18th United States Congress
The Eighteenth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from March 4, 1823, to March 4, 1825, during the seventh and eighth years of James Monroe's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Fourth Census of the United States in 1820. Both chambers had a Democratic-Republican majority. August 1823: Arikara War fought between the Arikara nation and the United States, the first American military conflict with the Plains Indians. December 2, 1823: Monroe Doctrine: President James Monroe delivered a speech to the Congress, announcing a new policy of forbidding European interference in the Americas and establishing American neutrality in future European conflicts. February 9, 1825:John Quincy Adams elected as President of the United States by the House of Representatives in accordance with the contingent election provision of the Twelfth Amendment, as no candidate had received a majority of the electoral votes cast in the 1824 presidential election.
The House was required to choose between Adams, Andrew Jackson, William Crawford, with the delegation from each of the 24 states having one vote. Adams was elected on the first ballot by 13 to 7 to 4. January 7, 1824: Tariff of 1824, Sess. 1, ch. 4, 4 Stat. 2 March 3, 1825: Crimes Act of 1825, Sess. 2, ch. 65, 4 Stat. 115 The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section. President: Daniel D. Tompkins President pro tempore: John Gaillard Speaker: Henry Clay This list is arranged by chamber by state. Senators are listed by class, Representatives are listed by district. Skip to House of Representatives, below Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election.
In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 1826. The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers; the count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Deaths: 3 Resignations: 3 Vacancy: 2 Total seats with changes: 8 deaths: 3 resignations: 5 contested election: 2 Total seats with changes: 10 Lists of committees and their party leaders. Amendments to the Constitution Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate Banks in Which Deposits Have Been Made Claims Commerce and Manufactures Debt Imprisonment Abolition District of Columbia Finance Foreign Relations Indian Affairs Judiciary Manufactures Marquis de La Fayette Memorial of the Legislature of Arkansas Military Affairs Militia National Road from Cumberland to Wheeling Naval Affairs Peale's Portrait of Washington Pensions Post Office and Post Roads Public Lands Roads and Canals Tariff Regulation Whole Accounts Agriculture Arms Contracts Banking Memorials Claims Commerce District of Columbia Elections Expenditures in the Navy Department Expenditures in the Post Office Department Expenditures in the State Department Expenditures in the Treasury Department Expenditures in the War Department Expenditures on Public Buildings Foreign Affairs Indian Affairs Manufactures Military Affairs Naval Affairs Pensions and Revolutionary War Claims Post Office and Post Roads Public Expenditures Public Lands Revisal and Unfinished Business Standards of Official Conduct Ways and Means Whole Enrolled Bills Architect of the Capitol: Charles Bulfinch Librarian of Congress: George Watterston Chaplain: William Staughton, elected December 10, 1823 Charles P. McIlvaine, elected December 14, 1824 Secretary: Charles Cutts Sergeant at Arms: Mountjoy Bayly Chaplain: Henry B.
Bascom elected December 1, 1823 Reuben Post elected December 6, 1824 Clerk: Matthew St. Clair Clarke Doorkeeper: Benjamin Birch Reading Clerks: Sergeant at Arms: Thomas Dunn, elected December 1, 1823, died John O. Dunn, elected December 6, 1824 United States elections, 1822 United States Senate elections, 1822 and 1823 United States House of Representatives elections, 1822 United States elections, 1824 United States presidential election, 1824 United States Senate elections, 1824 and 1825 United States House of Representatives elections, 1824 Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Statutes at Large, 1789-1875 Senate Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress House Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress Biographical Directory of the U. S. Congress U. S. House of Representatives: House History U.
S. Senate: Statistics and Lists
17th United States Congress
The Seventeenth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. While its term was March 4, 1821, to March 4, 1823, during the fifth and sixth years of James Monroe's presidency, its first session began on December 3, 1821, ending on May 8, 1822, its second session began on December 2, 1822, to March 3, 1823; the apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the third Census of the United States in 1810. Both chambers had a Democratic-Republican majority. March 5, 1821: Second inauguration of James Monroe as President of the United States. July 10, 1821: The United States took possession of its newly-bought Florida Territory from Spain. August 10, 1821: Missouri was admitted as the 24th U. S. state March 30, 1822: Florida Territory was formed from lands ceded by Spain The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this congress.
Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section. During this congress, two Senate seats were added for the new state of Missouri. For the beginning of this congress, six seats from Massachusetts were reapportioned to the new state of Maine, 3 Stat. 555. During this congress, one House seat was added for the new state of Missouri, 3 Stat. 547. President: Daniel D. Tompkins President pro tempore: John Gaillard, elected December 3, 1821 Speaker: Philip P. Barbour, elected December 4, 1821 This list is arranged by chamber by state. Senators are listed by class, Representatives are listed by district. Skip to House of Representatives, below Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1826.
The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers. The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Replacements: 5 Democratic-Republicans: no net change Federalists: no net change Deaths: 2 Resignations: 6 Seats of newly admitted states: 2 Vacancies: 3 Total seats with changes: 12 replacements: 13 Democratic-Republicans: 1 seat net gain Federalists: 1 seat net loss deaths: 5 resignations: 15 contested election: 2 seats of newly admitted states: 1 Total seats with changes: 23 Lists of committees and their party leaders. Amendments to the Constitution Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate Claims Commerce and Manufactures Debt Imprisonment Abolition District of Columbia Finance Foreign Relations Indian Affairs Judiciary Military Affairs Militia National Road from Cumberland to Wheeling Naval Affairs Pensions Post Office and Post Roads Public Lands Roads and Canals Tariff Regulation Whole Accountability of Public Moneys Accounts Agriculture Arkansas Territorial Limits Claims Commerce District of Columbia Elections Expenditures in the Navy Department Expenditures in the Post Office Department Expenditures in the State Department Expenditures in the Treasury Department Expenditures in the War Department Expenditures on Public Buildings Foreign Affairs Indian Affairs Manufactures Military Affairs Naval Affairs Pensions and Revolutionary War Claims Post Office and Post Roads Public Expenditures Public Lands Revisal and Unfinished Business Rules Standards of Official Conduct Ways and Means Whole Enrolled Bills Architect of the Capitol: Charles Bulfinch Librarian of Congress: George Watterston Chaplain: William Ryland elected November 17, 1820 Charles P. McIlvaine elected December 9, 1822 Secretary: Charles Cutts Sergeant at Arms: Mountjoy Bayly of New Hampshire Chaplain: Jared Sparks, elected December 3, 1821 John Brackenridge, elected December 2, 1822 Clerk: Thomas Dougherty of Kentucky Matthew St. Clair Clarke of Pennsylvania, elected December 3, 1822 Doorkeeper: Benjamin Birch of Maryland, elected December 4, 1821 Reading Clerks: Sergeant at Arms: Thomas Dunn of Maryland United States elections, 1820 United States presidential election, 1820 United States Senate elections, 1820 and 1821 United States House of Representatives elections, 1820 United States elections, 1822 United States Senate elections, 1822 and 1823 United States House of Representatives elections, 1822 Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Statutes at Large, 1789-1875 Senate Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress House Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress Biographical Directory of the U. S. Congress U. S. House of Representatives: House History U. S. Senate: Statistics and Lists Congressional Directory for the 17th Congress, 2nd Session
Connecticut's at-large congressional district
During the first twenty-four Congresses Connecticut elected all its Representatives in Congress from a single multi-member Connecticut at-large congressional district. Connecticut elected a varying number of representatives during this period. From its inception in 1789 through the first reapportionment in 1793, there were five seats. From 1793 through 1823, there were seven seats. In 1823 the seats were reduced to six and in 1837 the system of at-large members was replaced with districts. From 1903 to 1913 and from 1933 to 1965, Connecticut had a member of the United States House of Representatives who represented the state at-large, in addition to the members who represented distinct districts; this practice was prohibited by the Voting Rights Act of 1965. All members were elected statewide at-large on a general ticket. In 1837, Connecticut adopted districts instead. In 1903, one at-large seat was created, four district seats continued. In 1933, one at-large seat was created, five district seats continued.
Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Find a Grave
Find A Grave is a website that allows the public to search and add to an online database of cemetery records. It is owned by Ancestry.com. It receives and uploads digital photographs of headstones from burial sites, taken by unpaid volunteers at cemeteries. Find A Grave posts the photo on its website; the site was created in 1995 by Salt Lake City resident Jim Tipton to support his hobby of visiting the burial sites of famous celebrities. He added an online forum. Find A Grave was launched as a commercial entity in 1998, first as a trade name and incorporated in 2000; the site expanded to include graves of non-celebrities, in order to allow online visitors to pay respect to their deceased relatives or friends. In 2013, Tipton sold Find A Grave to Ancestry.com, saying that the genealogy company had "been linking and driving traffic to the site for several years. Burial information is a wonderful source for people researching their family history." In a September 30, 2013, press release, Ancestry.com officials said they would "launch a new mobile app, improve customer support, introduce an enhanced edit system for submitting updates to memorials, foreign-language support, other site improvements."As of October 2017, Find A Grave contained over 165 million burial records and 75 million photos.
In March 2017, a beta website for a redesigned Find A Grave was launched at gravestage.com. Public feedback was mixed. Sometime between May 29 and July 10 of that year, the beta website was migrated to new.findagrave.com, a new front end for it was deployed at beta.findagrave.com. In November 2017, the new site became the old site was deprecated. On August 20, 2018, the original Find; the website contains listings of graves from around the world. American cemeteries are organized by state and county, many cemetery records contain Google Maps and photographs of the cemeteries and gravesites. Individual grave records may contain dates and places of birth and death, biographical information and plot information and contributor information. Interment listings are added by individuals, genealogical societies, other institutions such as the International Wargraves Photography Project. Contributors must register as members to submit listings, called memorials, on the site; the submitter may transfer management.
Only the current manager of a listing may edit it, although any member may use the site's features to send correction requests to the listing's manager. Managers may add links to other listings of deceased spouses and siblings for genealogical purposes. Any member may add photographs and notations to individual listings. Members may post requests for photos of a specific grave. Although it does not ask permission from immediate family members before uploading the photos, it will remove and take down photos or a URL for a deceased loved one at the request of an immediate family member. Find A Grave maintains lists of memorials of famous persons by their "claim to fame", such as Medal of Honor recipients, religious figures, educators. Find A Grave exercises editorial control over these listings. Canadian Headstones Interment.net United States National Cemetery System's nationwide gravesite locator Random Acts of Genealogical Kindness Tombstone tourist Official website
Lyme is a town in New London County, United States. The population was 2,406 at the 2010 census. Lyme and its neighboring town Old Lyme are the namesake for Lyme disease. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 34.5 square miles, of which 31.9 square miles is land and 2.6 square miles, or 7.63%, is water. Bill Hill Hadlyme Hamburg North LymeOther minor communities and geographic areas are Becket Hill, Brockway's Ferry, Brush Hill, Elys Ferry, Grassy Hill, Joshuatown, Lord Hill, Mt. Archer, Pleasant Valley, Rogers Lake West Shore, Sterling City, Tuttles Sandy Beach; the portion of the territory of the Saybrook Colony east of the Connecticut River was set off as the plantation of East Saybrook in February 1665. This area included present-day Lyme, Old Lyme, the western part of East Lyme. In 1667, the Connecticut General Court formally recognized the East Saybrook plantation as the town of Lyme, named after Lyme Regis, a coastal town in Southern England; the eastern portion of Lyme separated from Lyme and became East Lyme in 1823, the southern portion of Lyme separated as South Lyme in 1855.
These two changes were consistent with the then-existing laws in the state of Connecticut. As of the 2010 census Lyme had a population of 2,406; the racial and ethnic makeup of the population was 96.5% non-Hispanic white, 0.1% non-Hispanic black, 0.1% non-Hispanic Native American, 1.0% Asian, 0.1% non-Hispanic from some other race, 0.6% from two or more races and 1.7% Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,016 people, 854 households, 613 families residing in the town; the population density was 63.3 people per square mile. There were 989 housing units at an average density of 31.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.02% White, 0.05% African American, 0.05% Native American, 1.34% Asian, 0.05% from other races, 0.50% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.14% of the population. There were 854 households out of which 26.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.2% were married couples living together, 4.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.2% were non-families.
23.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.76. In the town, the population was spread out with 20.3% under the age of 18, 3.1% from 18 to 24, 22.0% from 25 to 44, 34.7% from 45 to 64, 19.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.5 males. The median income for a household in the town was $73,250, the median income for a family was $82,853. Males had a median income of $56,188 versus $44,750 for females; the per capita income for the town was $43,347. None of the families and 1.2% of the population were living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and none of those over 64. The Estuary Transit District provides public transportation throughout Lyme and the surrounding towns through its 9 Town Transit Service. Services include connections to Old Saybrook station, served by Amtrak and Shore Line East railroads.
Cooper Site Hadlyme Ferry Historic District: 150, 151, 158, 159, 162-1, 162-2 Ferry Rd. and ferry slip Hadlyme North Historic District: Roughly bounded by CT 82, Town St. Banning Rd. and Old Town St. Hamburg Bridge Historic District – Joshuatown Road and Old Hamburg Road Hamburg Cove Site Lord Cove Site Selden Island Site Seventh Sister: 67 River Rd; some of the earlier notables were residents of the portion of the town that became Old Lyme. Robert Ballard, oceanographer Joan Bennett and television actress, buried in town after her death in Scarsdale, New York Hiel Brockway, founder of Brockport, New York Zebulon Brockway, a penologist some have called the "Father of prison reform" in the United States Daniel Chadwick, politician Donald Barr Chidsey and historian Wequash Cooke, Native American leader, buried in Lyme in 1642 Dominick Dunne, had a house in Hadlyme for many years until his death Matthew Griswold, governor of the state Roger Griswold, son of Mathew, US congressman, governor of the state, famous for brawl on the floor of Congress Roger Hilsman, World War II hero, post-war diplomat and author Harry Holtzman, abstract artist Ezra Lee, commander of the Turtle submarine during the Revolutionary War, world's first submariner Beatrice Lillie, Canadian-born actress, had a house on Grassy Hill Road in the 1970s Abijah Perkins Marvin, minister and teacher.
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, Human Development Index, median household income in the United States, it is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, New York to the west, Long Island Sound to the south. Its capital is Hartford and its most populous city is Bridgeport, it is part of New England, although portions of it are grouped with New York and New Jersey as the Tri-state area. The state is named for the Connecticut River which bisects the state; the word "Connecticut" is derived from various anglicized spellings of an Algonquian word for "long tidal river". Connecticut's first European settlers were Dutchmen who established a small, short-lived settlement called Fort Hoop in Hartford at the confluence of the Park and Connecticut Rivers. Half of Connecticut was part of the Dutch colony New Netherland, which included much of the land between the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers, although the first major settlements were established in the 1630s by the English.
Thomas Hooker led a band of followers from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and founded the Connecticut Colony. The Connecticut and New Haven colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders, considered the first constitutions in America. In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a royal charter; this was one of the Thirteen Colonies. Connecticut is the third smallest state by area, the 29th most populous, the fourth most densely populated of the 50 states, it is known as the "Constitution State", the "Nutmeg State", the "Provisions State", the "Land of Steady Habits". It was influential in the development of the federal government of the United States; the Connecticut River, Thames River, ports along Long Island Sound have given Connecticut a strong maritime tradition which continues today. The state has a long history of hosting the financial services industry, including insurance companies in Hartford and hedge funds in Fairfield County. Landmarks and cities of Connecticut Connecticut is bordered on the south by Long Island Sound, on the west by New York, on the north by Massachusetts, on the east by Rhode Island.
The state capital and fourth largest city is Hartford, other major cities and towns include Bridgeport, New Haven, Waterbury, Danbury, New Britain and Bristol. Connecticut is larger than the country of Montenegro. There are 169 incorporated towns in Connecticut; the highest peak in Connecticut is Bear Mountain in Salisbury in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut and New York meet, on the southern slope of Mount Frissell, whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts. At the opposite extreme, many of the coastal towns have areas that are less than 20 feet above sea level. Connecticut has a long maritime history and a reputation based on that history—yet the state has no direct oceanfront; the coast of Connecticut sits on Long Island Sound, an estuary. The state's access to the open Atlantic Ocean is both to the east; this situation provides many safe harbors from ocean storms, many transatlantic ships seek anchor inside Long Island Sound when tropical cyclones pass off the upper East Coast.
The Connecticut River cuts through the center of the state. The most populous metropolitan region centered within the state lies in the Connecticut River Valley. Despite Connecticut's small size, it features wide regional variations in its landscape. Connecticut's rural areas and small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast with its industrial cities such as Stamford and New Haven, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New London northward up the Connecticut River to Hartford. Many towns in northeastern and northwestern Connecticut center around a green, such as the Litchfield Green, Lebanon Green, Wethersfield Green. Near the green stand historical visual symbols of New England towns, such as a white church, a colonial meeting house, a colonial tavern or inn, several colonial houses, so on, establishing a scenic historical appearance maintained for both historic preservation and tourism. Many of the areas in southern and coastal Connecticut have been built up and rebuilt over the years, look less visually like traditional New England.
