Carsten Egeberg Borchgrevink was an Anglo-Norwegian polar explorer and a pioneer of modern Antarctic travel. He was the precursor of Robert Falcon Scott, Ernest Shackleton, Roald Amundsen and other more famous names associated with the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. In 1898–1900 he led the British-financed Southern Cross Expedition, which established a new Farthest South record at 78°50'S, he is the only known person to be the first to put his foot on a continent, when he in 1894 got onshore of the Antarctic mainland. Borchgrevink began his exploring career in 1894 by joining a Norwegian whaling expedition, during which he became one of the first persons to set foot on the Antarctic mainland; this achievement helped him to obtain backing for his Southern Cross Expedition, which became the first to overwinter on the Antarctic mainland, the first to visit the Great Ice Barrier since the expedition of Sir James Ross nearly sixty years previously. However, the expedition's successes, including the Farthest South, were received with only moderate interest by the public and by the British geographical establishment, whose attention was by focused on Scott's upcoming National Antarctic Expedition.
Some of Borchgrevink's colleagues were critical of his leadership, his own accounts of the expedition were regarded as journalistic and unreliable. After the Southern Cross Expedition, Borchgrevink was one of three scientists sent to the Caribbean in 1902 by the National Geographic Society, to report on the aftermath of the Mount Pelée disaster. Thereafter he settled in Oslo, leading a life away from public attention, his pioneering work was subsequently recognised and honoured by several countries, in 1912 he received a handsome tribute from Roald Amundsen, conqueror of the South Pole. In 1930, Britain's Royal Geographical Society acknowledged Borchgrevink's contribution to polar exploration and awarded him its Patron's Medal; the Society acknowledged in its citation that justice had not been done to the work of the Southern Cross Expedition. Carsten Borchgrevink was born in Oslo, the son of a Norwegian lawyer, Henrik Christian Borchgrevink, an English mother Annie, née Ridley; the family lived in the Uranienborg neighbourhood, where Roald Amundsen, an occasional childhood playmate grew up.
Borchgrevink was educated at Gjertsen College, at the Royal Saxon Academy of Forestry at Tharandt, Saxony, in Germany. According to the historian Roland Huntford, Borchgrevink was of a restless nature, with a passion for adventure which took him, after his forestry training, to Australia. For four years he worked with government surveying teams in Queensland and New South Wales before settling in the small town of Bowenfels, where he became a teacher in languages and natural sciences at Cooerwull Academy, his initial interest in polar exploration developed from reading press reports about the work of local scientists on the first Australian Antarctic Exploration Committee. This organisation, founded in 1886, was investigating the possibility of establishing permanent scientific research stations in the Antarctic regions; these plans were not realised. The expedition that Borchgrevink joined was organised by Henryk Bull, a Norwegian businessman and entrepreneur who, like Borchgrevink, had settled in Australia in the late 1880s.
Bull planned to make a whaling voyage into Antarctic waters. He met the 84-year-old "father of modern whaling" and inventor of the harpoon gun. With Foyn's help he acquired the whaler Kap Nor. Bull hired an experienced whaling captain, Leonard Kristensen, with a crew and a small scientific team left Norway in September 1893; when Borchgrevink learned that Antarctic was due to visit Melbourne in September 1894, he hurried there hoping to find a vacancy. He was fortunate; this created an opening for Borchgrevink, who met Bull in Melbourne and persuaded him to take him on as a deck-hand and part-time scientist. During the following months, Antarctic's sealing activities around the subantarctic islands were successful, but whales proved difficult to find. Bull and Kristensen decided to take the ship further south, to areas where the presence of whales had been reported by earlier expeditions; the ship penetrated a belt of pack ice and sailed into the Ross Sea. On 17 January 1895 a landing was made at Possession Island, where Sir James Clark Ross had planted the British flag in 1841.
