1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Omar Truman Burleson was a U. S. Representative from Texas. Born in Anson, the seat of Jones County, north of Abilene, Burleson attended the public schools and Abilene Christian College and Hardin-Simmons University, both in Abilene. Burleson graduated in 1929 from Cumberland University in Lebanon, Tennessee He was admitted to the bar the same year and commenced practice in Gorman in Eastland County, Texas. County attorney of Jones County, Texas from 1931 to 1934, he served as Jones County judge from 1934 to 1940. He was a special agent of the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1940 and 1941, he was a secretary to U. S. Representative Sam Russell of Texas in 1941 and 1942 and general counsel for the Housing Authority in the District of Columbia in 1942, he served in the United States Navy from December 1942 to April 1946, with service in the South Pacific Theater. Burleson was elected as a Democrat to the Eightieth Congress, he was reelected to the fifteen succeeding Congresses and served from January 3, 1947, until his resignation, December 31, 1978.
He served as chairman of the Committee on House Administration, Joint Committee on the Library, Joint Committee on Printing. He was one of the majority of the Texan delegation to decline to sign the 1956 Southern Manifesto opposing the desegregation of public schools ordered by the Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education, he was not a candidate for reelection in 1978 to the Ninety-sixth Congress and was succeeded by fellow Democrat Charles Stenholm of Stamford in Jones County. After his congressional years, he resided in Abilene until his death there on May 14, 1991, he is interred at the Mount Hope Cemetery in Anson. Omar Burleson at Find a Grave United States Congress. "Omar Burleson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress; this article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov
Anson Jones was a doctor, member of Congress, the fourth and last President of the Republic of Texas, sometimes called the "Architect of Annexation". Jones was born on January 1798, in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, he traveled to Seneca Falls, New York, opened a one-room school. He taught there from 1812 to 1813. In 1820, Jones was licensed as a doctor by the Oneida, New York, Medical Society, began medical practice in 1822. However, his practice did not prosper, he moved several more times before being arrested in Philadelphia by a creditor, he stayed in Philadelphia for a few more years and practicing medicine, until in 1823, he decided to go to Venezuela. Jones returned to Philadelphia, earned an MD, reopened his practice, he never had much success as a doctor, in 1832, he renounced medicine and headed for New Orleans, where he entered the mercantile trade. Once again, Jones's dreams were thwarted. Though he safely weathered two plagues, his business efforts never met with any success, within a year he had no money.
He was Past Master of the Masonic Harmony Lodge # 52 of Philadelphia. He was a Past Grand of Independent Order of Odd Fellows Washington Lodge no. 2 and Philadelphia Lodge no. 13 in Pennsylvania and a Past Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. In 1832, Jones headed west to Texas, settling in Brazoria. Here, at last, he met with success. In 1835, he began to speak out about the growing tensions between Texas and Mexico, that year he attended the Consultation, a meeting held at Columbia, by Texas patriots to discuss the fight with Mexico. Jones himself presented a resolution at the Consultation calling for a convention to be held to declare independence, but he himself refused to be nominated to the convention. During the Texas Revolution, Jones served as a judge advocate and surgeon to the Texas Army, though he insisted on holding the rank of private throughout the conflict. After the war, Jones resumed his medical practice. Upon his return to Brazoria, Jones found that James Collinsworth, a fellow Texas patriot and signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence from Brazoria, had set up a law practice in Jones's office.
Jones challenged him to a duel. Just a few months before the revolution, on March 2, 1834, Jones met with four other Masons at Brazoria and petitioned the Grand Master of Louisiana for a dispensation and a charter to form the first Masonic lodge in Texas. In December, when the lodge was set to labor, Jones was elected its first Master; the charter for Holland Lodge No. 36 arrived during the final days of the revolution, Jones carried it in his saddlebags during the decisive Battle of San Jacinto on April 21, 1836. At the formation of the Grand Lodge of the Republic of Texas in December 1837, he was elected its first Grand Master, he became the first Grand Master of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in Texas. On May 17, 1840, he married Mary Smith Jones. Together, they had four children. Jones and Collinsworth would spar again. Collinsworth was instrumental in starting the Texas Railroad and Banking Company, to which Jones was vehemently opposed. Jones was elected to the Second Texas Congress as an opponent of the company.
