Francisco Serrão was a Portuguese explorer and a cousin of Ferdinand Magellan. His 1512 voyage was the first known European sailing east past Malacca through modern Indonesia and the East Indies, he became a confidante of the Sultan Bayan Sirrullah, the ruler of Ternate, becoming his personal advisor. He remained in Ternate. Serrão served as captain of one of three vessels sent from Malacca by Afonso de Albuquerque to find the Spice Islands of Banda in Maluku in 1511. Banda was the world's only source of nutmeg and mace, spices used as flavourings, preserving agents, that were at the time valued in European markets; the Portuguese sought to dominate the source, rather than relying on Arab traders who sold it to the Venetians for exorbitant prices. Malay pilots guided the expedition east via Java and along the Lesser Sundas before steering them north to Banda via Ambon; when Serrão's ship had berthed at Gresik on Java, he married a Javanese woman as his wife, who accompanied him on the expedition's further journey.
In 1512 his ship was managed to reach Luco-Pino island, north of Ambon. The expedition remained in Banda for about one month and filling their ships with nutmeg and mace, as well as cloves in which Banda had a thriving entrepôt trade. Serrão left Banda in a Chinese junk purchased from a regional trader to replace his lost ship. D'Abreu sailed through Ambon. With nine Portuguese crew and nine Indonesians, the ship foundered in a squall and broke up on a reef off a small island; when the island's inhabitants, notorious shipwreck scavengers, surveyed the wreck from a boat, Serrão's crew posed as unarmed and helpless but wealthy castaways. As the scavengers drew near, the Portuguese commandeered both their craft and crew, their inadvertent rescuers were forced to take them to Ambon, where they disembarked in Hitu. Serrão's armour and marksmanship impressed the powerful chiefs of Hitu who were warring against Luhu, the principal settlement on Seram's Hoamal Peninsula near Hitu; the Portuguese were welcomed in the area as buyers of food and spices during a lull in the spice trade due to a temporary disruption to Javanese and Malay sailings to the area following the 1511 conflicts in Malacca.
The visitors were recruited as military allies and their subsequent exploits were heard in the rival neighbours of Ternate and Tidore who both rushed emissaries to induce the visitors to assist. Supporting the territory of the Sultanate of Ternate, the Portuguese strongest power, Serrão served as the head of a mercenary band of Portuguese warriors under the service of the island's Sultan Bayan Sirrullah, one of two feuding powerful sultans who controlled the spice trade, they became close friends and the Sultan appointed Serrão as his personal adviser for all matters, including military and family issues. Having been well received by the Sultan, Francisco Serrão decided to remain there, not making any efforts to return to Malacca. Francisco Serrão's letters to Ferdinand Magellan, carried to Portugal via Portuguese Malacca and describing the'Spice Islands', helped Magellan persuade the King of Spain to finance his circumnavigation. Before they met each other, Serrão mysteriously died in Ternate at the same time Magellan was killed in the Philippines.
One theory suggests. His family ties with João Serrão remain unclear in the historiography of Portuguese expeditions to Southeast Asia; the only written document is a list of captains' names in the fleet of Magellan's. Exploration of Asia History of Indonesia Hannard, Willard A.. Indonesian Banda: Colonialism and its Aftermath in the Nutmeg Islands. Bandanaira: Yayasan Warisan dan Budaya Banda Naira. Muller, Karl. Pickell, David, ed. Maluku: Indonesian Spice Islands. Singapore: Periplus Editions. ISBN 962-593-176-7
Portuguese people are a Romance ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese. Their predominant religion is Christianity Roman Catholicism, though vast segments of the population the younger generations, have no religious affiliation; the Portuguese people's heritage includes the pre-Celts and Celts. A number of Portuguese descend from converted Jewish and North Africans as a result of the Moorish occupation of the Iberian Peninsula; the Romans, Scandinavians, migratory Germanic tribes like the Suebi, Vandals and Buri who settled in what is today's Portugal The Roman Republic conquered the Iberian Peninsula during the 2nd and 1st centuries B. C. from the extensive maritime empire of Carthage during the series of Punic Wars. As a result of Roman colonization, the majority of local languages stem from the Vulgar Latin. Due to the large historical extent from the 16th century of the Portuguese Empire and the subsequent colonization of territories in Asia and the Americas, as well as historical and recent emigration, Portuguese communities can be found in many diverse regions around the globe, a large Portuguese diaspora exists.
