The Religious Question was a crisis between the Catholic church and the state apparatus of the Brazilian Empire. It led to the imprisonment of two bishops and contributed to the downfall of the government of José Paranhos, Viscount of Rio Branco. Although Catholicism was the state religion of Brazil, Portugal before it, the Catholic clergy had for a time been perceived as understaffed and poorly educated, with a consequent loss of respect for the Church; the Imperial government wanted to reform the church and appointed a series of well educated, reforming bishops. Although these bishops agreed with the government on the need to reform, they did not share Pedro II's views on the subservience of the Church to government and were influenced by Ultramontanism which emphasised loyalty to the Papacy over loyalty to the civil powers. One of the new generation of bishops was the bishop of Dom Vital, he was consecrated a bishop in 1872. He was keen to ensure. All forms of Freemasonry had long been forbidden to all Catholics under pain of excommunication, although it was felt by some Brazilian Masons that they did not share the anti-clericalism of Latin Freemasonry.
There had been some tension earlier in Rio de Janeiro, where a priest had been suspended due to his Masonic membership, although after pressure from the Prime Minister the priest was reinstated. Lay Fraternities and Sodalities played an important part in Brazilian life fulfilling a charitable role and were important in conferring social status, they were attached to churches and would have their own chapels, including some of the most important buildings in Olinda's diocesan seat of Recife. Freemasonry was common among members of the Lay Fraternities. On December 28, 1872, Dom Vital asked Olinda's parish priests to notify Lay Fraternities that they had to expel Freemason who refused to resign. There followed three individual warnings to each fraternity. On January 19, 1873 Dom Vital issued an interdict against those Lay Fraternities that refused his request to expel Freemasons; this meant. This was a challenge to the government as the Prime Minister, Rio Branco, was grand master of the most eminent body in Brazilian Freemasonry, had been a member since at least 1840.
Some of the fraternities appealed to the crown in 1873, claiming that this was not a spiritual matter and so was a matter for the state and not the church. After the appeal was lodged the bishop of Pará, Antônio de Macedo Costa placed Lay Fraternities that refused to expel Freemasons under interdict. In May 1873 Pope Pius XI sent a supportive encyclical Quamquam Dolores to Dom Vital, by extension to the other Brazilian bishops; the Council of State of the Empire of Brazil, presided over by Pedro II, came down on the side of the Freemasons and against the church. In June 1873 they ordered Dom Vital to rescind the interdict. After Dom Vital's refusal the government brought charges to the Supreme Court of Justice, for the crime of attempting against the power of the State, a criminal charge that carried a heavy sentence; the bishop made a public protest in his seat of Recife and was arrested on January 2, 1874. The refusal from Vital and the defiance from Costa led to the bishops being tried before the Supreme Court of Justice of the Empire, where in 1874 they were convicted and sentenced to four years of hard labor, commuted to imprisonment without hard labour.
Rio Branco explained in a letter written in August 1873 that he believed the government "could not compromise in the affair" since "it involved principles essential to the social order and to national sovereignty", a conviction shared by the Emperor Pedro II. The Emperor unequivocally backed the government's actions against the bishops; the trial and imprisonment of the two bishops was unpopular with the public. The Quebra Quilo riots were seen to be influenced by the imprisonment; the imposition of the metric system led to demonstrations in the northeast in 1874 with metric weights and measures destroyed by peasants, land and tax records burned. The riots did not have any lasting impact—although it illustrated popular dissatisfaction and was an embarrassment to the government." The Quebra Quilo riots were suspected of being condoned by priests, together with the arrest of the bishops, drew attention to the Imperial government having become embroiled in a no-win dispute. The crisis would only be smoothed over by the fall of the Cabinet and the Emperor's reluctant grant of a full amnesty to the bishops.