Bull and Borchgrevink left a message in a canister there. On the island Borchgrevink found a lichen, the first plant life discovered south of the Antarctic Circle. On 24 January the ship reached the vicinity of Cape Adare, at the northern extremity of the Victoria Land coastline of the Antarctic mainland. Ross's 1841 expedition been unable to land here, but as Antarctic neared the cape, conditions were calm enough for a boat to be lowered. A party including Bull, Kristensen and others headed for a shingled foreshore below the cape. Who went ashore first became a matter of dispute, with both Kristensen and Borchgrevink contending for the honour along with a 17-year-old New Zealand seaman, Alexande
Cape Adare is the north-easternmost peninsula in Victoria Land, East Antarctica. Marking the north end of Borchgrevink Coast and the west end of Pennell Coast, the cape separates the Ross Sea to the east from the Southern Ocean to the west, is backed by the high Admiralty Mountains. Cape Adare was an important landing base camp during early Antarctic exploration. Off the coast to the northeast are the Adare Seamounts and the Adare Trough. Captain James Ross discovered Cape Adare in January 1841 and named it after his friend the Viscount Adare. In January 1895, Norwegian explorers Henrik Bull and Carsten Borchgrevink from the ship Antarctic landed at Cape Adare as the first documented landing on Antarctica, collecting geological specimens. Borchgrevink returned to the cape leading his own expedition in 1899 and erected two huts, the first human structures built in Antarctica; the expedition members overwintered and the survivors were picked up in January 1900. This was the first expedition party to winter over on the Antarctic continent.
Zoologist Nicolai Hanson was buried at Cape Adare. The closest research station in modern times was Hallett Station, the joint New Zealand/United States station at Cape Hallett, 63 miles to the south; this base was in use from 1957 to 1973. The Australian Bicentennial Antarctic Expedition set out from Cape Adare for their successful assault on Mount Minto in 1988; the expedition's support vessel was moored to the ice shelf in the bay and maintained radio contact with the climbers during their ascent. In February 2007, the Japanese whaling ship Nisshin Maru experienced a fire below decks while in the Ross Sea; the vessel drifted without power for days until its engines were repaired, raising concern due to its proximity to Cape Adare. The first buildings erected by Carsten Borchgrevink at Cape Adare were prefabricated of pine by the Norwegian factory Strømmen Trævarefabrikk; these huts are still standing, the site is recognized internationally as a significant historic site. Members of the Northern Party of Scott's Terra Nova Expedition over-wintered at Cape Adare in 1911 and 1912.
They erected one hut. As a result of initiatives by the Antarctic Heritage Trust the site is registered in the Antarctic Treaty System as an Antarctic Specially Protected Area the highest level of protection available under the terms of the Treaty; the remains of two Borchgrevink’s Hut, as well as those of the Terra Nova Expedition’s hut, have been designated a Historic Site or Monument, following a proposal by New Zealand and the United Kingdom to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting. The grave of Nicolai Hanson has been but separately designated. Studies suggests that Cape Adare was covered in ice during the Last glacial period, deglaciated around 16.2 thousand years ago. And the results suggest that it took several thousand years until penguin colonies formed, after ice free surfaces became available. Submarine shoals on the narrow continental shelf to the east of Cape Adare are the site of unusually frequent submarine collisions with large current-mobilized icebergs transiting northward out of the Ross Sea.
Notably, this process led to the sudden breakup of Iceberg B15 in October 2007, as well as a number of other large icebergs. These collisions are energetic enough to be recorded by seismographs in Antarctica and the southern Pacific Ocean region. Cape Adare is the site of the largest Adélie penguin rookery in the world; the only study of this particular colony was done by George Murray Levick, a member of the 1910–13 Scott Antarctic Expedition and observed it for an entire breeding cycle in 1911 and 1912. He was reluctant to publish it due to the unusual mating habits of penguins that he recorded, among them homosexuality and physical abuse of chicks, mating with dead female penguins, nowadays ascribed to the lack of experience of young penguins, he described it as "depraved". The report was considered too shocking for public release at the time, was suppressed; the only copies that were made available to researchers were translated into Greek, to prevent this knowledge becoming more known. After it became lost, it was rediscovered and published in the journal Polar Record only in 2012.
The discovery illuminates the behaviour of the species that some researchers believe to be an indicator of climate change. In 1901, Carsten Borchgrevink, part of the British Antarctic Expedition 1898–1900, published the book, First on the Antarctic continent, he wrote ca 1900, in the chapter dedicated to Adélie penguins: We all watched the life of the penguins with the utmost interest, I believe and hope that some of us learnt something from their habits and characteristics
South Shetland Islands
The South Shetland Islands are a group of Antarctic islands with a total area of 3,687 square kilometres. They lie about 120 kilometres north of the Antarctic Peninsula, between 430 kilometres to 900 kilometres south-west from the nearest point of the South Orkney Islands. By the Antarctic Treaty of 1959, the islands' sovereignty is neither recognized nor disputed by the signatories and they are free for use by any signatory for non-military purposes; the islands have been claimed by the United Kingdom since 1908 and as part of the British Antarctic Territory since 1962. They are claimed by the governments of Chile and by Argentina. Several countries maintain research stations on the islands. Most of them are situated on King George Island, benefitting from the airfield of the Chilean base Eduardo Frei. There are sixteen research stations to date in different parts of the islands, with Chilean stations being the greatest in number; the islands were discovered by the British mariner William Smith in 1819.