Portuguese people began and led the Age of Exploration which started in 1415 with the conquest of Ceuta and culminated in an empire with territories that are now part of over 50 countries. The Portuguese Empire lasted nearly 600 years, seeing its end when Macau was returned to China in 1999; the discovery of several lands unknown to the Europeans in the Americas, Africa and Oceania, helped pave the way for modern globalization and domination of Western civilization. The Portuguese are a Southwestern European population, with origins predominantly from Southern and Western Europe; the earliest modern humans inhabiting Portugal are believed to have been Paleolithic peoples that may have arrived in the Iberian Peninsula as early as 35,000 to 40,000 years ago. Current interpretation of Y-chromosome and mtDNA data suggests that modern-day Portuguese trace a significant amount of these lineages to the paleolithic peoples who began settling the European continent between the end of the last glaciation around 45,000 years ago.
Northern Iberia is believed to have been a major Ice-age refuge from which Paleolithic humans colonized Europe. Migrations from what is now Northern Iberia during the Paleolithic and Mesolithic, links modern Iberians to the populations of much of Western Europe and the British Isles and Atlantic Europe. Recent books published by geneticists Bryan Sykes, Stephen Oppenheimer and Spencer Wells have emphasized the large Paleolithic and Mesolithic Iberian influence in the modern day Irish and Scottish gene-pool as well as parts of the English. Indeed, Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b is the most common haplogroup in all of the Iberian peninsula and western Europe. Within the R1b haplogroup there are modal haplotypes. One of the best-characterized of these haplotypes is the Atlantic Modal Haplotype; this haplotype reaches the highest frequencies in the British Isles. In Portugal it reckons 65% in the South summing 87% northwards, in some regions 96%; the Neolithic colonization of Europe from Western Asia and the Middle East beginning around 10,000 years ago reached Iberia, as most of the rest of the continent although, according to the demic diffusion model, its impact was most in the southern and eastern regions of the European continent.
Starting in the 3rd millennium BC as well as in the Bronze Age, the first wave of migrations into Iberia of speakers of Indo-European languages occurred. These were followed by others that can be identified as Celts. Urban cultures developed in southeastern Iberia, such as Tartessos, influenced by the Phoenician colonization of coastal Mediterranean Iberia, which shifted to Greek colonization. There is little or no evidence of settlements in Portugal by either Greeks or Phoenicians despite some statements to the contrary; these two processes defined Iberia's, Portugal's, cultural landscape—Continental in the northwest and Mediterranean towards the southeast, as historian José Mattoso describes it. Given the origins from Paleolithic and Neolithic settlers as well as Indo-European migrations, one can say that the Portuguese ethnic origin is a mixture of pre-Roman, pre-Indo-Europeans, pre-Celtics or para-Celts such as the Lusitanians of Lusitania, Celtic peoples such as Calaicians or Gallaeci of Gallaecia, the Celtici and the Cynetes of the Alentejo and the Algarve.
