click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Anomie

Anomie is "the condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals". Anomie may evolve from conflict of belief systems and causes breakdown of social bonds between an individual and the community. In a person this can progress into a dysfunction in ability to integrate within normative situations of their social world - e.g. an unruly personal scenario that results in fragmentation of social identity and rejection of values. The term understood to mean normlessness, is believed to have been popularized by French sociologist Émile Durkheim in his influential book Suicide. However, Durkheim first introduced the concept of anomie in his 1893 work The Division of Labour in Society. Durkheim never used. Durkheim used the term "the malady of the infinite" because desire without limit can never be fulfilled. For Durkheim, anomie arises more from a mismatch between personal or group standards and wider social standards, or from the lack of a social ethic, which produces moral deregulation and an absence of legitimate aspirations.

This is a nurtured condition: Most sociologists associate the term with Durkheim, who used the concept to speak of the ways in which an individual's actions are matched, or integrated, with a system of social norms and practices … anomie is a mismatch, not the absence of norms. Thus, a society with too much rigidity and little individual discretion could produce a kind of anomie... In 1893 Durkheim introduced the concept of anomie to describe the mismatch of collective guild labour to evolving societal needs when the guild was homogeneous in its constituency, he equated homogeneous skills to mechanical solidarity. He contrasted this with the self-regulating behaviour of a division of labour based on differences in constituency, equated to organic solidarity, whose lack of inertia made it sensitive to needed changes. Durkheim observed that the conflict between the evolved organic division of labour and the homogeneous mechanical type was such that one could not exist in the presence of the other.

When solidarity is organic, anomie is impossible. Sensitivity to mutual needs promotes evolution in the division of labour. "Producers, being near consumers, can reckon the extent of the needs to be satisfied. Equilibrium is established without any trouble and production regulates itself." Durkheim contrasted the condition of anomie as being the result of a malfunction of organic solidarity after the transition to mechanical solidarity: But on the contrary, if some opaque environment is interposed... relations rare, are not repeated enough... are too intermittent. Contact is no longer sufficient; the producer can no longer embrace the market at a glance, nor in thought. He can no longer see its limits. Accordingly, production becomes unregulated. Durkheim's use of the term anomie was about the phenomenon of industrialization—mass-regimentation that could not adapt due to its own inertia—its resistance to change, which causes disruptive cycles of collective behavior e.g. economics, due to the necessity of a prolonged buildup of sufficient force or momentum to overcome the inertia.

In 1897, in his studies of suicide, Durkheim associated anomie to the influence of a lack of norms or norms that were too rigid. But such normlessness or norm-rigidity was a symptom of anomie, caused by the lack of differential adaptation that would enable norms to evolve due to self-regulation, either to develop norms where none existed or to change norms that had become rigid and obsolete. In 1938 Robert K. Merton linked anomie with deviance and argued that the discontinuity between culture and structure have the dysfunctional consequence of leading to deviance within society, he described 5 types of deviance in terms of the acceptance or rejection of social goals and the institutionalized means of achieving them. The word, "a reborrowing with French spelling of anomy", comes from Greek ἀνομία "lawlessness", namely the privative alpha prefix, nomos "law"; the Greeks distinguished between nomos, arché. For example, a monarch is a single ruler but he may still be subject to, not exempt from, the prevailing laws, i.e. nomos.

In the original city state democracy, the majority rule was an aspect of arché because it was a rule-based, customary system, which might or might not make laws, i.e. nomos. Thus, the original meaning of anomie defined anything or anyone against or outside the law, or a condition where the current laws were not applied resulting in a state of illegitimacy or lawlessness; the contemporary English understanding of the word anomie can accept greater flexibility in the word "norm", some have used the idea of normlessness to reflect a similar situation to the idea of anarchy. But, as used by Émile Durkheim and theorists, anomie is a reaction against or a retreat from the regulatory social controls of society, is a separate concept from anarchy, which consists of the absence of the roles of rulers and submitted; the nineteenth century French pioneer sociologist Émile Durkheim borrowed the word from French philosopher Jean-Marie Guyau and used it in his influential book Suicide, outlining the social causes of suicide, characterized by a rapid change of the standards or values of societies, an associated feeling of alienation and purposelessness.

He believed that anomie is common when the surrounding society has undergone significant changes in its ec

Ron Najafi

Ramin Najafi is an Iranian-American businessman and the Founder and CEO of Emery Pharma. He is the Founder and former CEO of NovaBay Pharmaceuticals. Najafi was born in Tehran, in 1958, he completed his primary education and received his high school diploma from Alborz High School in Tehran. In 1976, he emigrated to the United States to pursue his passion of becoming a chemist, he began his undergraduate degree in pharmacy at the University of Pittsburgh, earned both a B. S. and M. S. in chemistry under the guidance of Professor John Soderquist at the University of San Francisco. He received his Ph. D. at UC Davis under the tutelage of Professor George Zweifel. Post-Ph. D, he worked at Sigma-Aldrich, Rhone Poulenc Rorer, PerkinElmer-Applied Biosystems before leaving to found CP Lab Safety and NovaBay Pharmaceuticals. Najafi is an innate innovator with more than 50 patents and pending patent applications, including a class of non-antibiotic, antimicrobial compounds named Aganocides®; the leading molecule of this aganocide family of compounds, has a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi.

Auriclosene is chemically stable and has an low probability of developing resistance. NovaBay is developing a formulation of Auriclosene to be used against eye and urinary tract infections; these products are in FDA monitored clinical trials. The products are intended to replace current classical antibiotics used in eye and urinary tract infections. Ron Najafi championed development of NeutroPhase for wound care. In September 2013, working together with John Crew, MD they developed Crew-NovaBay minimally invasive surgical procedure to treat flesh eating bacteria. NeutroPhase has been used in over 40 cases diagnosed as flesh eating infection. NeutroPhase has shown in a number of critical scientific publications to neutralize the key toxins responsible for the flesh eating disease. In 2014, Ron Najafi and his sister, Kathryn Najafi, MD discovered a unique formulation of NeutroPhase to help manage patients suffering from Blepharitis; this unique formulation was called i-Lid Cleanser and changed name to Avenova.

Avenova is now the leading product for the management of MGD and Dry Eye. Najafi heads Emery Pharma located in Alameda, California. Najafi immigrated to the United States before the Iranian Revolution. At University of San Francisco, he earned a B. S. and M. S. in chemistry in Dr. John Soderquist's laboratory, received his Ph. D. at the University of California at Davis under Dr. George Zweifel, he worked at Sigma-Aldrich, Rhone Poulenc, PerkinElmer before leaving to found Calpac Labs, NovaCal Pharmaceuticals, Emery Pharma. Najafi is among the U. S. State Department's "List of Prominent Iranian Americans." Najafi was recognized by PharmaVoice 100 as one of 100 most influential leaders of 2008. He is a tenacious leader and innovative developer of new molecules recognized for creating a paradigm shift in how antibiotics are used, he is an inventor on more than 50 patents & pending patents applications, including a class of non-antibiotic, antimicrobial compounds named Aganocides. The lead molecule, Auriclosene has broad spectrum of activity against bacteria and fungi, is chemically stable, has low probability of developing resistance.

Auriclosene is in four clinical trials for treatment of adenoviral conjunctivitis, bacterial conjunctivitis and urinary catheter blockage and encrustation. Emery Pharma, Chairman & CEO NovaBay Pharmaceuticals, Inc. – Founder, Chairman, CEO CP Lab Safety – Founder, Chairman, CEO PerkinElmer-Applied Biosystems – Research Scientist Rhone Poulenc Rorer – Research Scientist Sigma-Aldrich Corp – Senior Development Chemist Ghannoum MA, Long L, Cirino AJ, Miller AR, Najafi R, Wang L, Sharma K, Anderson M, Memarzadeh B. "Efficacy of NVC-422 in the treatment of dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes using a guinea pig model." Int J Dermatol. 2013. Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2012.05477.x. Jekle A, Yoon J, Zuck M, Najafi R, Wang L, Shiau T, Francavilla C, Rani SA, Eitzinger C, Nagl M, Anderson M, Debabov D. "NVC-422 inactivates Staphylococcus aureus toxins." Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013 Feb. Doi: 10.1128/AAC.01945-12. Crew J, Varilla R, Rocas TA, Debabov D, Wang L, Najafi A, Rani SA, Najafi RR, Anderson M. "NeutroPhase in chronic non-healing wounds."

Int J Burns Trauma. 2012. Yoon J, Jekle A, Najafi R, Ruado F, Zuck M, Khosrovi B, Memarzadeh B, Debabov D, Wang L, Anderson M. "Virucidal mechanism of action of NVC-422, a novel antimicrobial drug for the treatment of adenoviral conjunctivitis." Antiviral Res. 2011 Dec. Doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2011.10.009. Darouiche D, Najafi R, Krantz K, Debabov D, Friedman L, Khosrovi B, Wang L, Iovino S, Anderson M. "NVC-422: Antiinfective agent, treatment of impetigo, treatment of conjunctivitis, treatment of urinary tract infections." Drugs Fut. 2011. Low E, Kim B, Francavilla C, Shiau TP, Turtle ED, O'Mahony DJ, Alvarez N, Houchin A, Xu P, Zuck M, Celeri C, Anderson MB, Najafi RR, Jain RK. "Structure stability/activity relationships of sulfone stabilized N,N-dichloroamines." Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011. Doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2011.04.084. Wang L, Belisle B, Bassiri M, Xu P, Debabov D, Celeri C, Alvarez N, Robson MC, Payne WG, Najafi R, Khosrovi B. "Chemical characterization and biological properties of NVC-422, a novel, sta

Avonmouth railway station

Avonmouth railway station is located on the Severn Beach Line and serves the district of Avonmouth in Bristol, England. It is 9.0 miles from Bristol Temple Meads. Its three letter station code is AVN; the station has two platforms, on either side of two running lines. As of 2015 it is managed by Great Western Railway, the third franchise to be responsible for the station since privatisation in 1997, they provide all train services at the station a train every forty minutes to Bristol Temple Meads and one every two hours to Severn Beach. The station was opened in 1877 by the Bristol Port Railway and Pier, a railway which ran along the River Avon from Hotwells to a pier at Avonmouth; the station known as Avonmouth Dock, had a single platform, but was rebuilt with two platforms by the Great Western and Midland Railways in 1885 when they began services via Clifton Down. The station was enhanced numerous times in the early part of the twentieth century, by 1913 employed 72 staff. Facilities included signal box and engine shed.

The Severn Beach Line declined over the latter half of the twentieth century, with passenger numbers falling significantly. Goods services at Avonmouth ended in 1966, all staff were withdrawn in 1967. Services had decreased to 10 per day each direction by 2005, but have since increased to 25 trains per day; the station is located in the Avonmouth district of Bristol, an area of mixed industrial and residential usage. The station sits to the south of the junction of Gloucester Road and Portview Road, the tracks running to parallel to Portview Road and crossing Gloucester Road at a level crossing; the station is on the Severn Beach Line from Bristol Temple Meads to Severn Beach, 9 miles 02 chains from Temple Meads and 4 miles 42 chains from Severn Beach. It is the eighth station from Temple Meads; the next station towards Temple Meads is Shirehampton. The station is on a north-west/south-east alignment, with two platforms separated by two running lines; the southern "up" platform, adjacent to the "Up Main" line, is used for trains towards Severn Beach.

The northern "down" platform, adjacent to the "Down Main" line, is bidirectionally signalled, allowing it to be used by terminating trains and those heading towards Bristol. Both platforms have significant portions of their length fenced off, giving usable lengths of 91 yards for the southern platform and 70 yards for the northern. Facilities at the station are minimal – there is a wooden canopy and bench seating on the northern platform, with a small metal shelter on the southern. Timetable information is provided. There is no ticket office or other means for buying or collecting tickets, however an electronic ticketing trial is to be rolled out at the station.<ref="newtech"/> There is a car park with six spaces, as well as stands for four bicycles. The nearest bus stops are 150 metres away on Avonmouth Road; the line through Avonmouth has a speed limit of 30 miles per hour for locomotive-hauled trains and 50 miles per hour for diesel multiple units. The line, not electrified, handles less than 5 million train tonnes per year, has a loading gauge of W6 and a route availability of 7.