The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the Southwick Jog or Granby Notch, an 2.5 miles square detour into Connecticut. The origin of this anomaly is established in a long line of disputes and temporary agreements which were concluded in 1804, when southern Southwick's residents sought to leave Massachusetts, the town was split in half; the southwestern border of Connecticut where it abuts New York State is marked by a panhandle in Fairfield County, containing the towns of Greenwich, New Canaan and parts of Norwalk and Wilton. This irregularity in the boundary is the result of territorial disputes in the late 17th century, culminating
The Democratic-Republican Party was an American political party formed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison around 1792 to oppose the centralizing policies of the new Federalist Party run by Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury and chief architect of George Washington's administration. From 1801 to 1825, the new party controlled the presidency and Congress as well as most states during the First Party System, it began in 1791 as one faction in Congress and included many politicians, opposed to the new constitution. They called themselves Republicans after republicanism, they distrusted the Federalist tendency to centralize and loosely interpret the Constitution, believing these policies were signs of monarchism and anti-republican values. The party splintered in 1824, with the faction loyal to Andrew Jackson coalescing into the Jacksonian movement, the faction led by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay forming the National Republican Party and some other groups going on to form the Anti-Masonic Party.
The National Republicans, Anti-Masons, other opponents of Andrew Jackson formed themselves into the Whig Party. During the time that this party existed, it was referred to as the Republican Party. To distinguish it from the modern Republican Party, political scientists and pundits refer to this party as the Democratic-Republican Party or the Jeffersonian Republican Party; when the modern Republican Party was founded in 1854, it deliberately chose to name itself after the Jeffersonians. In response, contemporary Democrats embraced the name Democratic-Republican to reinforce their party's claim to the party's pre-Jacksonian history. Modern Democratic politicians continue to claim Jefferson as their founder; the party arose from the Anti-Administration faction which met secretly in the national capital to oppose Alexander Hamilton's financial programs. Jefferson denounced the programs as leading to subversive of republicanism. Jefferson needed to have a nationwide party to challenge the Federalists, which Hamilton was building up with allies in major cities.
Foreign affairs took a leading role in 1794–1795 as the Republicans vigorously opposed the Jay Treaty with the United Kingdom, at war with France. Republicans saw France as more democratic after its Revolution while the United Kingdom represented the hated monarchy; the party denounced many of Hamilton's measures as unconstitutional the national bank. The party was weakest in the Northeast, it demanded states' rights as expressed by the "Principles of 1798" articulated in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions that would allow states to nullify a federal law. Above all, the party stood for the primacy of the yeoman farmers. Republicans were committed to the principles of republicanism, which they feared were threatened by the supposed monarchical tendencies of the Hamiltonian Federalists; the party came to power in 1801 with the election of Jefferson in the 1800 presidential election. The Federalists—too elitist to appeal to most people—faded away and collapsed after 1815. Despite internal divisions, the Republicans dominated the First Party System until partisanship itself withered away during the Era of Good Feelings after 1816.
The party selected its presidential candidates in a caucus of members of Congress. They included James Madison and James Monroe. By 1824, the caucus system had collapsed. After 1800, the party dominated most state governments outside New England. By 1824, the party was split four ways and lacked a center as the First Party System collapsed; the emergence of the Second Party System in the 1820s and 30s realigned the old factions. One remnant followed Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren into the new Democratic Party by 1828. Another remnant, led by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay, formed the National Republican Party in 1824 while some remaining smaller factions formed the Anti-Masonic Party, which along with some National Republican groups developed into the Whig Party by 1836. Most remaining National Republicans would soon after go on to be a part of the Free Soil and modern Republican parties in the 1840s and 1850s. Congressman James Madison started the party among Representatives in Philadelphia as the "Republican Party".
He, Jefferson and others reached out to include state and local leaders around the country New York and the South. The precise date of founding is disputed, but 1791 is a reasonable estimate and some time by 1792 is certain; the new party set up newspapers that made withering critiques of Hamiltonianism, extolled the yeoman farmer, argued for strict construction of the Constitution, favored the French Revolution opposed the United Kingdom and called for stronger state governments than the Federalist Party was proposing. The elections of 1792 were the first ones to be contested on anything resembling a partisan basis. In most states, the congressional elections were recognized—as Jefferson strategist John Beckley put it—as a "struggle between the Treasury department and the republican interest". In New York, the candidates for governor were a Federalist. Four states' electors voted for Clinton and one for Jefferson for Vice President in opposition to incumbent John Adams as well as casting their votes for President Washington.
Before 1804, electors cast two votes together wi