The Romans were an important influence on Portuguese culture. Other minor influences included the Phoenicians/Carthaginians, the Vandals and the Sarmatian Alans, the Visigoths and Suebi; the ruled from 711 until the Reconquista of the Algarve in 1249. In the 9th and 10th centuries small Viking settlements were established in the North coastal regions of Douro and Minho. For the Y-chromosome and MtDNA lineages of the Portuguese and other peoples see this map and this one. Portuguese have maintained a certain degree of ethnic and cultural specific characteristics-ratio with the Basques, since ancient times; the results of the present HLA stu
Madeira the Autonomous Region of Madeira, is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal. It is an archipelago situated in southwest of Portugal, its total population was estimated in 2011 at 267,785. The capital of Madeira is Funchal, located on the main island's south coast; the archipelago is just under 400 kilometres north of Canary Islands. Bermuda and Madeira, a few time zones apart, are the only land in the Atlantic on the 32nd parallel north, it includes the islands of Madeira, Porto Santo, the Desertas, administered together with the separate archipelago of the Savage Islands. The region has political and administrative autonomy through the Administrative Political Statue of the Autonomous Region of Madeira provided for in the Portuguese Constitution; the autonomous region is an integral part of the European Union as an outermost region. Madeira was claimed by Portuguese sailors in the service of Prince Henry the Navigator in 1419 and settled after 1420; the archipelago is considered to be the first territorial discovery of the exploratory period of the Age of Discovery.
Today, it is a popular year-round resort, being visited every year by about 1.4 million tourists five times its population. The region is noted for its Madeira wine, gastronomy and cultural value and fauna, landscapes that are classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, embroidery artisans; the main harbour in Funchal has long been the leading Portuguese port in cruise liner dockings, receiving more than half a million tourists through its main port in 2017, being an important stopover for commercial and trans-Atlantic passenger cruises between Europe, the Caribbean and North Africa. In addition, the International Business Centre of Madeira known as the Madeira Free Trade Zone, was created formally in the 1980s as a tool of regional economic policy, it consists of a set of incentives tax-related, granted with the objective of attracting foreign direct investment based on international services into Madeira. Plutarch in his Parallel Lives referring to the military commander Quintus Sertorius, relates that after his return to Cádiz, he met sailors who spoke of idyllic Atlantic islands: "The islands are said to be two in number separated by a narrow strait and lie 10,000 furlongs from Africa.
They are called the Isles of the Blest."Archeological evidence suggests that the islands may have been visited by the Vikings sometime between 900 and 1030. During the reign of King Edward III of England, lovers Robert Machim and Anna d'Arfet were said to have fled from England to France in 1346. Driven off course by a violent storm, their ship ran aground along the coast of an island that may have been Madeira; this legend was the basis of the naming of the city of Machico on the island, in memory of the young lovers. Knowledge of some Atlantic islands, such as Madeira, existed before their formal discovery and settlement, as the islands were shown on maps as early as 1339. In 1418, two captains under service to Prince Henry the Navigator, João Gonçalves Zarco and Tristão Vaz Teixeira, were driven off course by a storm to an island they named Porto Santo in gratitude for divine deliverance from a shipwreck; the following year, an organised expedition, under the captaincy of Zarco, Vaz Teixeira, Bartolomeu Perestrello, traveled to the island to claim it on behalf of the Portuguese Crown.
Subsequently, the new settlers observed "a heavy black cloud suspended to the southwest." Their investigation revealed it to be the larger island. The first Portuguese settlers began colonizing the islands around 1420 or 1425. Grain production began to fall and the ensuing crisis forced Henry the Navigator to order other commercial crops to be planted so that the islands could be profitable; these specialised plants, their associated industrial technology, created one of the major revolutions on the islands and fuelled Portuguese industry. Following the introduction of the first water-driven sugar mill on Madeira, sugar production increased to over 6,000 arrobas by 1455, using advisers from Sicily and financed by Genoese capital; the accessibility of Madeira attracted Genoese and Flemish traders, who were keen to bypass Venetian monopolies. "By 1480 Antwerp had some seventy ships engaged in the Madeira sugar trade, with the refining and distribution concentrated in Antwerp. By the 1490s Madeira had overtaken Cyprus as a producer of sugar."
Sugarcane production was the primary engine of the island's economy, increasing the demand for labour. African slaves were used during portions of the island's history to cultivate sugar cane, the proportion of imported slaves reached 10% of the total population of Madeira by the 16th century. Barbary corsairs from North Africa, who enslaved Europeans from ships and coastal communities throughout the Mediterranean region, captured 1,200 people in Porto Santo in 1617. After the 17th century, as Portuguese sugar production was shifted to Brazil, São Tomé and Príncipe and elsewhere, Madeira's most important commodity product became its wine; the British first amicably occupied the island in 1801 whereafter Colonel William Henry Clinton became governor. A detachment of the 85th Regiment of Foot under Lieutenant-colonel James Willoughby Gordon garrisoned the island. After the Peace of Amiens, British troops withdrew in 1802, only to reoccupy Madeira in 1807 until the end of the Peninsular War in 1814.
On 31 December 1916, during the Great War, a Ge
Afonso de Albuquerque
Afonso de Albuquerque, Duke of Goa, was a Portuguese general, a "great conqueror", a statesman, an empire builder. Afonso advanced the three-fold Portuguese grand scheme of combating Islam, spreading Christianity, securing the trade of spices by establishing a Portuguese Asian empire. Among his achievements, Afonso managed to conquer the island of Goa and was the first European of the Renaissance to raid the Persian Gulf, he led the first voyage by a European fleet into the Red Sea, his military and administrative works are regarded as among the most vital to building and securing the Portuguese Empire in the Orient, the Middle East, the spice routes of eastern Oceania. Afonso is considered a military genius, "probably the greatest naval commander of the age" given his successful strategy—he attempted to close all the Indian Ocean naval passages to the Atlantic, Red Sea, Persian Gulf, to the Pacific, transforming it into a Portuguese mare clausum established over the opposition of the Ottoman Empire and its Muslim and Hindu allies.
In the expansion of the Portuguese Empire, Afonso initiated a rivalry that would become known as the Ottoman–Portuguese war, which would endure for many years. Many of the Ottoman–Portuguese conflicts in which he was directly involved took place in the Indian Ocean, in the Persian Gulf regions for control of the trade routes, on the coasts of India, it was his military brilliance in these initial campaigns against the much larger Ottoman Empire and its allies that enabled Portugal to become the first global empire in history. He had a record of defeating much larger armies and fleets. For example, his capture of Ormuz in 1507 against the Persians was accomplished with a fleet of seven ships. Other famous battles and offensives which he led include the conquest of Goa in 1510 and the capture of Malacca in 1511, he became admiral of the Indian Ocean, was appointed head of the "fleet of the Arabian and Persian sea" in 1506. During the last five years of his life, he turned to administration, where his actions as the second governor of Portuguese India were crucial to the longevity of the Portuguese Empire.
He pioneered European sea trade with China during the Ming Dynasty with envoy Rafael Perestrello, Thailand with Duarte Fernandes as envoy, with Timor, passing through Malaysia and Indonesia in a voyage headed by António de Abreu and Francisco Serrão. He aided diplomatic relations with Ethiopia using priest envoys João Gomes and João Sanches, established diplomatic ties with Persia, during the Safavid dynasty, he became known as "the Great", "the Terrible", "the Caesar of the East", "the Lion of the Seas", "the Portuguese Mars". Afonso de Albuquerque was born in 1453 near Lisbon, he was the second son of Gonçalo de Albuquerque, Lord of Vila Verde dos Francos, Dona Leonor de Menezes. His father held an important position at court and was connected by remote illegitimate descent with the Portuguese monarchy, he was educated in mathematics and Latin at the court of Afonso V of Portugal, where he befriended Prince John, the future King John II of Portugal. Afonso's early training is described by Diogo Barbosa Machado: “D. Alfonso de Albuquerque, surnamed the Great, by reason of the heroic deeds wherewith he filled Europe with admiration, Asia with fear and trembling, was born in the year 1453, in the Estate called, for the loveliness of its situation, the Paradise of the Town of Alhandra, six leagues distant from Lisbon.
He was the second son of Gonçalo de Albuquerque, Lord of Villaverde, of D. Leonor de Menezes, daughter of D. Álvaro Gonçalves de Athayde, Count of Atouguia, of his wife D. Guiomar de Castro, corrected this injustice of nature by climbing to the summit of every virtue, both political and moral, he was educated in the Palace of the King D. Afonso V, in whose palaestra he strove emulously to become the rival of that African Mars”. Afonso served 10 years in North Africa, where he gained military experience in fierce campaigns against Muslim powers and Ottoman Turks. In 1471, under the command of Afonso V of Portugal, he was present at the conquest of Tangier and Arzila in Morocco, serving there as an officer for some years. In 1476 he accompanied Prince John in wars against Castile, including the Battle of Toro, he participated in the campaign on the Italian peninsula in 1480 to rescue Ferdinand II of Aragon from the Ottoman invasion of Otranto that ended in victory. On his return in 1481, when Prince John was crowned as King John II, Afonso was made Master of the Horse for his distinguished exploits, chief equerry to the King, a post which he held throughout John's reign.
In 1489 he returned to military campaigns in North Africa, as commander of defense in the Graciosa fortress, an island in the river Luco near the city of Larache, in 1490 was part of the guard of King John II, returning to Arzila in 1495, where his younger brother Martim died fighting by his side. Afonso made his mark under the stern John II, won military campaigns in Africa and the Mediterranean sea, yet Asia is where he would make his greatest impact; when King Manuel I of Portugal was enthroned, he showed some reticence towards Afonso, a close friend of his dreaded predecessor and seventeen years his senior. Eight years on 6 April 1503, after a long military career and at a mature age, Afonso was sent on his first expedition to India together with his cousin Francisco de Albuquerque; each commanded three ships, sailing with Duarte Pacheco Nicolau Coelho. They engaged in several battles against the forces of the Zamorin of Calicut and succeeded in establishing the King of Cohin (Cohim, Ko
Junk is a type of ancient Chinese sailing ship, still in use today. Junks were used as seagoing vessels as early as the 2nd century AD and developed during the Song dynasty, they evolved in the dynasties, were used throughout Asia for extensive ocean voyages. They were found, in lesser numbers are still found, throughout South-East Asia and India, but in China. Found more broadly today is a growing number of modern recreational junk-rigged sailboats; the term junk may be used to cover many kinds of boat—ocean-going, cargo-carrying, pleasure boats, live-aboards. They vary in size and there are significant regional variations in the type of rig, however they all employ battened sails; the term junk was used by European explorers for large unrelated native Austronesian warships, like the Philippine karakoa and the Maluku kora kora. The term may stem from the Chinese chuán based on and pronounced as in the Minnan variant of Chinese, or zhōu, the old word for a sailing vessel. Junk entered the English language in the 17th century through the Portuguese junco from the Javanese or Malay jong.
The modern Standard Chinese word for an ocean-going wooden cargo vessel is cáo. Views diverge on, it entered Malay language by 15th century, when a Chinese word list identify it as Malay word for ship. The Malay Maritime Code, first drawn up in the late 15th century, uses junk as the word for freight ships. European writings from 1345 through 1601 use a variety of related terms, including jonque, ioncque and ionco; the historian Herbert Warington Smyth considered the junk as one of the most efficient ship designs, stating that "As an engine for carrying man and his commerce upon the high and stormy seas as well as on the vast inland waterways, it is doubtful if any class of vessel… is more suited or better adapted to its purpose than the Chinese or Indian junk, it is certain that for flatness of sail and handiness, the Chinese rig is unsurpassed." Junk sails have full-length battens. Their ability to sail close to the wind is poorer than other fore-and-aft rigs. Classic junks were built of softwoods with the outside shape built first.
Multiple internal compartment/bulkheads accessed by separate hatches and ladders, reminiscent of the interior structure of bamboo, were built in. Traditionally, the hull has a horseshoe-shaped stern supporting a high poop deck; the bottom is flat in a river junk with no keel, so that the boat relies on a daggerboard, leeboard or large rudder to prevent the boat from slipping sideways in the water. Ocean-going junks have a curved hull in section with a large amount of tumblehome in the topsides; the planking is edge nailed on a diagonal. Iron nails or spikes have been recovered from a Canton dig dated to circa 221 BC. For caulking the Chinese used a mix of ground lime with Tung oil together with chopped hemp from old fishing nets which set hard in 18 hours, but usefully remained flexible. Junks have narrow waterlines which accounts for their potential speed in moderate conditions, although such voyage data as we have indicates that average speeds on voyage for junks were little different from average voyage speeds of all traditional sail, i.e. around 4–6 knots.
The largest junks, the treasure ships commanded by Ming dynasty Admiral Zheng He, were built for world exploration in the 15th century, according to some interpretations may have been over 120 metres in length, or larger. This conjecture was based on the size of a rudder post, found and misinterpreted, using formulae applicable to modern engine powered ships. More careful analysis shows that the rudder post, found is smaller than the rudder post shown for a 70' long Pechili Trader in Worcester's "Junks and Sampans of the Yangtze". Another characteristic of junks, interior compartments or bulkheads, strengthened the ship and slowed flooding in case of holing. Ships built in this manner were written of in Zhu Yu's book Pingzhou Table Talks, published by 1119 during the Song dynasty. Again, this type of construction for Chinese ship hulls was attested to by the Moroccan Muslim Berber traveler Ibn Battuta, who described it in great detail. Although some historians have questioned whether the compartments were watertight, most believe that watertight compartments did exist in Chinese junks because although most of the time there were small passageways between compartments, these could be blocked with stoppers and such stoppers have been identified in wrecks.
All wrecks discovered so far have limber holes. It is believed from evidence in wrecks that the limber holes could be stopped either to allow the carriage of liquid cargoes or to isolate a compartment that had sprung a leak. Benjamin Franklin wrote in a 1787 letter on the project of mail packets between the United States and France: As these vessels are not to be laden with goods, their holds may without inconvenience be divided into separate apartments, after the Chinese manner, and
Ambon Island is part of the Maluku Islands of Indonesia. The island has an area of 775 km2 and is mountainous, well watered, fertile. Ambon Island consists of two territories - the city of Ambon to the south and various districts of the Central Maluku Regency to the north; the main city and seaport is Ambon, the capital of Maluku province, while those districts of Maluku Tengah Regency situated on Ambon Island had a 2014 population of 132,377. Ambon has an airport and is home to the Pattimura University and Open University, state universities, a few private universities, which include Darussalam University and Universitas Kristen Indonesia Maluku. Ambon Island lies off the southwest coast of the much larger Seram island, it is on the north side of part of a chain of volcanic islands that encircle the sea. It is 51 kilometres long and is of irregular shape, being divided in two; the southeastern and smaller portion, a peninsula is united to the northern by a narrow neck of land. The bay thus formed cuts about 20km into the island with the airport on the northern shore and the city of Ambon on the southern side.
The city of Ambon covers the entirety of Leitimor, with its centre on the northwest coast of Leitimor, facing Hitoe, has a safe harbor on Amboina Bay. The highest mountains, Wawani at 1,100 metres and Salahutu at 1,225 metres, have hot springs and solfataras, they are volcanoes, the mountains of the neighboring Lease Islands are extinct volcanoes. Granite and serpentine rocks predominate, but the shores of Amboina Bay are of chalk and contain stalactite caves. Wild areas of Ambon Island are covered by tropical rainforest, part of the Seram rain forests ecoregion, together with neighboring Seram. Seram and most of Maluku are part of Wallacea, the group of Indonesian islands that are separated by deep water from both the Asian and Australian continents and have never been linked to the continents by land; as a result of this isolation, Ambon has few indigenous mammals. The insect diversity of the island, however, is rich in butterflies. Seashells are obtained in great numbers and variety. Tortoise shell is exported.
The population of the island, including a tiny sparsely populated island to the north, is just below 441,000 in the 2010 Census. The average temperature is 27 °C falling below 22 °C. Rainfall can be heavy after the eastern monsoons, the island is vulnerable to violent typhoons; the wet season coincides with the period of the west monsoon. Cassava and sago are the chief crops, which include breadfruit, coffee, cocoa and cotton. In addition to these and fishing supplement the local diet. Nutmeg and cloves were once the dominant export crops. Copra is exported. Amboina wood, obtained from the angsana tree and valued for ornamental woodwork, is now grown on Seram; the main employers in Ambon Island are the Gubernatorial Office, the Mayoral Office, Raiders 733, Ambon City Center. The whole economy of Ambon Island is starting to shift out of the "Old Towne" toward Passo, the newly appointed central business district of the island region; the economy of Ambon Island was boosted by the investment made by Ciputra Group in creating a whole new satellite city in Lateri, Kotamadya Ambon, Maluku: Citraland Bay View City.
Furthermore, the new international standard shopping center, Ambon City Center, opened in 2012. The Ambonese are of mixed Malay-Papuan origin, they are Christians or Muslims. The predominant language of the island is Ambonese Malay called Ambonese, it developed as the trade language of central Maluku and is spoken elsewhere in Maluku as a second language. The old creole trade language called. Bilingualism in Indonesian is high around Ambon City. There have been strong religious tensions on the island between Muslims and Christians and ethnic tensions between indigenous Ambonese and migrants from Sulawesi Butonese and Makassarese migrants. In 1512, the Portuguese were the first Europeans to land in Ambon, it became the new centre for Portuguese activities in Maluku following their expulsion from Ternate; the Portuguese, were attacked by native Muslims on the island's northern coast, in particular Hitu, which had trading and religious links with major port cities on Java's north coast. They established a factory in 1521 but did not obtain peaceable possession of it until 1580.
Indeed, the Portuguese never managed to control the local trade in spices and failed in attempts to establish their authority over the Banda Islands, the nearby centre of nutmeg production. The creole trade language Portugis, was spoken well into the 19th century, many families still have Portuguese names and claim Portuguese ancestry, for example Muskita and De Fretes; the Portuguese were dispossessed by the Dutch in 1605, when Steven van der Hagen took over the fort without a single shot. Ambon was the headquarters of the Dutch East India Company from 1610 to 1619 until the founding of Batavia by the Dutch. About 1615 the English formed a settlement on the island at Cambello, which they retained until 1623, when the Dutch destroyed it. Frightful tortures inflicted on its unfortunate inhabitants were connected with its destruction. In 1654
Bago known as Hanthawaddy, is a city and the capital of the Bago Region in Myanmar. It is located 91 kilometres north-east of Yangon. Various Mon language chronicles report divergent foundation dates of Bago, ranging from 573 CE to 1152 CE while the Zabu Kuncha, an early 15th century Burmese administrative treatise, states that Pegu was founded in 1276/77 CE; the earliest extant evidence of Pegu as a place dates only to the late Pagan period when it was still a small town, not a provincial capital. After the collapse of the Pagan Empire, Bago became part of the breakaway Kingdom of Martaban by the 1290s; the small settlement grew important in the 14th century as the region became most populous in the Mon-speaking kingdom. In 1369, King Binnya U made Bago the capital; the city remained the capital until the kingdom's fall in 1538. During the reign of King Razadarit and Ava Kingdom were engaged in the Forty Years' War; the peaceful reign of Queen Shin Sawbu came to an end when she chose the Buddhist monk Dhammazedi to succeed her.
Under Dhammazedi, Bago became a centre of Theravada Buddhism. In 1519, António Correia a merchant from the Portuguese casados settlement at Cochin landed in Bago known to the Portuguese as Pegu, looking for new markets for pepper from Cochin. A year Portuguese India Governor Diogo Lopes de Sequeira sent an ambassador to Pegu; as a major seaport, the city was visited by Europeans, among these, Gasparo Balbi in the late 1500s. The Europeans commented on its magnificence; the Portuguese conquest of Pegu, following the destruction caused by the kings of Tangot and Arrakan in 1599, was described by Manuel de Abreu Mousinho in "Breve discurso em que se conta a conquista do Reino do Pegú na India oriental feita pelos portugueses em tempo do vice-rei Aires de Saldanha, sendo capitão Salvador Ribeiro de Sousa, chamado Massinga, natural de Guimarães, a quem os naturais do Pegú elegeram por seu rei no ano de 1600", published from 1711 to 1829 with "Peregrinaçam" of Fernão Mendes Pinto. The capital was looted by the viceroy of Toungoo, Minye Thihathu II of Toungoo, burned by the viceroy of Arakin during the Burmese–Siamese War.
Anaukpetlun wanted to rebuild Hongsawadi, deserted since Nanda Bayin had abandoned it. He was only able to build a temporary palace, however; the Burmese capital relocated to Ava in 1634. In 1740, the Mon founded the Restored Hanthawaddy Kingdom. However, a Bamar king, captured the city in May 1757. Bago was rebuilt by King Bodawpaya, but by the river had shifted course, cutting the city off from the sea, it never regained its previous importance. After the Second Anglo-Burmese War, the British annexed Bago in 1852. In 1862, the province of British Burma was formed, the capital moved to Yangon; the substantial differences between the colloquial and literary pronunciations, as with Burmese words, was a reason of the British corruption "Pegu". In 1911, Hanthawaddy was described as a district in the Bago division of Lower Burma, it lay in the home district of Yangon, from which the town was detached to make a separate district in 1880. It had an area of 3,023 square miles, with a population of 48,411 in 1901, showing an increase of 22% in the past decade.
Hanthawaddy and Hinthada were the two most densely populated districts in the province. Hanthawaddy, as it was constituted in 1911, consisted of a vast plain stretching up from the sea between the mouth of the Irrawaddy River and the Pegu Range. Except the tract of land lying between the Pegu Range on the east and the Yangon River, the country was intersected by numerous tidal creeks, many of which were navigable by large boats and some by steamers; the headquarters of the district was in Rangoon, the sub-divisional headquarters. The second sub-division had its headquarters at Insein. Cultivation was wholly confined to rice, but there were many vegetable and fruit gardens. Today, Hanthawaddy is one of the wards of Bago city. Shwethalyaung Buddha Shwemawdaw Pagoda Kyaikpun Buddha Kanbawzathadi Palace site and museum Kalyani Ordination Hall Mahazedi Pagoda Shwegugyi Pagoda Shwegugale Pagoda Bago Sittaung Canal Grand Royal Stadium Bago General Hospital Bago Traditional Medicine Hospital Bago University Basic Education High School No. 1 Bago Basic Education High School No. 3 Bago Aung-Thwin, Michael A..
The Mists of Rāmañña: The Legend, Lower Burma. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 9780824828868. Aung-Thwin, Michael A.. Myanmar in the Fifteenth Century. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-6783-6. Nyein Maung, ed.. Shay-haung Myanma Kyauksa-mya. 1–5. Yangon: Archaeological Department. Pan Hla, Nai. Razadarit Ayedawbon. Yangon: Armanthit Sarpay. Phayre, Major-General Sir Arthur P.. "The History of Pegu". Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Calcutta. 42: 23–57, 120–159. Phayre, Lt. Gen. Sir Arthur P.. History of Burma. London: Susil Gupta. Schmidt, P. W.. "Slapat des Ragawan der Königsgeschichte". Die äthiopischen