Tanegashima is one of the Ōsumi Islands belonging to Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. The island, 444.99 km² in area, is the second largest of the Ōsumi Islands, has a population of 33,000 persons. Access to the island is by air to New Tanegashima Airport. Administratively, the island is divided into the city and the two towns and Minamitane; the towns belong to Kumage District. Tanegashima is the second largest of the Ōsumi Islands, it is located 43 kilometres south of the southern tip of Ōsumi Peninsula in southern Kyushu, or 115 kilometres south of Kagoshima. The Vincennes Strait separates it from Yakushima; the island is of volcanic origin. The island has a length of a width ranging from 5 kilometres to 10 kilometres; the climate is subtropical. Tanegashima has a long history of Kofun. Other burials on Tanegashima, namely the Yokomine and Hirota sites, attest to a uniquely well-developed Yayoi period culture at the end of the 4th century AD; the artifacts include magatama, an engraved pendant, emblems with apparent writing.
During the Nara period, the embryo state of Japan began to make contact with Tanegashima. According to the Nihonshoki, the imperial court hosted a banquet for the islanders of Tanegashima in 677. In 679, the court sent a mission to the island who returned in 681. Other missions to the island mentioned in the book were in 683 and 695. According to the Shoku Nihongi, people from Tane, Yaku and Dokan came to the imperial court to pay tribute in 699; these activities resulted in the establishment of Tane Province on the island in 702. Tane Province was merged into Ōsumi Province. Sometime around 1140, the whole island of Tanegashima became part of the Shimazu Estate, the largest medieval shōen of Japan. In the early Kamakura period, the positions of the land steward of the Shimazu Estate and the military governor of Ōsumi Province were given to the Shimazu clan. However, the clan lost these positions to the de facto ruler of the shogunate; the Hōjō clan sent the Higo clan as deputy governors. A branch line of the Higo clan made itself autonomous on Tanegashima after the Hōjō clan was annihilated and began to claim the clan name of Tanegashima.
The Tanegashima clan ruled the island until the Meiji restoration. The Tanegashima clan enjoyed a high degree of autonomy until Shimazu unified southern Kyūshū in the late 16th century, after that, served as a top-ranking retainer to the Satsuma domain. Following the Meiji restoration, the island has been administered as part of Kagoshima Prefecture. Tanegashima is traditionally known as the site of the introduction of European firearms to Japan in 1542; until modern times, firearms were colloquially known in Japan as "Tanegashima", due to the belief that they were introduced by the Portuguese on board the first Portuguese ship. In his memoirs published in 1614, Portuguese adventurer turned author, Fernão Mendes Pinto placed himself in the first landing party, although this claim has since been roundly discredited and in fact contradicts his claims to have been in Burma at the time; the two Portuguese traders, António Mota and Francisco Zeimoto, should be credited as the first Europeans to introduce firearms.
However, Mendes Pinto does appear to have visited Tanegashima soon thereafter. The Europeans had arrived to trade, not only guns, but soap and other goods unknown in medieval Japan, for Japanese goods. During the Muromachi period, Tanegashima functioned as a relay station for one of the main routes of Chinese trade that connected Sakai to Ningbo; the Tanegashima clan cooperated with the Hosokawa clan, one of two powers who controlled Chinese trade. The clan maintained a firm connection with the Honnō-ji Temple of Kyoto; these account for the rapid spread of firearms from Tanegashima to central Japan. Edge tools made in Tanegashima are famous traditional handicrafts in Japan. Craftsmen in Tanegashima have kept alive traditional techniques for forging and sharpening iron tools. Tanegashima is famous as the center of iron sand production; the technique has been around since about 1185 when the Taira clan were exiled here from Kyoto by Minamoto no Yoritomo, taking with them craftsmen and chefs from Kyoto.
The people of the island speak with a Kyoto accent now, rather than a Kyūshū or Kagoshima accent, despite its proximity to Kyūshū. These craftsmen were the original users of the distinct techniques used for sharpening; the technique is unique in the world, produces such tools as "Tanegashima Hōchō", used by chefs, "Tane-basami", preferred by many for the art of Bonsai. The local population has fallen from over fifty thousand in 1970 to just twenty-eight thousand today, in spite of tourism and space industries, putting traditional crafts at risk; the Tanegashima Space Center is Japan's largest space development center. It is run by JAXA, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency and is located at the southeastern end of Tanegashima, it was established in 1969. Activities include assembly, testing and tracking satellites, as well as rocket engine firing tests. Activity includes orbital launches of the H-IIA rockets from the Yoshinobu Launch Complex; the Space Science and Technology Museum is near the TSC.
It offers an intricate view of rocket technology in Japan. Though most of the displa
Junk is a type of ancient Chinese sailing ship, still in use today. Junks were used as seagoing vessels as early as the 2nd century AD and developed during the Song dynasty, they evolved in the dynasties, were used throughout Asia for extensive ocean voyages. They were found, in lesser numbers are still found, throughout South-East Asia and India, but in China. Found more broadly today is a growing number of modern recreational junk-rigged sailboats; the term junk may be used to cover many kinds of boat—ocean-going, cargo-carrying, pleasure boats, live-aboards. They vary in size and there are significant regional variations in the type of rig, however they all employ battened sails; the term junk was used by European explorers for large unrelated native Austronesian warships, like the Philippine karakoa and the Maluku kora kora. The term may stem from the Chinese chuán based on and pronounced as in the Minnan variant of Chinese, or zhōu, the old word for a sailing vessel. Junk entered the English language in the 17th century through the Portuguese junco from the Javanese or Malay jong.
The modern Standard Chinese word for an ocean-going wooden cargo vessel is cáo. Views diverge on, it entered Malay language by 15th century, when a Chinese word list identify it as Malay word for ship. The Malay Maritime Code, first drawn up in the late 15th century, uses junk as the word for freight ships. European writings from 1345 through 1601 use a variety of related terms, including jonque, ioncque and ionco; the historian Herbert Warington Smyth considered the junk as one of the most efficient ship designs, stating that "As an engine for carrying man and his commerce upon the high and stormy seas as well as on the vast inland waterways, it is doubtful if any class of vessel… is more suited or better adapted to its purpose than the Chinese or Indian junk, it is certain that for flatness of sail and handiness, the Chinese rig is unsurpassed." Junk sails have full-length battens. Their ability to sail close to the wind is poorer than other fore-and-aft rigs. Classic junks were built of softwoods with the outside shape built first.
Multiple internal compartment/bulkheads accessed by separate hatches and ladders, reminiscent of the interior structure of bamboo, were built in. Traditionally, the hull has a horseshoe-shaped stern supporting a high poop deck; the bottom is flat in a river junk with no keel, so that the boat relies on a daggerboard, leeboard or large rudder to prevent the boat from slipping sideways in the water. Ocean-going junks have a curved hull in section with a large amount of tumblehome in the topsides; the planking is edge nailed on a diagonal. Iron nails or spikes have been recovered from a Canton dig dated to circa 221 BC. For caulking the Chinese used a mix of ground lime with Tung oil together with chopped hemp from old fishing nets which set hard in 18 hours, but usefully remained flexible. Junks have narrow waterlines which accounts for their potential speed in moderate conditions, although such voyage data as we have indicates that average speeds on voyage for junks were little different from average voyage speeds of all traditional sail, i.e. around 4–6 knots.
The largest junks, the treasure ships commanded by Ming dynasty Admiral Zheng He, were built for world exploration in the 15th century, according to some interpretations may have been over 120 metres in length, or larger. This conjecture was based on the size of a rudder post, found and misinterpreted, using formulae applicable to modern engine powered ships. More careful analysis shows that the rudder post, found is smaller than the rudder post shown for a 70' long Pechili Trader in Worcester's "Junks and Sampans of the Yangtze". Another characteristic of junks, interior compartments or bulkheads, strengthened the ship and slowed flooding in case of holing. Ships built in this manner were written of in Zhu Yu's book Pingzhou Table Talks, published by 1119 during the Song dynasty. Again, this type of construction for Chinese ship hulls was attested to by the Moroccan Muslim Berber traveler Ibn Battuta, who described it in great detail. Although some historians have questioned whether the compartments were watertight, most believe that watertight compartments did exist in Chinese junks because although most of the time there were small passageways between compartments, these could be blocked with stoppers and such stoppers have been identified in wrecks.
All wrecks discovered so far have limber holes. It is believed from evidence in wrecks that the limber holes could be stopped either to allow the carriage of liquid cargoes or to isolate a compartment that had sprung a leak. Benjamin Franklin wrote in a 1787 letter on the project of mail packets between the United States and France: As these vessels are not to be laden with goods, their holds may without inconvenience be divided into separate apartments, after the Chinese manner, and
The Nanban trade or the Nanban trade period in the history of Japan extends from the arrival of the first Europeans – Portuguese explorers and merchants – to Japan in 1543, to their near-total exclusion from the archipelago in 1614, under the promulgation of the "Sakoku" Seclusion Edicts. Nanban is a Sino-Japanese word, Chinese Nánmán referring to the peoples of South Asia and Southeast Asia. In Japan, the word took on a new meaning when it came to designate the Portuguese, who first arrived in 1543, other Europeans; some communities are campaigning for the influential route's inclusion in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Following contact with the Portuguese on Tanegashima in 1542, the Japanese were at first rather wary of the newly arrived foreigners; the culture shock was quite strong due to the fact that Europeans were not able to understand the Japanese writing system nor accustomed to using chopsticks. They eat, they show their feelings without any self-control. They cannot understand the meaning of written characters..
The Japanese were introduced to several new technologies and cultural practices, whether in the military area, decorative art and culinary: the Portuguese introduced the tempura and above all the valuable refined sugar, creating nanbangashi, "southern barbarian confectionery", with confectioneries like castella, konpeitō, aruheitō, keiran sōmen, bōro and bisukauto. Many foreigners were befriended by Japanese rulers, their ability was sometimes recognized to the point of promoting one to the rank of samurai, giving him a fief in the Miura Peninsula, south of Edo. Renaissance Europeans were quite fond of Japan's immense richness in precious metals owing to Marco Polo's accounts of gilded temples and palaces, but due to the relative abundance of surface ores characteristic of a volcanic country, before large-scale deep-mining became possible in Industrial times. Japan was to become a major exporter of silver during the period. Japan was noted for being much more populated and urbanized than any Western country.
At the time, some Europeans became quite fascinated with Japan, Alessandro Valignano writing that the Japanese "excel not only all the other Oriental peoples, they surpass the Europeans as well". Early European visitors noted the quality of Japanese metalsmithing; this stems from the fact that Japan itself is rather poor in natural resources found in Europe iron. Thus, the Japanese were famously frugal with their consumable resources. Japanese military progress was well noted. "A Spanish royal decree of 1609 directed Spanish commanders in the Pacific'not to risk the reputation of our arms and state against Japanese soldier.'". Troops of Japanese samurai were employed in the Maluku Islands in Southeast Asia by the Dutch to fight off the English. Soon after the first contacts in 1543, Portuguese ships started to arrive in Japan. At that time, there were trade exchanges between Portugal and Goa, consisting of 3 to 4 carracks leaving Lisbon with silver to purchase cotton and spices in India. Out of these, only one carrack went on to China in order to purchase silk in exchange for Portuguese silver.
Accordingly, the cargo of the first Portuguese ships arriving in Japan entirely consisted of Chinese goods. The Japanese were much looking forward to acquiring such goods, but had been prohibited from any contact with China by the Emperor of China, as a punishment for Wokou pirate raids; the Portuguese therefore found the opportunity to act as intermediaries in Asian trade. With the foundation of the port of Nagasaki, through the combined initiatives of converted daimyō Ōmura Sumitada and his Portuguese friend and confessor, Jesuit missionary Gaspar Vilela, in 1571, the extent of Portuguese trade and influence in Japan, in Kyūshū, would increase for the next thirty on years furthering the depth of its foothold on the strategic harbour, after having assisted Sumitada in repelling an attack on the port by the Ryūzōji clan in 1578, which in turn led Sumitada to cede Nagasaki "in perpetuity" to the Society of Jesus two years later. From the time of the acquisition of Macau in 1557, their formal recognition as trade partners by the Chinese, the Portuguese Crown started to regulate trade to Japan, by selling to the highest bidder the annual "Capitaincy" to Japan, in effect conferring exclusive trading rights for a single carrack bound for Japan every year.
The carracks were large ships between 1000 and 1500 tons, about double or triple the size of a regular galleon or a large junk. That trade continued with few interruptions until 1638, when it was prohibited on the ground that the ships were smuggling priests into Japan. Portuguese trade was progressively more and more challenged by Chinese smugglers on junks, Japanese Red Seal Ships from around 1592, Spanish ships from Manila from around 1600, the Dutch fro
A storm is any disturbed state of an environment or in an astronomical body's atmosphere affecting its surface, implying severe weather. It may be marked by significant disruptions to normal conditions such as strong wind, hail and lightning, heavy precipitation, heavy freezing rain, strong winds, or wind transporting some substance through the atmosphere as in a dust storm, sandstorm, etc. Storms have the potential to harm lives and property via storm surge, heavy rain or snow causing flooding or road impassibility, lightning and vertical wind shear. Systems with significant rainfall and duration help alleviate drought in places. Heavy snowfall can allow special recreational activities to take place which would not be possible otherwise, such as skiing and snowmobiling; the English word comes from Proto-Germanic *sturmaz meaning "noise, tumult". Storms are created when a center of low pressure develops with the system of high pressure surrounding it; this combination of opposing forces can create winds and result in the formation of storm clouds such as cumulonimbus.
Small localized areas of low pressure can form from hot air rising off hot ground, resulting in smaller disturbances such as dust devils and whirlwinds. There are many varieties and names for storms: Blizzard — There are varying definitions for blizzards, both over time and by location. In general, a blizzard is accompanied by gale-force winds, heavy snow, cold conditions; the temperature criterion has fallen out of the definition across the United States Bomb cyclone - A rapid deepening of a mid-latitude cyclonic low-pressure area occurring over the ocean, but can occur over land. The winds experienced during these storms can be as powerful as that of a hurricane. Coastal Storm — large wind waves and/or storm surge that strike the coastal zone, their impacts include coastal erosion and coastal flooding Derecho — A derecho is a widespread, long-lived, straight-line wind storm, associated with a land-based, fast-moving group of severe thunderstorms. Dust devil — a small, localized updraft of rising air.
Dust storm - A situation in which winds pick up large quantities of sand or soil reducing the visibility Firestorm — Firestorms are conflagrations which attain such intensity that they create and sustain their own wind systems. It is most a natural phenomenon, created during some of the largest bushfires, forest fires, wildfires; the Peshtigo Fire is one example of a firestorm. Firestorms can be deliberate effects of targeted explosives such as occurred as a result of the aerial bombings of Dresden. Nuclear detonations generate firestorms. Gale — An extratropical storm with sustained winds between 34–48 knots. Hailstorm — a type of storm that precipitates round chunks of ice. Hailstorms occur during regular thunderstorms. While most of the hail that precipitates from the clouds is small and harmless, there are occasional occurrences of hail greater than 2 inches in diameter that can cause much damage and injuries. Hypercane -a hypothetical tropical cyclone that could form over 50 °C water; such a storm would produce winds of over 800 km/h.
A series of hypercanes may have formed during the astroid or comet impact that killed the non-avian dinosaurs 66 million years ago. Such a phenomenon could occur during a supervolcanic eruption, or extreme global warming. Ice storm — Ice storms are one of the most dangerous forms of winter storms; when surface temperatures are below freezing, but a thick layer of above-freezing air remains aloft, rain can fall into the freezing layer and freeze upon impact into a glaze of ice. In general, 8 millimetres of accumulation is all, required in combination with breezy conditions, to start downing power lines as well as tree limbs. Ice storms make unheated road surfaces too slick to drive upon. Ice storms can vary in time range from hours to days and can cripple small towns and large metropolitan cities alike. Microburst - a powerful windstorm produced during a thunderstorm that only lasts a few minutes. Ocean Storm or sea storm — Storm conditions out at sea are defined as having sustained winds of 48 knots or greater.
Just referred to as a storm, these systems can sink vessels of all types and sizes. Snowstorm — A heavy fall of snow accumulating at a rate of more than 5 centimeters per hour that lasts several hours. Snow storms ones with a high liquid equivalent and breezy conditions, can down tree limbs, cut off power connections and paralyze travel over large regions. Squall — sudden onset of wind increase of at least 16 knots or greater sustained for at least one minute. Thunderstorm -- A thunderstorm is a type of storm that generates both thunder, it is accompanied by heavy precipitation. Thunderstorms occur throughout the world, with the highest frequency in tropical rainforest regions where there are conditions of high humidity and temperature along with atmospheric instability; these storms occur when high levels of condensation form in a volume of unstable air that generates deep, upward motion in the atmosphere. The heat energy creates powerful rising air currents. Cool descending air currents produce strong downdraughts below the storm.
After the storm has spent its energy, the rising currents die away and downdraughts break up the cloud. Individual s
Firearms of Japan
Firearms of Japan were introduced in the 13th century by the Chinese, but saw little use. Portuguese firearms were introduced in 1543, intense development followed, with strong local manufacture during the period of conflicts of the late 16th century. Due to its proximity with China, Japan had long been familiar with gunpowder weaponry. Firearms seem to have first appeared in Japan around 1270, as primitive metal tubes invented in China and called teppō seem to have been introduced in Japan as well; these weapons were basic, as they had no trigger or sights, could not bear comparison with the more advanced European weapons which were introduced in Japan more than 250 years later. The first documented introduction of the matchlock which became known as the tanegashima was through the Portuguese in 1543; the tanegashima seems to have been based on snap matchlocks that were produced in the armory of Malacca in Portuguese Malacca, captured by the Portuguese in 1511. The name tanegashima came from the island where a Chinese junk with Portuguese adventurers on board was driven to anchor by a storm.
The lord of the Japanese island Tanegashima Tokitaka purchased two matchlock muskets from the Portuguese and put a swordsmith to work in copying the matchlock barrel and firing mechanism. Within a few years the use of the tanegashima in battle forever changed the way war was fought in Japan. From 1560, firearms were used in large battles in Japan. In his memoirs published in 1614, the Portuguese adventurer turned author Fernão Mendes Pinto placed himself in that first landing party, although this claim has been roundly discredited and in fact contradicts his claims to be in Burma at the time. However, Pinto does appear to have visited Tanegashima soon thereafter. Japan was at war during the Sengoku Period between 1467 and 1600, as feudal lords vied for supremacy. Matchlock guns had a decisive role in warfare. In 1549, Oda Nobunaga ordered 500 matchlocks to be made for his armies; the benefits of firearms were still questionable however compared to other weapons. At the time, guns were still rather cumbersome.