Although it has been postulated that Dutch mariner Dirck Gerritsz in 1599 or Spanish Admiral Gabriel de Castilla in 1603 might have sighted the South Shetlands, or North or South American sealers might have visited the archipelago before Smith, there is insufficient historical evidence to sustain such assertions. Smith’s discovery, by contrast, was well documented and had wider historical implications beyond its geographic significance. Chilean scientists have claimed that Amerinds visited the islands, due to stone artifacts recovered from bottom-sampling operations in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Discovery Bay, Greenwich Island. In 1818 Juan Pedro de Aguirre obtained permission from the Buenos Aires authorities to establish a base for sealing on "some of the uninhabited islands near the South Pole". Captain William Smith in the British merchant brig Williams, while sailing to Valparaíso, Chile in 1819 deviated from his route south of Cape Horn, on 19 February sighted Williams Point, the northeast extremity of Livingston Island.
Thus Livingston Island became the first land discovered farther than 60° south. Smith revisited the South Shetlands, landed on King George Island on 16 October 1819, claimed possession for Britain. Meanwhile, the Spanish Navy ship San Telmo sank in September 1819 whilst trying to go through the Drake Passage. Parts of her presumed wreckage were found months by sealers on the north coast of Livingston Island. From December 1819 to January 1820, the islands were surveyed and mapped by Lieutenant Edward Bransfield on board the Williams, chartered by the Royal Navy. On 15 November 1819 the United States agent in Valparaíso, Jeremy Robinson, informed the US Secretary of State John Quincy Adams of Smith's discovery and Bransfield's forthcoming mission, suggested dispatching a US Navy ship to explore the islands where "new sources of wealth and happiness would be disclosed and science itself be benefited thereby." The discovery of the islands attracted American sealers. The first sealing ship to operate in the area was the brig Espirito Santo, chartered by British merchants in Buenos Aires.
The ship arrived at Rugged Island off Livingston Island, where its British crew landed on Christmas Day 1819, claimed the islands for King George III. A narrative of the events was published by the brig's master, Joseph Herring, in the July 1820 edition of the Imperial Magazine; the Espirito Santo was followed from the Falkland Islands by the American brig Hersilia, commanded by Captain James Sheffield, the first US sealer in the South Shetlands. The first wintering over in Antarctica took place on the South Shetlands, when at the end of the 1820–21 summer season eleven British men from the ship Lord Melville failed to leave King George Island, survived the winter to be rescued at the beginning of the next season. Having circumnavigated the Antarctic continent, the Russian Antarctic expedition of Fabian von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev arrived at the South Shetlands in January 1821; the Russians surveyed the islands and named them, landing on both King George Island and Elephant Island.
While sailing between Deception and Livingston islands, Bellingshausen was visited by Nathaniel Palmer, master of the American brig Hero, who informed him of the activities of dozens of American and British sealing ships in the area. The name "New South Britain" was used but was soon changed to South Shetland Islands; the name South Shetland Islands is now established in international usage. Both island groups lie at similar distances from the equator, but the South Shetlands are much colder. Seal hunting and whaling was conducted on the islands during the early 20th century; the sealing era lasted from 1820 to 1908 during which time 197 vessels are recorded visiting the islands. Twelve of those vessels were wrecked. Relics of the sealing era include hut ruins and inscriptions. Beginning in 1908, the islands were governed as part of the Falkland Islands Dependency, but they have only been permanently occupied by humans since the establishment of a scientific research station in 1944; the archipelago, together with the nearby Antarctic Peninsula and South Georgia Island, is an popular tourist destination during the southern summer.
As a group of islands, the South Shetland Islands are located at 62°0′S 58°0′W. They are within the region 61 ° 00' -- 63 ° 53 ° 83' -- 62 ° 83' West; the islands lie 940 km (58
Greenland is an autonomous constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe for more than a millennium; the majority of its residents are Inuit, whose ancestors began migrating from the Canadian mainland in the 13th century settling across the island. Greenland is the world's largest island. Three-quarters of Greenland is covered by the only permanent ice sheet outside Antarctica. With a population of about 56,480, it is the least densely populated territory in the world. About a third of the population live in the capital and largest city; the Arctic Umiaq Line ferry acts as a lifeline for western Greenland, connecting the various cities and settlements. Greenland has been inhabited at intervals over at least the last 4,500 years by Arctic peoples whose forebears migrated there from what is now Canada.
Norsemen settled the uninhabited southern part of Greenland beginning in the 10th century, having settled Iceland to escape persecution from the King of Norway and his central government. These Norsemen would set sail from Greenland and Iceland, with Leif Erikson becoming the first known European to reach North America nearly 500 years before Columbus reached the Caribbean islands. Inuit peoples arrived in the 13th century. Though under continuous influence of Norway and Norwegians, Greenland was not formally under the Norwegian crown until 1262; the Norse colonies disappeared in the late 15th century when Norway was hit by the Black Death and entered a severe decline. Soon after their demise, beginning in 1499, the Portuguese explored and claimed the island, naming it Terra do Lavrador. In the early 18th century, Danish explorers reached Greenland again. To strengthen trading and power, Denmark–Norway affirmed sovereignty over the island; because of Norway's weak status, it lost sovereignty over Greenland in 1814 when the union was dissolved.
Greenland became Danish in 1814, was integrated in the Danish state in 1953 under the Constitution of Denmark. In 1973, Greenland joined the European Economic Community with Denmark. However, in a referendum in 1982, a majority of the population voted for Greenland to withdraw from the EEC, effected in 1985. Greenland contains the world's largest and most northerly national park, Northeast Greenland National Park. Established in 1974, expanded to its present size in 1988, it protects 972,001 square kilometres of the interior and northeastern coast of Greenland and is bigger than all but twenty-nine countries in the world. Greenland is divided into five municipalities – Sermersooq, Qeqertalik and Avannaata. Greenland does not have an independent seat at the United Nations. In 1979, Denmark granted home rule to Greenland, in 2008, Greenlanders voted in favor of the Self-Government Act, which transferred more power from the Danish government to the local Greenlandic government. Under the new structure, in effect since 21 June 2009, Greenland can assume responsibility for policing, judicial system, company law and auditing.
It retains control of monetary policy, providing an initial annual subsidy of DKK 3.4 billion, planned to diminish over time. Greenland expects to grow its economy based on increased income from the extraction of natural resources; the capital, held the 2016 Arctic Winter Games. At 70%, Greenland has one of the highest shares of renewable energy in the world coming from hydropower; the early Norse settlers named the island as Greenland. In the Icelandic sagas, the Norwegian-born Icelander Erik the Red was said to be exiled from Iceland for manslaughter. Along with his extended family and his thralls, he set out in ships to explore an icy land known to lie to the northwest. After finding a habitable area and settling there, he named it Grœnland in the hope that the pleasant name would attract settlers; the Saga of Erik the Red states: "In the summer, Erik left to settle in the country he had found, which he called Greenland, as he said people would be attracted there if it had a favorable name."The name of the country in the indigenous Greenlandic language is Kalaallit Nunaat.
The Kalaallit are the indigenous Greenlandic Inuit people. In prehistoric times, Greenland was home to several successive Paleo-Eskimo cultures known today through archaeological finds; the earliest entry of the Paleo-Eskimo into Greenland is thought to have occurred about 2500 BC. From around 2500 BC to 800 BC, southern and western Greenland were inhabited by the Saqqaq culture. Most finds of Saqqaq-period archaeological remains have been around Disko Bay, including the site of Saqqaq, after which the culture is named. From 2400 BC to 1300 BC, the Independence I culture existed in northern Greenland, it was a part of the Arctic small tool tradition. Towns, including Deltaterrassern
Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
Ushuaia is the capital of Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur Province, Argentina. It is regarded as the southernmost city in the world. Ushuaia is located in a wide bay on the southern coast of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, bounded on the north by the Martial mountain range, on the south by the Beagle Channel, it is the only municipality in the Department of Ushuaia, which has an area of 9,390 km2. It was founded October 12 of 1884 by Augusto Lasserre and is located on the shores of the Beagle Channel surrounded by the mountain range of the Martial Glacier, in the Bay of Ushuaia. Besides being an administrative center, it is a light industrial tourist hub; the word Ushuaia comes from the Yaghan language: ush and waia and means "deep bay" or "bay to background". The act creating the subprefecture in 1884 cites the name "Oshovia", one of the many orthographic variations of the word, its demonym is "Ushuaiense". The name is pronounced "u-sua-ia", an exception to the orthographic rules of Spanish, since the's' forms a syllable with the following'u' despite the intervening'h'.
The pronunciation "Usuaía" is erroneous: the prosodic accent is on the first'a', why the word is written without an accent mark. Shield The municipality carried out a contest for the election of the image of the City Shield, approving by decree nº28, in 1971, the design of Vicente Gómez. Motto Ushuaia, end of the world, beginning of everything The Selk’nam Indians called the Ona, first arrived in Tierra del Fuego about 10,000 years ago; the southern group of people indigenous to the area, The Yaghan, occupied what is now Ushuaia, lived in continual conflict with the northern inhabitants of the island. For much of the latter half of the 19th century, the eastern portion of Tierra del Fuego was populated by a substantial majority of nationals who were not Argentine citizens, including a number of British subjects. Ushuaia was founded informally by British missionaries, following previous British surveys, long before Argentine nationals or government representatives arrived there on a permanent basis.
The British ship HMS Beagle, under the command of Captain Robert FitzRoy, first reached the channel on January 29, 1833, during its maiden voyage surveying Tierra del Fuego. The city was named by early British missionaries using the native Yámana name for the area. Much of the early history of the city and its hinterland is described in Lucas Bridges’s book Uttermost Part of the Earth; the name Ushuaia first appears in letters and reports of the South American Mission Society in England. The British missionary Waite Hockin Stirling became the first European to live in Ushuaia when he stayed with the Yámana people between 18 January and mid-September 1869. In 1870 more British missionaries arrived to establish a small settlement; the following year the first marriage was performed. During 1872, 36 baptisms and 7 marriages and the first European birth in Tierra del Fuego were registered; the first house constructed in Ushuaia was a pre-assembled 3 room home prepared in the Falkland Islands in 1870 for Reverend Thomas Bridges.
One room was for the Bridges family, a second was for a Yámana married couple, while the third served as the chapel. Thomas Bridges was a fluent speaker. To a lesser extent he was able to communicate in the Ona language, his missionary work was directed at the Yaghans. The word Yamana means "people" in the Yaghan language, he wrote a dictionary of the Yaghan language, the original manuscript of, in the British Museum. As the Yaghans had no ability nor means to write, Thomas Bridges had to construct an alphabet, suited to the phonetics of the language; the original manuscript was lost three times but recovered and published under an incorrect name. More than one alphabet has been used over the years in the rendering of this dictionary; the odyssey of the manuscript covered nearly half a century before it was published. Natalie Goodall was instrumental in reprinting the dictionary in 1987 and providing valuable insights into the history of Thomas Bridges' work. Copies of the dictionary provide material on the letters and pronunciations used which in many respects differ from the alphabet used in the English language..
During 1873, Juan and Clara Lawrence, the first Argentine citizens to visit Ushuaia, arrived to teach school. That same year Julio Argentino Roca, who served as Argentine President twice, promoted the establishment of a penal colony for re-offenders, modeled after one in Tasmania, Australia, in an effort to secure permanent residents from Argentina and to help establish Argentine sovereignty over all of Tierra del Fuego, but only after the Boundary treaty of 1881 between Chile and Argentina did formal efforts get under way to establish the township and its prison. During the 1880s, many gold prospectors came to Ushuaia following rumors of large gold fields, which proved to be false. On 12 October 1884, as part of the South Atlantic Expedition, Commodore Augusto Lasserre established the sub-division of Ushuaia, with the missionaries and naval officers signing the Act of Ceremony. Don Feliz M Paz was named Governor in 1885 named Ushuaia as its capital. In 1885 the territory police was organized under Antonio A. Romero with headquarters in Ushuaia.
But it was not until 1904 that the Federal Government of Argentina recognized Ushuaia as the capital of Tierra del Fuego. Ushuaia suffered several epidemics, including typhus and measles, that much reduced the native pop