of the same year, Prince Andrew was appointed as a midshipman, entered Britannia Royal Naval College, Dartmouth. During 1980 he took the Royal Marines All Arms Commando Course. After passing out from Dartmouth, the prince went on to elementary flying training with the Royal Air Force at RAF Leeming, basic flying training with the navy at HMS Seahawk, where he learned to fly the Gazelle helicopter. After being awarded his wings, he moved onto more advanced training on the Sea King helicopter, conducted operational flying training until 1982, he joined carrier-based squadron, 820 Naval Air Squadron, serving aboard the aircraft carrier, HMS Invincible. The Falkland Islands, which are a British overseas territory claimed by Argentina, were invaded by Argentina on 2 April 1982, an event that instigated the Falklands War.
Invincible was one of the two operational aircraft carriers available at the time, and, as such, was to play a major role in the Royal Navy task force assembled to sail south to retake the islands. Prince Andrew's place on board and the possibility of the Queen's son being killed in action made the British Government apprehensive, the Cabinet desired that Prince Andrew be moved to a desk job for the duration of the conflict; the Queen, insisted that her son be allowed to remain with his ship. Prince Andrew remained on board Invincible to serve as a Sea King helicopter co-pilot, flying on missions that included anti-submarine warfare and anti-surface warfare, Exocet missile decoy, casualty evacuation and search and air rescue, he witnessed the Argentinian attack on the SS Atlantic Conveyor. At the cessation of the war, Invincible returned to Portsmouth, where the Queen and Prince Philip joined other families of the crew in welcoming the vessel home; the Argentine military government planned, but did not attempt, to assassinate the prince on Mustique in July 1982.
Though he had brief assignments to HMS Illustrious, RNAS Culdrose, the Joint Services School of Intelligence, Prince Andrew remained with Invincible until 1983. Commander Nigel Ward's memoir, Sea Harrier Over the Falklands, described Prince Andrew as "an excellent pilot and a promising officer."Following his return from the Falklands War and until his marriage to Sarah Ferguson, Prince Andrew dated actress Koo Stark. In late 1983, Prince Andrew transferred to RNAS Portland, was trained to fly the Lynx helicopter, was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant on 1 February 1984, whereupon the Queen appointed him as her personal aide-de-Camp. Prince Andrew served aboard HMS Brazen as a flight pilot until 1986, including deployment to the Mediterranean Sea as part of Standing NRF Maritime Group 2, he undertook the Lieutenants' Greenwich Staff course. On 23 October 1986, the Duke of York transferred to the General List, enrolled in a four-month helicopter warfare instructor's course at RNAS Yeovilton, upon graduation, served from February 1987 to April 1988 as a helicopter warfare officer in 702 Naval Air Squadron, RNAS Portland.
He served on HMS Edinburgh as an Office
Guildhall is a Grade I-listed building in the City of London, England. It is situated off Basinghall streets, in the wards of Bassishaw and Cheap; the building has been used as a town hall for several hundred years, is still the ceremonial and administrative centre of the City of London and its Corporation. It should not be confused with the administrative centre for Greater London; the term "Guildhall" refers both to the whole building and to its main room, a medieval great hall. The building is traditionally referred to as Guildhall, never "the" Guildhall; the nearest London Underground stations are Bank, Moorgate. The great hall is believed to be on a site of an earlier Guildhall. Possible evidence for this derivation may be in a reference to John Parker, the sergeant of "Camera Guyhalde", London, in 1396. During the Roman period, it was the site of an amphitheatre, the largest in Britannia, partial remains of which are on public display in the basement of Guildhall Art Gallery and the outline of whose arena is marked with a black circle on the paving of the courtyard in front of the hall.
Indeed, the siting of the Saxon Guildhall here was due to the amphitheatre's remains Excavations by MOLA in 2000 at the entrance to Guildhall Yard exposed remains of the great 13th-century gatehouse built directly over the southern entrance to the Roman amphitheatre, which raises the possibility that enough of the Roman structure survived to influence the siting not only of the gatehouse and Guildhall itself but of the church of St Lawrence Jewry whose strange alignment may shadow the elliptical form of the amphitheatre beneath. The first documentary reference to a London Guildhall is dated 1128 and the current hall's west crypt may be part of a late-13th century building. Legend describes the Guildhall site as being the location of the palace of Brutus of Troy, who according to Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae is said to have founded a city on the banks of the River Thames, known as Troia Nova, or New Troy; the current building began construction in 1411 and completed in 1440, it is the only non-ecclesiastical stone building in the City to have survived through to the present day.