According to one estimate in 16th century Japan, an archer could fire 15 arrows in the time a gunner would take to load and shoot a firearm. Effective range was only 80 to 100 meters, at that distance, a bullet could bounce off armour. Furthermore, matchlocks were vulnerable to humid or rainy conditions as the powder would become damp. However, firearms could be manned by farmers or non-samurai low-ranking soldiers; the Japanese soon worked on various techniques to improve the effectiveness of their guns. They developed serial firing technique to create a continuous rain of bullets on the enemy, they developed bigger calibers to increase lethal power. Protective boxes in lacquerware were invented to be able to fire matchlocks in the rain, as well as systems to fire weapons at night by keeping fixed angles thanks to measured strings; as a result, in the year 1567, Takeda Shingen announced that "Hereafter, the guns will be the most important arms. Therefore, decrease the number of spears per unit, have your most capable men carry guns".
At the Battle of Nagashino in 1575, 3,000 arquebusiers helped win the battle, firing by volleys of 1,000 at a time, concealed across a river and breastwork to stop enemy infantry and cavalry charges while being protected. In the year 1584 Ikeda Sen led a troop of 200 women armed with firearms at the Battle of Komaki and Nagakute and in 1600 at the Battle of Sekigahara, rare example of Teppō unit, or musketeer unit consisting only of women. Japan became so enthusiastic about the new weapons that it overtook every European country in absolute numbers produced. Japan used the guns in the Japanese invasion of Korea in 1592, in which about a quarter of the invasion force of 160,000 were gunners, they were successful at first and managed to capture Seoul just 18 days after their landing at Busan. The internal war in Japan was won by Tokugawa Ieyasu, who established the Tokugawa shogunate, a powerful entity that would maintain peace and prosperity in Japan for the following 250 years. From the mid-17th century, Japan decided to close itself to interaction with the West through its policy of Sakoku.
Guns were used less because the Edo Period did not have many large-scale conflicts in which a gun would be of use. Oftentimes the sword was the more practical weapon in the average small-scale Edo Period conflicts there were gunsmiths in Japan producing guns through the Edo Period, it should be noted that isolation did not decrease the production of guns in Japan—on the contrary, there is evidence of around 200 gunsmiths in Japan by the end of the Edo Period. But the social life of firearms had changed: as the historian David L. Howell has argued, for many in Japanese society, the gun had become less a weapon than a farm implement for scaring off animals. A few Japanese started to study and experiment with recent Western firearms from the beginning of the 19th century as a means to repel the visits of foreign ships, such as the incursion by British frigate HMS Phaeton in 1808. Through the process of rangaku, airguns were developed by Kunitomo Ikkansai c. 1820–1830. From 1828, experiments were made with flintlock mechanisms.
The Nagasaki samurai Takashima Shūhan started to import flintlock guns from the Netherlands known as "Gewehr" from the 1840s. He made the first modern Western military demonstration for the Tokugawa shogunate, in Tokumarugahara on 27 June 1841. With the arrival of Commodore Perry in 1854 and the inescapable opening of the cou
Fernão Mendes Pinto
Fernão Mendes Pinto was a Portuguese explorer and writer. His voyages are recorded in his autobiographical memoir; the historical accuracy of the work is debatable due to the many events which seem far fetched or at least exaggerated, earning him the nickname "Fernão Mentes Minto". Some aspects of the work can be verified through Pinto's service to the Portuguese Crown and by his association with Jesuit missionaries. Fernão Mendes Pinto was born in Montemor-o-Velho, Portugal to a poor rural family. Pinto had two sisters. In 1551, a brother, Álvaro, was recorded in Portuguese Malacca. Letters record the martyr's death of a brother in Malacca. In 1557, Francisco Garcia de Vargas, Pinto's wealthy cousin is recorded at Cochin, he was related to the wealthy Mendes family who were descendants of Jewish Marranos who lived in Portugal. They had a monopoly of the black pepper commerce in Portugal and some of them moved to Antwerp in Belgium Pinto described his childhood as spartan. In 1521, hoping to improve the boy's prospects, an uncle took him to Lisbon.
There, Pinto was employed in the household service of a noblewoman. After eighteen months or so, Pinto fled. At the docks, he was hired as a ship's boy on a cargo vessel bound for Setúbal. On the way, French pirates captured the passengers were set upon the shore at Alentejo. Pinto made his way to Setúbal, where he entered the service of Francisco de Faria, a knight of Santiago, he remained there for four years and joined the service of Jorge de Lencastre, a master of the Order of Santiago. Pinto held that position for a number of years. Although comfortable, it held no promise of advancement. Therefore, at twenty-eight, Pinto left to join the Portuguese India Armadas. Pinto's travels can be divided into three phases: firstly, from Portugal to India. Pinto returned to Europe. On 11 March 1537, Pinto left Lisbon for India via Portuguese Mozambique. On 5 September that year, he arrived in a fortified island and town northwest of Bombay. Pinto joined a Portuguese reconnaissance mission to the Red Sea via Ethiopia.
The mission was to deliver a message to Portuguese soldiers guarding Eleni of Ethiopia, the mother of "Prester John" in a mountain fortress. After leaving Massawa, the mission engaged three Turkish galleys in battle; the Portuguese ships were defeated and their crews taken to Mocha to be sold as slaves. Pinto was sold to a Greek Muslim, a cruel master. Pinto was sold to a Jewish merchant for about thirty ducats' worth of dates. With the Jewish merchant, Pinto travelled the caravan route to Hormuz, a leading market town in the Persian Gulf. There, Pinto was freed by way of payment of three hundred ducats from the Portuguese crown, he was made captain of the Fortress of Hormuz and the Portuguese king's special magistrate for Indian affairs. Soon after being freed, Pinto sailed on a Portuguese cargo ship to Goa. Against his will, Pinto was transferred en route to a naval fleet bound for the Mughal port city of Debal near Thatta. After enduring battles with Ottoman ships, Pinto reached Goa. From 1539, Pinto remained in Malacca under the newly appointed captain of Malacca.
Pinto was sent to establish diplomatic contacts with small kingdoms allied with the Portuguese against the Muslims of northern Sumatra. In 1569, he discovered. Following Pinto's mission to Sumatra, he was sent to Patani, on the eastern shore of the Malay peninsula. From there, Pinto made an unsuccessful delivery of merchandise to Siam; the goods were stolen by pirates who were chased by Pinto and António de Faria. Pinto continued trading operations in the South China Sea in the Gulf of Tonkin. Pinto raided a tomb of the Emperor of China. Pinto was shipwrecked, apprehended by the Chinese and sentenced to one year hard labour on the Great Wall of China. Before completing his sentence, Pinto was taken prisoner by invading Tatars, he became an agent of the Tartars and travelled with them to Cochinchina, the southernmost part of modern-day Cambodia and Vietnam. Pinto describes his encounter with a "pope-like" man the Dalai Lama, who had never heard of Europe. Pinto and two companions jumped ship to a Chinese pirate junk and were shipwrecked onto the Japanese island of Tanegashima, south of Kyūshū.
Pinto claimed to be the first westerner to enter Japan. In 1543, Pinto landed in Japan, he claimed that he introduced the arquebus to Japan, is the first European to set foot on japanese soil. However it is accepted now that several Portuguese traders such as António Mota and Francisco Zeimoto made it to Japan a year before Pinto; the firearm was used in the Japanese civil wars. It was known as the tanegashima. Pinto facilitated trade between the Japan. At one point, he was shipwrecked on the Ryukyu Islands. In 1549, Pinto left Kagoshima accompanied by a Japanese fugitive, Anjirō, he returned to Japan with a Catholic missionary. In 1554, Pinto joined the Society of Jesu