In the 2013/14 financial year, more than 110,000 passengers used Avonmouth station, making it the 1,635th busiest station in the country and the sixth busiest within the Bristol unitary authority area. This was an increase of 175% from the 2002–03 financial year, reflected a general rise in usage of the Severn Beach Line; the 2014-15 estimates of station usage saw a further increase of 8% to 120,000 making it the 1,614th busiest station in the country. Services at Avonmouth are all operated by Great Western Railway, using diesel Class 166 Turbo units. Avonmouth is the main terminus of the Severn Beach Line. Of these, one train. Most services start at Bristol. On Saturdays there is a similar level of service, at 24 trains per day. Sunday sees a hourly service to and from Bristol, ten trains per day, with only two services extending to Severn Beach, except during the May–September timetable period when all services are extended; the first and last Sunday trains towards Bristol are extended to Taunton via Weston-super-Mare, there are similar workings in the other direction.

Most trains from Avonmouth to Temple Meads call at all stations, but some services omit Lawrence Hill. Trains making the journey to and from Severn Beach call at St Andrews Road alternately on the outward or return leg; the typical journey time to Bristol Temple Meads is 30 minutes, 12 minutes to Severn Beach. In 2012, the single fare to Clifton Down or Severn Beach was £1.50, £3 return for the whole line. The railways first came to Avonmouth in 1865, when services began on the Bristol Port Railway and Pier, a self-contained railway which ran along the north bank of the River Avon to a deep water pier on the Severn Estuary; the BPRP line ran through the site of the current station and 1 mile 72 chains beyond to a terminus at the first Avonmouth station. The BPRP ran into trouble by 1871 when the terminal pier at Avonmouth became difficult to use due to a build-up of silt. With no prospect of a proper dock being funded without a connection to the national rail network, the Clifton Extension Railway was approved.

This was a joint venture by the BPRP, Great Western Railway (G

Art of the Duo (Lee Konitz and Albert Mangelsdorff album)

Art of the Duo is an album by saxophonist Lee Konitz and trombonist Albert Mangelsdorff recorded in West Germany in 1983 but not released on the Enja label until 1988. David Dupont on Allmusic said "Konitz has long espoused the belief that horn players can swing without a rhythm section, yet much of the time Mangelsdorff insists on serving as a faux basstuba – player, and when he uses his patented technique of singing into his horn while creating chords, he functions as a simple guitar player. That said, anything with these two masters on it has its pleasures. Konitz creates tasty lines with souffle-like lightness, when Mangelsdorff breaks free he provides some gruff, complementary solos". All compositions by Lee Konitz except. "Hot Hut" – 4:05 "She's as Wild as Springtime" – 3:17 "Inclination" – 5:03 "I Wonder What She's Doing Right Now" – 2:04 "Creole Love Call" – 4:05 "About Time We Looked at This" – 1:55 "A-Minor Blues in F" – 3:16 "Matti's Matter" – 7:43 "Cher Ami" – 2:54 "En Passant" – 2:27 "Bloas" – 3:39 Lee Konitz – alto saxophone Albert Mangelsdorff – trombone

Glitch (company)

Glitch is a software company specializing in project management tools. Its products include project management and content management, code review tools. Based in New York City, Fog Creek was founded in 2000 as a consulting company by Joel Spolsky and Michael Pryor; as the consulting market started to dry up due to the collapse of the Dot-com bubble, Fog Creek moved to a product-based business. In December 2016 Anil Dash was appointed CEO. Fog Creek's offices are located in the Financial District of Manhattan. On September 25, 2018 the company was renamed Glitch after their flagship product. Glitch is managed by CEO Anil Dash. Other key executives are: Jordan Harris, COO Alexa Scordato, VP of Marketing James Turnbull, VP of Engineering Joel Spolsky, Co-Founder, Board Member Michael Pryor, Co-Founder The Glitch web application launched in the spring of 2017 as a place for people to build simple web applications using JavaScript. Pitched as a "view source" tool that lets users "recombine code in useful ways.", Glitch is an online IDE for JavaScript and Node.js with and includes instant hosting and automated deployment and live help from community members.

IDE features include live editing, sharing, automatic source versioning and Git integration. Glitch focuses on being a accessible community; the Glitch site is allowing users to view or remix the site's source code. In December 2018, Mozilla announced that it will retire Thimble — and asked users to migrate all of their projects to Glitch. Thimble will shut down and the partnership will be effective from December 2019. In 2008, Jeff Atwood and Joel Spolsky created Stack Overflow, a question-and-answer Web site for computer programming questions, which they described as an alternative to the programmer forum Experts-Exchange. Stack Overflow serves as a platform for users to ask and answer questions, through membership and active participation, to vote questions and answers up or down and edit questions and answers in a fashion similar to a wiki or Digg. Users of Stack Overflow can earn reputation points and "badges" when another user votes up a question or answer they provided; as of January 2020, Stack Overflow has over 11,000,000 registered users and more than 18,700,000 questions.

Based on the type of tags assigned to questions, the top ten most discussed topics on the site are: JavaScript, Python, C#, PHP, Android, jQuery, HTML, C++ and iOS. Following the success of Stack Overflow they started additional sites in 2009 based on the Stack Overflow model: Server Fault for questions related to system administration and Super User for questions from computer "power users". In September 2009, Fog Creek Software released a beta version of the Stack Exchange 1.0 platform as a way for third parties to create their own communities based on the software behind Stack Overflow, with monthly fees. This white label service was not successful, with few customers and growing communities. In May 2010, Stack Overflow was spun-off as its own new company, Stack Exchange Inc. and raised $6 million in venture capital from Union Square Ventures and other investors, it switched its focus to developing new sites for answering questions on specific subjects, In 2011, Fog Creek released Trello, a collaborative project management hosted web application that operated under a freemium business model.

Trello was cross-subsidized by the company's other products. A basic service is provided free of charge, a Business Class paid-for service was launched in 2013. On July 2014, Fog Creek Software spun off Trello as its own company operating under the name of Trello, Inc. Trello Inc. raised $10.3 million in funding from Spark Capital. In January 2017, Atlassian announced. FogBugz is an integrated web-based project management system featuring bug and issue tracking, discussion forums, customer relationship management, evidence-based scheduling developed by Fog Creek Software, it was rebranded as Manuscript in 2017, acquired in 2018 and was renamed back to FogBugz. Fog Creek Copilot was a remote assistance service offered by Fog Creek Software, it launched on August 8, 2005. Known as Project Aardvark, Fog Creek Copilot was developed by a group of summer interns at Fog Creek Software. Fog Creek's founder, Joel Spolsky, wanted to give his interns the experience of taking a project through its entire lifecycle from inception, to mature released product.

The interns set up a blog, called Project Aardvark, where they posted updates on the progress of their project, to the world though at that time the details of what they were working on was still a secret. On July 1, 2005 the Project Aardvark team revealed that they were working on a remote assistance system for consumer use. Fog Creek Copilot uses a modified version of TightVNC, a variant of Virtual Network Computing, as its core protocol. On November 7, 2005 they released a documentary on the interns' summer, titled Aardvark'd: 12 Weeks with Geeks, produced by Lerone D. Wilson of Boondoggle Films. In 2014 Fog Creek restructured. Comparison of remote desktop software Tech companies in the New York metropolitan area Official website

Andrew Han Jingtao

Andrew Han Jingtao is a Chinese Catholic priest and Bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Sipingjie since 1982. Han was born in Jilin on July 26, 1921; some documents record his birth year as 1919 or 1923. After studying, he was ordained a priest on December 14, 1947. During the rule of Mao Zedong, he was arrested by the Communist government and sent to labor in labor camps, it was not until 1980, after Deng Xiaoping took power and became more open to religion, he was released. He became a professor of Latin and Greek culture at Northeastern University in Changchun until he retired in 1987. In 1982, he was secretly appointed as the Bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Sipingjie. Four years his ordination was silently held on May 6, 1986, he is an underground bishop, but he expressed his support for spiritual reconciliation between "underground church" and "open church" Catholics