The complex contains several other historic interiors besides the hall, including the large medieval crypts, the old library, the print room, all of which are now used as function rooms. Trials in this hall have included those of Anne Askew, Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, Sir Nicholas Throckmorton, Lady Jane Grey, Guildford Dudley, Francis Dereham and Thomas Culpeper, Thomas Cranmer, Henry Peckham and John Daniel, John Felton, Roderigo Lopez, Henry Garnet, Gervase Helwys, it played a part in Jack Cade's 1450 rebellion. The 1783 hearing of the infamous Zong case, the outcome of which focused public outrage about the transatlantic slave trade took place at Guildhall. On 16 November 1848, the pianist Frédéric Chopin made his last public appearance on a concert platform here. Guildhall contains memorials to Pitt the Elder, Pitt the Younger, Admiral Lord Nelson, the Duke of Wellington, William Beckford, Winston Churchill; the Great Hall did not escape damage in the Great Fire of London in 1666. The present grand entrance, in "Hindoostani Gothic", was added in 1788 by George Dance.
A more extensive restoration than that in 1670 was completed in 1866 by the City of London architect Sir Horace Jones, who added a new timber roof in close keeping with the original hammerbeam ceiling. This replacement was destroyed during the Second Great Fire of London on the night of 29/30 December 1940, the result of a Luftwaffe fire-raid, it was replaced in 1954 during works designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, but the original hammerbeam design was not retained. The day-to-day administration of the City of London Corporation is now conducted from modern buildings to the north of Guildhall, but Guildhall itself and the adjacent historic interiors are still used for official functions, it is open to the public during the annual London Open House weekend. Guildhall Art Gallery was added to the complex in the 1990s. Guildhall Library, a public reference library with specialist collections on London, which include material from the 11th century onwards, is housed in the complex; the Clockmakers' Museum was located at Guildhall but as of 2015 has been relocated to the Science Museum.
The marathon route of the 2012 Summer Olympics passed through Guildhall Yard. Two giants and Magog, are associated with Guildhall. Legend has it that the two giants were defeated by Brutus and chained to the gates of his palace on the site of Guildhall. Carvings of Gog and Magog are kept in Guildhall and 7-foot high wicker effigies of them donated by the Worshipful Company of Basketmakers in 2007 lead the procession in the annual Lord Mayor's Show. Early versions of Gog and Magog were destroyed in Guildhall during the Great Fire of London, they were replaced in 1708 by a large pair of wooden statues carved by Captain Richard Saunders. These giants, on whom the current versions are based, lasted for over two hundred years before they were destroyed in the Blitz. They, in turn, were replaced by a new pair carved by David Evans in 1953 and given to the City of London by Alderman Sir George Wilkinson, Lord Mayor in 1940 at the time of the destruction of
In Dutch history, the year 1672 was known as the rampjaar, the "disaster year." That year, following the outbreak of the Franco-Dutch War and the Third Anglo-Dutch War, the Dutch Republic was attacked by England and the prince-bishops Bernhard von Galen, bishop of Münster, Maximilian Henry of Bavaria, archbishop of Cologne. The invading armies defeated most of the Dutch States Army and conquered part of the Republic. A famous Dutch saying coined that year describes the Dutch people as redeloos, its government as radeloos, the country as reddeloos: senseless and irrecoverable, respectively. Fed up with reduced military spending, the cities of the remaining coastal provinces of Holland and Frisia underwent a political transition: the city governments were taken over by Orangists, opposed to the republican regime of the Grand Pensionary Johan de Witt, soon ending the First Stadtholderless Period. Despite the initial shock and successful invasion of the eastern Dutch Republic, the English and German forces were driven back.
The English suffered defeats in 1673 by the navy under Michiel de Ruyter. The English, whose parliament was suspicious of the King Charles's motives in his alliance with France, Charles himself wary of French domination of the Spanish Netherlands settled a peace with the Dutch republic in the Treaty of Westminster in 1674. Without English pressure and with the French being held in the south, Cologne and Münster made peace in 1674; the French were repelled with the help of the Spanish forces in the Spanish Netherlands, though some Spanish cities were ceded to France. The conflict ended with the Treaties of Nijmegen in 1678-9. During the Eighty Years' War there had been tension in the provinces between adherents of a government ruled by the burgher oligarchy, called regents, those who favoured a government led by the Prince of Orange; these tensions had escalated in 1650 when William II, Prince of Orange had tried to conquer Amsterdam, the main bastion of the Regents of the De Graeff- and Bicker- clan.
After negotiations he succeeded in removing a number of his adversaries from office. When William died from smallpox that year, the republican party came back into power; the Act of Seclusion declared that they would not appoint his son, William III of Orange, or anybody else to the office of Stadholder, stating that a supreme head of government would be harmful to'True Liberty'. Johan de Witt was appointed Grand Pensionary of Holland and led the States of Holland, the most important province within the Union; the takeover by the regents did not go without protest from the Orangists, but with the economy booming and peace on the Union's borders they had little opportunity to remove the government from office. To appease the Orangists, because of their own business interests, the Dutch Regents tried to keep the peace within Europe; when the Republic fought for its independence from Spain, it had allied with England. In 1648, as part of the Peace of Westphalia, the Republic made peace with Spain.
France had only made peace with Austria and continued fighting Spain until the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659. A condition of that peace was that Louis XIV would marry Maria Theresa, daughter of Philip IV of Spain. Maria Theresa would renounce her share of the inheritance in exchange for a large dowry; the dowry, was never paid by the Spanish. During the 1650s and 1660s the existing tensions between Dutch trade interests and English trade interests grew; the First Anglo-Dutch War was fought between the republics. In a secret appendix to the Treaty of Westminster, the Act of Seclusion, Holland declared that it abolished the office of Stadholder and would never allow the States-General of the Netherlands to appoint a member of the House of Orange to the office of Captain-General. Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England at that time, insisted on this condition because William II had assisted Charles I during the English Civil War. While supporters of the Dutch Regent favoured diminishing the influence of the House of Orange, by agreeing to the English conditions they intermingled internal and foreign affairs and infuriated the pro-Orange faction.
When Charles II was crowned king of England in 1660 during the English Restoration, the Act of Seclusion was declared void, but to the dismay of Holland, Charles affirmed those clauses of the peace which negatively impacted Dutch trade interests. An English attempt to take over Dutch trade and colonies led to the Second Anglo-Dutch War. After the previous war Johan de Witt had supervised the expansion and improvement of the Dutch navy at the cost of neglecting the Dutch army. With the new fleet and the help of France, with whom they had allied again, the Dutch defeated the English at sea through the Raid on the Medway and put pressure on the English ally Münster. First Münster and England were forced to make peace. While France had helped to put pressure on England and Münster they had not committed a major part of their army or fleet. After the death of Philip IV, Louis XIV claimed part of the inheritance for his wife. According to local law in parts of the Spanish Netherlands daughters of an earlier marriage took precedence before the sons of a marriage.
The way Louis XIV explained this, Maria Theresa, daughter of the first marriage of Philip IV, should inherit the Spanish Netherlands because Philip's son, Charles II was from Philip's second marriage. This went against the interests of the Dutch Republic, who preferred having a weak state as their neighbour to the south; because of this, Johan de Witt allied with the defeated English and Sweden, who had an army nearby in Germany, forming the
2004 in Iraq
Events in the year 2004 in Iraq. Head of State - President - Saddam Hussein Vice President – Ibrahim al-Jaafari Vice President – Rowsch Shaways Head of Government - President of the Governing Council of Iraq – Adnan Pachachi President of the Governing Council of Iraq – Mohsen Abdel Hamid President of the Governing Council of Iraq – Mohammad Bahr al-Ulloum President of the Governing Council of Iraq – Massoud Barzani President of the Governing Council of Iraq – Ezzedine Salim President of the Governing Council of Iraq – Ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawer Prime Minister of Iraq – Ayad Allawi, January 10 – Protests in the city of Amarah because of an unemployment crisis. Police officers and soldiers open fire on demonstrators. January 15 – The United Nations call direct elections in advance of July impractical, due to continuing disorder and other factors. January 18 – A suicide bomber blew up a pickup truck packed with 1,000 pounds of explosives outside the headquarters of the US led coalition killing about 20 people and injuring more than 60 – most of them Iraqis.
February 1 – During the Muslim eid, two suicide bombers kill 117 and wound 235 at two Kurdish buildings in the northern Iraqi city of Erbil. The bombers targeted the two offices for Iraq's main secular Kurdish parties packed with well-wishers. Sunni militant group Ansar al-Sunna claimed the attack. February 3 – The CIA admits that there was no imminent threat from weapons of mass destruction before the 2003 invasion of Iraq. February 7 – Charles, Prince of Wales begins a tour of the Middle East, visiting troops in Iraq. February 10 – At least 50 people killed in a car bomb attack on a police recruitment centre south of Baghdad. February 11 – Up to 47 people killed in a car bomb attack on an army recruiting centre in Baghdad. February 21 – The U. S. permits the Red Cross to visit Saddam Hussein for first time since his capture in December. March 2 – In the Ashoura Massacre 200 are killed in a series of bomb blasts in Baghdad and Karbala at the climax of the Shi'a festival of Aashurah. A combination of suicide bombers and mortars hit large Shi'ite crowds mourning outside revered shrines in Kerbala and Baghdad's Kadhimiya shrine.
March 8 The governing council unanimously approves the country's new interim constitution Abu Abbas dies in U. S. custody from natural causes. March 31 – Four American defense contractors are attacked and killed in Fallujah and their burned bodies are hung from a bridge. U. S. General Tommy Franks estimated soon after the invasion that there had been 30,000 Iraqi casualties as of April 9, 2003. After this initial estimate he made no further public estimates. April 2 Al Sadr gives a heated sermon. April 3 Polish-Bulgarian defense of Karbala's City Hall starts. April 4 – Operation Vigilant Resolve begins in response to the mutilation on March 31 in Fallujah. U. S. coalition forces face tough opposition as the resistance uses Soviet-style defense in depth tactics. April 5 – U. S. forces seal off Fallujah April 6 Defense of Karbala's City Hall ends with victory of Polish-Bulgarian troops April 7 U. S. forces fired upon a mosque compound in Fallujah. Officials claim that it was being used by insurgents to fire mortars.
Fox After three days of fighting, the U. S. forces are only able to secure 15% of Fallujah in Operation Vigilant Resolve. Ar Ramadi is returned to the control of Iraqi Civil Defense Corps. April 8 The Mahdi army has taken full control in Kut and partial control of Najaf and Kufa. April 9 A civilian fuel convoy operated by private contractors Halliburton and Kellogg and Root is ambushed en route to Baghdad International Airport; the Mahdi Army is believed to be responsible for the attack. 7 civilians and several US Army Soldiers were killed in the attack. One of the truck drivers and one Soldier are still missing. April 10 The U. S. forces declare a unilateral cease fire in Fallujah. Although the U. S. forces fight when provoked, they do not move to take more area. April 16 Kut is retaken by coalition forces, but Najaf and Kufa remain under control by Al Sadr. April 20 12 mortar rounds were fired on Abu Ghraib Prison by insurgents. 22 detainees were 92 wounded. April 21 – At least 73 people were killed, including 17 children, along with 94 wounded in Iraq in suicide attacks on police stations in Basra and Az Zubayr.
April 26 – The Iraq Interim Governing Council announced a new flag for post-Saddam Iraq. The flag is abandoned among sentiments that it looks too much like Israel's flag. April 29 The U. S. Marines announce it will pull out of Fallujah over a two- or three-week period and hand over control to the Iraqi army. At least 600 civilians have been killed during the American attack on Falluja 8 U. S. soldiers are killed and 4 wounded in a car bomb attack near Mahmudiyah, south of Baghdad. May 17 – A suicide car bomb in Baghdad kills the head of Iraq's Governing Council Abdul-Zahra Othman Mohammad, a prominent Shi'ite politician from Basra known as Izzedin Salim. More than a dozen others were killed in the blast at the gates of the fortified Green Zone in Baghdad. May 28 – Iyad Allawi is chosen as the prime minister for the interim Iraqi government; the handover is scheduled to take place on June 30. June 28 – Two days ahead of schedule and sovereignty of Iraq is handed over from the United States to an interim Iraqi government.
Allawi becomes the prime minister, Paul Bremer leaves the country. A modified form of the flag is used. July 1 – The President Saddam Hussein goes on trial for war crimes, arraigned before an Iraqi judge on seven preliminary charges
Prime Minister of Spain
The Prime Minister of Spain the President of the Government of Spain, is the head of the government of Spain. The office was established in its current form by the Constitution of 1978 and originated in 1823 as a chairmanship of the extant Council of Ministers. Upon a vacancy, the Spanish monarch nominates a presidency candidate for a vote of confidence by the Congress of Deputies of Spain, the lower house of the Cortes Generales; the process is a parliamentarian investiture by which the head of government is indirectly elected by the elected Congress of Deputies. In practice, the Prime Minister is always the leader of the largest party in the Congress. Since current constitutional practice in Spain calls for the King to act on the advice of his ministers, the Prime Minister is the country's de facto chief executive. Pedro Sánchez of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party has been Prime Minister since 2 June, 2018, after a successful motion of no confidence against former Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy.
The Spanish head of government has, since 1938, been known in Spanish as the Presidente del Gobierno – President of the Government but translated outside of Spain as "Prime Minister", the usual term for the head of government in a parliamentary system. This distinction sometimes causes confusion among English-speakers; the custom to name the head of government as "President" dates back to the reign of Isabella II of Spain during the regency of Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies, when the official title was Presidente del Consejo de Ministros, which remained until 1939, when the Second Spanish Republic ended. Before 1834 the figure was known as Secretario de Estado, a denomination used today for junior ministers. On 19 November, 1823, after a brief liberal democratic period called the Liberal Triennium between 1820 and 1823, King Ferdinand VII re-established the absolute monarchy and created the Council of Ministers that continues to exist today; this Council was chaired by the Secretary of State.
The Spanish Royal Statute of 1834 replaced the chair with a President of the Council of Ministers invested with executive powers. During the nineteenth century, the position changed names frequently. After the Glorious Revolution of 1868, it was renamed President of the Provisional Revolutionary Joint and President of the Provisional Government. In 1869, the office resumed the name of President of the Council of Ministers. Following the abdication of King Amadeus I, during the First Republic the office was the President of the Executive Power and was head of state. In 1874, the office name reverted to President of the Council of Ministers. Since its inception, the Prime Minister has been dismissed by the will of the monarch. Successive constitutions have confirmed this royal prerogative of the monarch in the Constitution of 1837, article 46 of the Constitution of 1845, the Constitution of 1869, the Constitution of 1876. With the fall of the republic and the restoration of the Bourbon Dynasty on King Alfonso XII, the office maintained its original name until the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, when it was renamed to President of the Military Directory.
In 1925, the original name was restored again. During the Second Republic the title was the same but when the Civil War started, on the side of the rebellion the head of government was called Chief of the Government of the State and since January 1938 the office acquired the current name, President of the Government, but between that date and 1973 the office was held by the dictator; the Republican Constitution of 1931 provided for the Prime Minister and the rest of the government to be appointed and dismissed by the President of the Republic but they were responsible before the Parliament and the Parliament could vote to dismiss the Prime Minister or a minister against the will of the President of the Republic. In 1973, the dictator separated the Head of the State from the Head of the Government and that division exists today, being the Prime Minister democratically elected by a Parliament elected by universal suffrage and equal. Once a general election has been announced by the king, political parties designate their candidates to stand for Prime Minister —usually the party leader.
A Prime Minister is dismissed from office the day after the election, but remains in office as a caretaker until his/her successor is sworn in. Following every general election to the Cortes Generales, other circumstances provided for in the constitution, the king meets with and interviews the leaders of the parties represented in the Congress of Deputies, consults with the Speaker of the Congress of Deputies before nominating a candidate for the presidency; this process is spelled out in Section 99 of Title IV. Minor parties form part of a larger major party, through that membership it can be said that the king fulfills his constitutional mandate of consulting with party representatives with Congressional representation. Title IV Government and Administration Section 99 & After each renewal of the Congress and the other cases provided for under the Constitution, the King shall, after consultatio
Monarchy of Australia
The monarchy of Australia concerns the form of government in which a hereditary king or queen serves as the nation's sovereign and head of state. Australia is governed under a form of constitutional monarchy modelled on the Westminster system of parliamentary government, while incorporating features unique to the Constitution of Australia; the present monarch is Elizabeth II, styled Queen of Australia, who has reigned since 6 February 1952. She is represented in Australia as a whole by the Governor-General, in accordance with the Australian Constitution and letters patent from the Queen, in each of the Australian states, according to the state constitutions, by a governor, assisted by a lieutenant-governor; the monarch appoints the Governor-General and the governors, on the advice of the Commonwealth government and each state government. These are now the only constitutional functions of the monarch with regard to Australia. Australian constitutional law provides that the monarch of the United Kingdom is the monarch in Australia.
This is understood today to constitute a separate Australian monarchy, the monarch acting with regard to Australian affairs upon the advice of Australian ministers. Australia is thus one of the Commonwealth realms, sixteen independent countries that share the same person as monarch and head of state; the role and future of the monarchy has been a recurring topic of public discussion. Further information: Commonwealth realm: The Crown in the Commonwealth realmsKey features of Australia's system of government include its basis on a combination of "written" and "unwritten rules", its retention of colonial-monarchical heads of state, comprising the British monarch and what had been the monarch's colonial representatives, the State Governors, together with the Governor-General; the monarch of Australia is the same person as the monarch of the 15 other Commonwealth realms within the 53-member Commonwealth of Nations. On all matters of the Australian Commonwealth, the monarch is advised by Australian federal Ministers of the Crown, effective with the Australia Act 1986, no British government can advise the monarch on any matters pertinent to Australia.
On all matters relating to any Australian state, the monarch is advised by the Ministers of the Crown of that state. In 1999 the High Court of Australia held in Sue v Hill that, at least since the Australia Act 1986, Britain has been a foreign power in regard to Australia's domestic and foreign affairs. In 2001 the High Court held that, until the United Kingdom became a foreign power, all British subjects were subjects of the Queen in right of the United Kingdom and thus could not be classified as aliens within the meaning of Section 51 of the constitution; the sovereign's Australian title is Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God Queen of Australia and Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth. Prior to 1953, the title had been the same as that in the United Kingdom. A change in the title resulted from occasional discussion and an eventual meeting of Commonwealth representatives in London in December 1952, at which Canada's preferred format for the monarch's title was Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of and of Her other realms and territories, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith.
Australia, wished to have the United Kingdom mentioned as well. Thus, the resolution was a title that included the United Kingdom but, for the first time separately mentioned Australia and the other Commonwealth realms; the passage of a new Royal Style and Titles Act by the Parliament of Australia put these recommendations into law. It was proposed by the Cabinet headed by Gough Whitlam that the title be amended to "denote the precedence of Australia, the equality of the United Kingdom and each other sovereign nation under the Crown, the separation of Church and State." A new Royal Titles and Styles Bill that removed specific reference to the monarch's role as Queen of the United Kingdom was passed by the federal parliament, but the Governor-General, Sir Paul Hasluck, reserved Royal Assent "for Her Majesty's pleasure". Queen Elizabeth II signed her assent at Government House, Canberra, on 19 October 1973. In 2018 a trip by the Prince of Wales to the Commonwealth country of Vanuatu, escorted by Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs Julie Bishop in between a tour of Queensland and the Northern Territory, was paid for by Australian taxpayers.
In Oct 2011, the cost of a 10-day royal visit to Australia was put at $5.85 million. The Queen's Australian governments pay only for the costs associated with the Governor-General and state governors in their exercising of the powers of the Crown on behalf of the Queen, including travel, residences and ceremonial occasions; the monarch is the locus of oaths of allegiance. This is in reciprocation to the sovereign's Coronation Oath, wherein he or she promises "to govern the Peoples of... Australia... according to their respective laws and customs". New appointees to the Federal Cabinet also swear an oath that includes allegiance to the monarch before taking their post. However, as