The new Prime Minister, the Duke of Caxias, a Freemason himself, but a staunch Catholic, threatened to resign if the Emperor did not grant the amnesty, which Pedro II grudgingly issued on September 17, 1875. Historian Heitor Lyra blamed all parties for a lack of tact, intransigence which caused harm to the monarchy; the main consequence of the crisis was that the clergy no longer saw any benefit in upholding Pedro II. Although they abandoned the Emperor, most eagerly awaited the accession of his eldest daughter and heir Isabel because of her Ultramontane views. Dom Vital died soon after his release. Catholicism and Freemasonry National Question
First Vatican Council
The First Vatican Council was convoked by Pope Pius IX on 29 June 1868, after a period of planning and preparation that began on 6 December 1864. This, the twentieth ecumenical council of the Catholic Church, held three centuries after the Council of Trent, opened on 8 December 1869 and adjourned on 20 October 1870. Unlike the five earlier general councils held in Rome, which met in the Lateran Basilica and are known as Lateran councils, it met in the Vatican Basilica, hence its name, its best-known decision is its definition of papal infallibility. The council was convoked to deal with the contemporary problems of the rising influence of rationalism and materialism, its purpose was, besides this. There was discussion and approval of only two constitutions: the Dogmatic Constitution on the Catholic Faith and the First Dogmatic Constitution on the Church of Christ, the latter dealing with the primacy and infallibility of the Bishop of Rome; the first matter brought up for debate was the dogmatic draft of Catholic doctrine against the manifold errors due to rationalism.
The Council condemned rationalism, liberalism and materialism. The Catholic Church was on the defensive against the main ideology of the XIX century; this council was summoned by Pope Pius IX by a bull on 29 June 1868. The first session was held in St. Peter's Basilica on 8 December 1869. Preliminary sessions dealt with committee assignments. Bishop Bernard John McQuaid complained of inadequate heating facilities and boredom. Bishop James Roosevelt Bayley of Newark, New Jersey, noted the high prices in Rome; when Lord Houghton asked Cardinal Manning what had been going on, he answered:“Well, we meet, we look at one another, we talk a little, but when we want to know what we have been doing, we read the Times”. The doctrine of papal infallibility was not new and had been used by Pope Pius in defining as dogma, in 1854, the Immaculate Conception of Mary, the mother of Jesus. However, the proposal to define papal infallibility itself as dogma met with resistance, not because of doubts about the substance of the proposed definition, but because some considered it inopportune to take that step at that time.
Richard McBrien divides the bishops attending Vatican I into three groups. The first group, which McBrien calls the "active infallibilists", was led by Henry Edward Manning and Ignatius von Senestréy. According to McBrien, the majority of the bishops were not so much interested in a formal definition of papal infallibility as they were in strengthening papal authority and, because of this, were willing to accept the agenda of the infallibilists. A minority, some 10 per cent of the bishops, McBrien says, opposed the proposed definition of papal infallibility on both ecclesiastical and pragmatic grounds, because, in their opinion, it departed from the ecclesiastical structure of the early Christian church. From a pragmatic perspective, they feared that defining papal infallibility would alienate some Catholics, create new difficulties for union with non-Catholics, provoke interference by governments in ecclesiastical affairs; those who held this view included most of the German and Austro-Hungarian bishops, nearly half of the Americans, one third of the French, most of the Chaldaeans and Melkites, a few Armenians.
Only a few bishops appear to have had doubts about the dogma itself. On 24 April 1870, the dogmatic constitution on the Catholic faith Dei Filius was adopted unanimously; the draft presented to the council on 8 March drew no serious criticism, but a group of 35 English-speaking bishops, who feared that the opening phrase of the first chapter, "Sancta romana catholica Ecclesia", might be construed as favouring the Anglican branch theory succeeded in having an additional adjective inserted, so that the final text read: "Sancta catholica apostolica romana Ecclesia". The constitution thus set forth the teaching of the "Holy Catholic Apostolic Roman Church" on God and faith. There was stronger opposition to the draft constitution on the nature of the church, which at first did not include the question of papal infallibility, but the majority party in the council, whose position on this matter was much stronger, brought it forward, it was decided to postpone discussion of everything in the draft except infallibility.
The decree did not go forward without controversy. The Pope rejected Guidi's view of the bishops as witnesses to the tradition, maintaining that "I am the tradition."On 13 July 1870, a preliminary vote on the section on infallibility was held in a general congregation: 451 voted in favour, 88 against, 62 in favour but on condition of some amendment. This made evident what the final outcome would be, some 60 members of the opposition left Rome so as not to be associated with approval of the document; the final vote, with a choice only between placet and non placet, was taken on 18 July 1870, with 433 votes in favour and only 2 against defining as a dogma the infallibility of the pope when speaking ex cathedra. The two votes in opposition were cast by Bishop Edward Fitzgerald; the dogmatic constitution states that the Pope has "full and supreme power of jurisdiction over the whole Church".