He helped draw up legislation to regulate medical practice, called for the establishment of an endowment for a university. Jones expected to return to his practice at Brazoria after his term in Congress, but Texas President Sam Houston instead appointed him Minister to the United States, where Jones was to formally withdraw the annexation proposal. During this time, while many Texans hoped to encourage eventual annexation by the United States, some supported waiting for annexation or remaining independent; the United States, in the late 1830s, was hesitant to annex Texas for fear of provoking a war with Mexico. Jones and others felt that Texas gaining recognition from European states was important, began to set up trade relations with them, to make annexation of Texas more attractive to the United States, or failing that, to give Texas the strength to remain independent. Jones was recalled to Texas by new president Mirabeau Lamar in 1839. Back at home, he found himself elected to a partial term in the Senate, where he became a critic of Lamar's administration.
He retired from the Senate in 1841, declining the opportunity to serve as Vice President in favor of returning to his medical practice. Late in 1841, though, he was named Texas Secretary of State by President Houston, been elected president again by opponents of Lamar. Jones served as Secretary of State until 1844. During his term, the main goal of Texas foreign policy was to get either an offer of annexation from the United States, or a recognition of Texas independence from Mexico, or preferably, both at the same time. Anson Jones served as the last President of the Republic of Texas. Jones hoped, he was not chosen, as time went on, he became bitter about this slight. Although Jones prospered as a planter and amassed an enormous estate, he was never able to get past the fact that Sam Houston and Thomas Jefferson Rusk were chosen over him to represent Texas in Washington, DC. After the suicide of Thomas Jefferson Rusk in 18
U.S. Route 83
U. S. Route 83 is a major north–south U. S. Highway that extends 1,885 miles in the central United States. Only four other north–south routes are longer: U. S. Routes 1, 41, 59, 87; the highway's northern terminus is north of Westhope, North Dakota, at the Canada–United States border, where it continues as Manitoba Highway 83. The southern terminus is in Brownsville, Texas, at the Veterans International Bridge on the Mexico–United States border, connecting with both Mexican Federal Highway 101 and Mexican Federal Highway 180. Despite its length it has comparatively few concurrencies with any Interstate highways, those segments are short. In no place has it been decommissioned as a route. US 83 is a north–south highway, 893 miles in length, in Texas except for a segment parallel to the Rio Grande River, where it takes an east–west course, much of which runs concurrently with the Interstate 2 freeway, it enters the United States and Texas near Brownsville concurrent with US 77 and splits from US 77 at Harlingen.
Passing Weslaco with I-2, it begins to veer northward and passes the current western terminus of I-2 at Penitas, follows the Rio Grande River to Laredo where it meets I-35 in a 28-mile concurrency before heading northwestward. It meets I-10 at Junction, where it has a five-mile concurrency with I-10, before heading due-north to Abilene, meeting I-20 on an expressway before heading north again on undivided surface roads, it again heads west of due north to meet US 287 in Childress and I-40 in Shamrock. About 5 1⁄2 miles north of Perryton it enters Oklahoma. Except for Abilene and some cities in the lower Rio Grande Valley it is rural in nature. US-83 traverses the Oklahoma panhandle along the western border of Beaver County, but in this brief 37-mile stretch it encounters no fewer than three other federal highways. Ten miles from the Texas line, US-83 intersects US-412 in the hamlet of Bryan's Corner. Continuing its journey northward, the highway crosses the Beaver River intersects US-64 in Turpin.
US-83 North and US-64 East are co-signed for three northbound miles. At this intersection, US-270 West joins the highway, together with US-83 proceeds northbound for the final six miles to the Kansas line. US 83 enters the Sunflower State in Seward County four miles south of Liberal, where it intersects US 54. North of Liberal, US 83 begins a multiplex with US 160, the highways remain joined until reaching Sublette, the seat of Haskell County. US 83 and US 160 split north of Sublette, with US 160 heading west toward Ulysses, US 83 continuing north toward Garden City. At Garden City, US 50 and US 400 join US 83 for a brief concurrency on a bypass around the east and north sides of the city while U. S. 83 Business follows the former routing through downtown. All three routes cross K-156 known as Kansas Avenue, in the northwest portion of the city. At the north end of the US 50-83 Business route, US 83 splits and heads north toward Scott City, while US 50 and US 400 remain joined through the rest of the state.
The highway passes through unpopulated areas of Finney County and Scott County before reaching a junction with K-96 in downtown Scott City. In northern Scott County, K-4 has its origins at US 83, heading east toward Healy, US 83 traverses through rolling farmlands until reaching Oakley, the seat of Logan County. US 83 reaches US 40 less than a mile west of Interstate 70, the two highways jog west for a brief multiplex before US 83 splits and crosses I-70. North of I-70, US 83 begins a concurrency with K-383 US 383. Passing to the east of Gem in Thomas County, US 83/K-383 takes a sharp northeasterly track through Rexford and Selden. After passing through Selden, K-383 splits from US 83 and continues northeast to US 36, while US 83 meets the beginning of K-23. US 83 returns to a northerly course at the Sheridan County–Decatur County line, passes through Oberlin at US 36. Oberlin is the last area of significant population. U. S. 83 enters Nebraska south of McCook, where it meets U. S. Route 6 and U.
S. Route 34, it continues northward to North Platte, where it intersects Interstate 80 and U. S. Route 30. After leaving North Platte in a northeasterly direction, it turns north near Thedford and goes north through the Sand Hills to Valentine. For 5 miles before Valentine, it runs concurrent with U. S. Route 20. After passing through Valentine, it continues north to enter South Dakota. U. S. 83 enters South Dakota south of Olsonville on a segment of highway which passes through the Rosebud Indian Reservation. After a brief overlap with U. S. Route 18 in Mission, the route meets Interstate 90 at Murdo; the two routes overlap as U. S. 83 goes east with I-90 until Vivian, where U. S. 83 turns north. At Fort Pierre, U. S. 83 meets U. S. Route 14 and South Dakota Highway 34; the three highways overlap as they enter Pierre. At Pierre, SD 34 separates and U. S. 83 turns northeast with U. S. 14. They separate near Blunt and U. S. 83 turns northward. U. S. 83 overlaps with U. S. Route 212 near Gettysburg and with U. S. Route 12 through the Selby area.
U. S. 83 leaves South Dakota north of Herreid. The South Dakota section of U. S. 83, with the exception of concurrencies with U. S. 18, Interstate 90, U. S. 14, U. S. 212, U. S. 12, is defined at South Dakota Codified Laws § 31-4-180. U. S. 83 enters North Dakota at the South Dakota state line, near the town of Hague, runs northward for 68 miles, serving the small cities of Strasburg and Linton before reaching Interstate 94. It follows I-94 west t
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Michael Martin Murphey
Michael Martin Murphey is an American singer-songwriter best known for writing and performing Western music, country music and popular music. A multiple Grammy nominee, Murphey has six gold albums, including Cowboy Songs, the first album of cowboy music to achieve gold status since Gunfighter Ballads and Trail Songs by Marty Robbins in 1959, he has recorded the hit singles "Wildfire", "Carolina in the Pines", "What's Forever For", "A Long Line of Love", "What She Wants", "Don't Count the Rainy Days", "Maybe This Time". Murphey is the author of New Mexico's state ballad, "The Land of Enchantment". Murphey has become a prominent musical voice for the Western horseman and cowboy. Michael Martin Murphey was born on March 14, 1945, to Pink Lavary Murphey and Lois Murphey, in the Oak Cliff section of Dallas, where he grew up, he has a brother, three years younger. When he was six years old he started riding horses on uncle's ranches. Years he would remember sleeping on his grandfather's porch under the stars, listening to the older man's stories and cowboy songs.
He enjoyed being around these men of the land. These experiences made a deep impression on the young boy. During these early years, he developed a special love for cowboy stories, he was an avid reader drawn to the books of Mark Twain and William Faulkner. As a youth, he enjoyed writing poetry and loved listening to his uncle's old 78 rpm records the music of country and folk artists such as Hank Williams, Bob Wills, Woody Guthrie. In junior high school he began performing as an amateur, as a camp counselor at a summer camp called Sky Ranch. At the age of seventeen, he took his first "professional" music job, playing western songs around a campfire at a Texas ranch. By the early 1960s, Murphey was playing the clubs in Dallas, performing country music, folk music, rock music, he won over the conservative Texas audiences with his charm and talent, soon formed a band that developed a significant following in the Dallas area. After graduating from W. H. Adamson High School in Oak Cliff, Murphey studied Greek at the University of North Texas.
As a member of the institution's Folk Music Club, he befriended Steven Fromholz, Ray Wylie Hubbard, Shiva's Headband fiddler Spencer Perskin and Armadillo World Headquarters co-founder Eddie Wilson. Murphey moved to California, where he studied creative writing and majored in medieval history and literature at the University of California, Los Angeles, he signed a publishing contract with the Sparrow Music company, soon he made a name for himself in the Los Angeles folk music scene. By 1964, he formed a musical group with an old Texas friend, Michael Nesmith, John London, John Raines, under the name the Trinity River Boys. Murphey's first big break came through his friend Michael Nesmith, who had become part of the popular television musical group, The Monkees. Nesmith asked Murphey to write them a song for the next Monkees album, Murphey composed "What Am I Doing Hangin' Round"; the album Pisces, Capricorn & Jones Ltd. sold over five million copies. Murphey formed the Lewis & Clarke Expedition with Boomer Castleman, recorded one self-titled album for Colgems Records, the company that released the Monkees' LPs.
They had a modest hit with "I Feel Good". Boomer Castleman went on to find success with his controversial song "Judy Mae" and as the writer and producer of the million selling novelty hit "Telephone Man" for singer Meri Wilson. In 1968, Murphey moved to Wrightwood, a village in the San Gabriel Mountains adjacent to the Mojave Desert of California to work on his songwriting. Based on the success of his songs, he signed a contract with the Screen Gems company, the publishing arm of Columbia Pictures; some of his songs were recorded by Bobbie Gentry. Kenny Rogers recorded an entire album of Michael Murphey songs called The Ballad of Calico, about a Mojave Desert ghost town. Murphey wrote some additional songs for The Monkees, but he grew disillusioned with the poor financial rewards and the Southern California music scene. In 1971, Murphey returned to Texas and became part of the so-called Outlaw country movement, playing alongside other maverick performers such as Willie Nelson and Jerry Jeff Walker.
He created a unique sound that combined his country and folk influences. It was during this period that Murphey co-wrote "Geronimo's Cadillac" with the lyricist Charles John Quarto, a song about Native American rights that became an unofficial anthem for the American Indian Movement in the early 1970s. In 1971, Murphey was signed to A&M Records by Bob Johnston, who discovered him in a Dallas club, the Rubiayat. Johnston had produced some of the country's most popular recording artists, including Bob Dylan, Johnny Cash, Simon and Garfunkel. In 1972, Johnston produced Murphey's first album Geronimo's Cadillac in Tennessee; the sound of the album reflects Murphey's love of country and blues music. Murphey's early gospel influences are evident throughout the album; the title track was released as a single, reached the Top 40 on the US pop charts. In addition to the title track, the album included "Boy from the Country", "What Am I Doin' Hangin' Around?", "Michael Angelo's Blues". Rolling Stone magazine proclaimed, "On the strength of his first album alone, Michael Murphey is the best new songwriter in the country."In 1973, Murphey followed up with the album Cosmic Cowboy Souvenir, which continued the urban cowboy theme of the first album.
The album included "Cosmic Cowboy, Pt. 1", "Alleys of Austin", "Rolling Hills". Throughout this period, Murphey's band included Bob Livingston and Gary P. Nunn