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Belém do Pará
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Belém do Pará is an archdiocese located in the city of Belém in Brazil. March 4, 1720: Established as Diocese of Belém do Pará from Diocese of São Luís do Maranhão May 1, 1906: Promoted as Metropolitan Archdiocese of Belém do Pará Minor Basilicas: Basílica Nossa Senhora de Nazaré do Desterro Bartolomeu do Pilar, OCarm Guilherme de São José Antonio de Aranha Miguel de Bulhões e Souza, OP João de São José de Queiroz da Silveira, OSB João Evangelista Pereira da Silva, TOR Cayetano Da Annunciação Brandão, TOR Manoel de Almeida de Carvalho Romualdo de Souza Coelho José Affonso de Moraes Torres, CM Antônio de Macedo Costa Jerônimo Tomé da Silva Antônio Manoel de Castilho Brandão Francisco do Rego Maia José Marcondes Homem de Melo José Marcondes Homem de Melo Santino Maria da Silva Coutinho João Irineu Joffily Antônio de Almeida Lustosa, SDB Jaime de Barros Câmara Mário de Miranda Villas-Boas Alberto Gaudêncio Ramos Vicente Joaquim Zico, CM Orani João Tempesta, OCist Alberto Taveira Corrêa Diocese of Abaetetuba Diocese of Bragança do Pará Diocese of Castanhal Diocese of Macapá Diocese of Marabá Diocese of Óbidos Diocese of Ponta de Pedras Diocese of Santarém Diocese of Santíssima Conceição do Araguaia Territorial Prelature of Cametá Territorial Prelature of Itaituba Territorial Prelature of Marajó Territorial Prelature of Xingu GCatholic.org Catholic Hierarchy Diocese website
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of São Salvador da Bahia
The Archdiocese of São Salvador da Bahia is part of the Roman Catholic Church in Brazil. The Archbishop of São Salvador da Bahia carries the title Primate of Brazil; the archiocese is located in the city of Bahia. Over 70% of the Archiocese is Catholic, while there is over 9,000 Catholics per priest, spread over 109 parishes with the Archdiocese. 25 February 1551: Established as Diocese of São Salvador da Bahia de Todos os Santos from the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Funchal, Portugal 16 November 1676: Promoted as Metropolitan Archdiocese of São Salvador da Bahia Minor Basilica & World Heritage Church: Cathedral of Salvador Basilica of St. Sebastian, Salvador Church of Nosso Senhor do Bonfim, Salvador Basilica of the Immaculate Conception, Salvador Churches Church of Our Lady of Penha, a national heritage site in Salvador Church of the Blessed Sacrament of Saint Anne, a national heritage site in Salvador Chapel of Our Lady of Help, a national heritage site in Salvador Chapel of Our Lady of the Ladder, a national heritage site in Salvador Chapel of Our Lady of the Snows on the Ilha de Maré, a national heritage site Church and Monastery of Our Lady of Monserrate, a national heritage site in Salvador Church and Hospice of Our Lady of the Good Journey, a national heritage site in Salvador Parish Church of Saint Bartholomew, a national heritage site in Maragogipe Residences Archbishop's Palace of Salvador The archdiocese abandoned the Church of the Third Order of the Holy Trinity in 1990.
The church now houses Catholic residential community. Pedro Fernandes Sardinha Pedro Leitão Antônio Barreiros Constantino Barradas Marcos Teixeira de Mendonça † Miguel Pereira Pedro da Silva Sampaio † Estevão dos Santos Carneiro de Moraes Constantino Sampaio Estevão dos Santos Carneiro de Moraes Gaspar Barata de Mendonça João da Madre de Deus Araújo Manoel da Ressurreição João Franco de Oliveira Sebastião Monteiro da Vida Ludovico Alvares de Figueiredo José de Fialho José Botelho de Matos Manoel de Santa Ines Ferreira Joaquim Borges de Figueroa Antônio de São José Moura Marinho Antônio Corrêa José de Santa Escolástica Álvares Pereira Francisco de São Damazo Abreu Vieira Vicente da Soledade e Castro Romualdo Antônio de Seixas Barroso Manoel Joaquim da Silveira Joaquim Gonçalves de Azevedo Luiz Antônio dos Santos Antônio de Macedo Costa Jerónimo Thomé da Silva Augusto Álvaro da Silva Eugênio de Araújo Sales Avelar Brandão Vilela Lucas Moreira Neves Geraldo Majella Agnelo Murilo Sebastião Ramos Krieger Diocese of Alagoinhas Diocese of Amargosa Diocese of Camaçari Diocese of Cruz das Almas Diocese of Eunápolis Diocese of Ilhéus Diocese of Itabuna Diocese of Teixeira de Freitas-Caravelas GCatholic.org Catholic Hierarchy Archdiocese website
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC